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Background: The Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with human TSH receptor cDNA (hTSHR-CHO), expressing functional human TSH receptors, are known to be more sensitive in detection of thyroid stimulating antibodies than FRTL-5 cells. There has been no report on the usefulness of these cells to measure thyroid stimulation blocking antibody(TSBAb) activity which is frequently found in patients with primary myxedema, Methods: We established the optimal assay condition of measurement of TSBAb using hTSHR- CHO cells, and simultaneously measured TSBAb activities with FRTL-5 cells and with hTSHR- CHO cells in 49 patients with primary myxedema, compared them with their thyrotropin binding inhibitor immunoglobulin(TBII) activities. Results: 1) hTSHR-CHO cells specifically bound bTSH and were stimulated by bTSH in terms of cyclic AMP generation in a dose dependent manner. 2) Myxedema IgG suppressed TSH-stimulated cAMP production of hTSHR-CHO cells in a dose dependent manner reaching plateau at the concentration of I g/L. Normal pooled IgG has no suppressive action at the concentration of less than 1 g/L, but caused significant suppression at the concentration of greater than 1g/L. 3) TSBAb activities measured by hTSHR-CHO cells in 49 patients with primary myxedema were as follows: Four of 25 TBII-negative cases(16%) and 22 of 24 TBII-positive cases(92%) had TSBAb activities. Most of TSBAb positive patients(95%), especially in TBII positive cases, showed very high activities of more than 90%. 4) TSBAb activities measured by hTSHR-CHO cells and those by FRTL-5 cells were both positive in 24 patients(49%), both negative in 18 patients(37%), and were discrepant in 7 patients(14%). The TSBAb activities measured with hTSHR-CHO cells and those measured with FRTL-5 cells were significantly correlated(r=0.71, p$lt; 0.01). 5) Forty five percent of patients with primary myxedema had all of 3 kinds of activities(TBII, hTSHR-CHO cell TSBAb, FRTL-5 cell TSBAb), 37% of them had none of 3 activities and 18% of them had 1 or 2 kinds of activities only. Conclusion: The usefulness of hTSHR-CHO cells in measurements of TSBAb activities were confirmed. The TSBAb activities of most patients with primary myxedema measured by hTSHR- CHO cells were concordant with those measured by FRTL-5 cells. However, a small subset of patients(18%) had discrepant results in assays of TSH receptor antibodies according to the differences in TSH receptors(rat, human and porcine) used in assay. Such discrepancy may be explained by heterogeneity in epitopes for blocking TSH receptor antibodies. (J Kor Soc Endocrinol 12:18-32, 1997)
Yoo Dong-cho is the person who recorded two pieces of music, the sanjo and bongjangchwi, in 1937 by playing his tungso and recording the music thus produced into phonograph discs. He has remained a subject of research not only for musical performers but also for scholars, owing to his remarkable talent for rendering musical performances. This research was conducted for four years, with five field studies on the character of Yoo Dong-cho, the top tungso musical performer in the 1930s. Based on the information provided by the informants, this research was divided into two parts: (1) Yoo Dong-cho's art activities; and (2) the dates of his birth and death. The description of his art activities in this paper was based on the information provided by the informants, and the discussion of the exact dates of his birth and death was based on the records in the pulled-out family register. As for his art activities, Yoo Dong-cho enjoyed not only the folk music of sanjo and bongjamgchwi, which he recorded in phonograph discs, but also elegant music, such as that coming from the gayageum. As for the musical instruments that he played, he played diverse instruments, such as the tungso, gayageum, danso, sepiri, jingo, and drums. Although Yoo Dong-cho did not have many disciples, the few disciples that he had followed him endlessly, and he sometimes taught for a living. According to newspaper records and to the information provided by the informants, Yoo Dongcho taught elegant music rather than the sanjo. The tungso, however, was the musical instrument that he played best, and he always carried one with him. In the 1930s, Yoo Dong-cho was active in recording tungso music into phonograph discs, and in musical-performance broadcasting. This can be seen from the records of his radio broadcasting guestings in the mid-1930s, and from the records of the Victor edition of his tungso solo. Yoo Dong-cho was born on March 7, as the elder of two sons, Yoo su-yeong and Han Deok-san, in Jeonnam, Jangseong-gun, Buksangmyeon. His real name was Yoo Bong (柳鳳), and he belonged to the Munhwa (文化) Yoo (柳) family. Although Yoo Dong-cho was born in Jeonnam Janseong, he moved to Gochang Heungdeok-ri, Iksan Hwangdeung-ri, and Gimje Baeksan-myeon, and he settled down in Jeonbuk. For about 20 years in the last phase of his life, when he was most active in terms of rendering musical performances, he lived in Gimje Baeksan. It appears, however, that his activities were not limited to the Jeonbuk region but spanned the whole country. He died in 1946 at the age of 61 in Seungbang Village in Gimje Baeksan-myeon, and his grave is currently in Jeonnam Jangseong.
Thyroid stimulating antibody which results in the development of hyperthyroidism and goiter in Graves' patients used to be measured by using rat thyroid cells, FRTL-5. However, this assay has disadvantages: decreased sensitivity due to differences in species, and fastidious culture conditions for FRTL-5 cells. Thus, we recently created stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cells containing the human TSH receptor(hTSHR-CHO) and developed optimal conditions for the measurement of thyroid stimulating antibody using hTSHR-CHO cells. In this study, to evaluate the clinical relevance of thyroid stimulating antibody measurement using hTSHR-CHO cells, we measured thyroid stimulating antibody activities of IgGs from Graves' disease and other thyroid disease using hTSHR-CHO cells, and compared to those of thyroid stimulating antibody assays using FRTL-5 cells. 1) The cut off value of positive thyroid stimulating antibody activity measured in hTSHR-CHO cells was 145%(above the mean +2SD) which was lower than 165% in FRTL-5 cells. The intra-assay and inter-assay variances were 3.9% to 9.0% and 12.7% to 1.6%, respectively. 2) Thyroid stimulating antibody activity was detected in 90% of patients with untreated Graves' disease when patients initially presented. Further, in patients seen initially but already under therapy, 75% had positive values if they were hyperthyroid but only 43% had IgGs with activity if they were euthyroid. Patients in clinical remission after therapy showed positive values in 23% of cases. Only 2 of 25 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed weak thyroid stimulating antibody activity, none of 18 patients with nodular nontoxie goiter, 1 of 15 patients with primary myxedema, and 2 of 33 control patients with no thyroid disease. Thus, the detection frequency and specificity of the assay with hTSHR-CHO cells was excellent for this type bioassay. 3) The detection frequency of thyroid stimulating antibody activity by hTSHR-CHO cells assay system(90%) was higher than that by FRTL-5 cells assay system(66%) in untreated Graves' patients. Those two activities were positively correlated with each other(r=0.52, p$lt;0.001). However, some IgGs showed discrepancy of the thyroid stimulating antibody activity measured in hTSHR-CHO cells and in FRTL-5 cells; 56 of 87 patients were positive in both cells system, 8 of 87 were negative in both cells system, 1 of 87 was only positive in FRTL-5 cells and 22 of 87 were only positive in hTSHR-CHO cell system. Thus, 73%(22/30) of IgGs showing negative values of thyroid stimulating antibody activities in FRTL-5 cells were detected its activities in hTSHR-CHO cells system. In summary, thyroid stimulating antibody assay with hTSHR-CHO cells exhibited so excellent sensitivity and specificity that this technique should be used for clinical practice as well as basic research(J Kor Soc Endocrinol 10: 347-361, 1995).
Between the year of 1924 and 1943, 3 'Cho-sun Kinema' film companies has established and made each own Films. Firstly cho-sun kinema co. has opened in 1924 at Busan, the second big city of korea,. Joined by local big shots including a monk, a medical doctor, a gun shop owner. and that company made four films like 'the tragedy of the sea' 'the lover of the king' 'the make up of the God' Second one is cho-sun kinema production opened at seoul, the capital of korea. in 1926. The owner of company was a business man who runned 'the Yotoya', a hat shop. That company has made 6 films including 'Arirang' 'The Drifting Hero'. and soon became most popular and influential film company at that time, but internal conflict between Na woon gyu, the Star of the company, and other members. Third one was cho-sun kinema co. Known as another new company with cho-sun kinema production. Actually that company was same company of cho-sun kinema production. After several conflict between the Membersof that company, the company has changed system, a private owned to a joint stock company. so new cho-sun kinema co. is sequel of cho-sun kinema production.
Chronic ethanol consumption leads to memory impairment and also induces brain damage. The hippocampus has been particularly regarded as a possible target organ of alcoholic intoxication, since this structure plays a prominent function in memory processes. Cordyceps has been used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries for a long time. Different types of Cordyceps extract were reported to have various pharmacological activities including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and immune modulatory effects. Guem Chung Cho is an artificial cultivated Cordyceps, and was supplied from GCordy (Seoul, Korea). Ethanol extract of Cordycep (50 g) was made by rotary evaporate, and resulting powder 8.29 g was obtained (yield 17%). In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extract of Geum Chung Cho on short-term memory, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of ethanol-treated gerbils. The gerbils were divided into 5 groups (n = 10 in each group): Control group, alcohol-treated group, alcohol-treated and 0.001 mg/kg Geum Chung Cho-applied group, alcohol-treated and 0.01 mg/kg Geum Chung Cho-applied group, and alcohol-treated and 0.1 mg/kg Geum Chung Cho-applied group. Gerbils in the alcohol-treated groups were orally administered ethanol (1 g/kg) once a day for 2 weeks. Gerbils in the Guem Chung Cho-applied groups were orally administered Guem Chung Cho extract at each dosage 1 hour before ethanol consumption. Our results revealed that consumption of alcohol for 2 weeks deteriorated short-term memory, induced apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation, and reduced expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB). However, Guem Chung Cho treatment alleviated alcohol-induced short-term memory impairment through enhancing cell proliferation and BDNF expression with inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus. Guem Chung Cho showed maximum effects at 0.1 mg/kg. Based on these results, alcohol extract of Guem Chung Cho may provide therapeutic value for the treatment of chronic alcohol-inducted brain injury. This study was supported by GCordy company.
The ministry of Yonggi Cho, which he began after his retirement, offers important lessons in the context of the modern mission. He work as the wholistic mission is recommended by both traditional and progressive parties. According to this trend, the Sharing of Love and Happiness Foundation can be considered as an example of the wholistic mission, which carries the Great Commission of God by the church. Thus, the writer wants to study the motivation, methods, and influence of “Sharing of Love and Happiness” of Yonggi Cho which belongs to a wholistic mission. The content of this paper is wholistic mission of NGO and “Sharing of Love and Happiness” in the ministry of Yonggi Cho. He made the Three-fold Blessing from the gospel of Jesus. It is a message which confirms that humans have a right to share in salvation of souls, all other matters, and in the well-being of their bodies. The ministry of Cho's wholistic mission structure is also to change the frame of old traditional dogmatics. He constructed the shape of wholistic mission through three-fold blessings and proved it, through Good People which is a NGO. The writer evaluates that the Sharing of Love and Happiness Foundation is a model of the wholistic mission, presenting the future ministry of the Korean Church.
자신의 학문을 민족문화운동의 일환으로 이해했던 조지훈은 신칸트학파의 영향 아래 한국학과 한국사 연구에 들어섰다. 한국사는 한국학을 구성하는 핵심이었으며 그의 실천의 식을 드러내는 중요한 수단이었다. 조지훈은 전통을 계승의 대상이자 가치 창조의 주체로 삼아 민족주체성을 바로 잡고자 했고, 한국사의 체계화를 모색했다. 또한 한국사의 독자성을 찾고 세계사와 견주기를 시도하는가 하면, 자연적·외적 조건에 인한 영향을 조화·융합하면서 한국사가 발전한다고 보았다. 원효의 철학과 동학사상을 이와 같은 전범으로 내세웠으며 한국사를 보는 주체적·개성적 시선을 갖는 것이 ‘한국적' 방법이라고 집약했다. 조지훈의 한국사 연구 영역은 문화사, 그 가운데 정신사(精神史)에 해당했다. 그는 민족이 조선 세종대에, 민족의식은 왜란·호란을 거치며 형성된다는 것을 시작으로, 실학운동-홍경래의 난-삼정 소요-갑신정변-동학혁명-갑오경장을 통한 민족의식 발달사를 체계화했다. 또한 독립운동도 정신사의 범위로 끌어들여 3·1운동-6·10만세운동-광주학생운동 등 민중의 독립투쟁을 높게 평가했고, 사회주의도 민족의식의 범위 안에서 수용하고자 했다. 이와 같은 조지훈의 한국사 서술은 민족의식에 절대성을 부여하는 규범적·윤리적 성격이 강했으며, 이는 사회 모순으로 인한 역사발전을 강조한 당시 소장 연구자의 내재적 발전론과 차이가 있었다. 조지훈은 한국학이 처음으로 공론화되던 1960년대 초에 한국사 연구를 통해 한국학의 역사적 흐름을 확인하고, 정신사 연구의 경험을 통해 한국학의 방향을 모색했다. 따라서 조지훈의 한국사 연구는 민족 중심 한국학과 민족문화운동의 설계도로서 의미가 있었다. Cho Ji-hoon, who understood his scholarship as part of the national cultural movement, began to study Korean history under the influence of neo-Kantians. Korean history was the core of Korean studies, and an important means of revealing his practical consciousness. Cho Ji-hoon wanted to make tradition the target of succession and the subject of value creation, and rectify the national identity, and sought to systematize Korean history. He also attempted to find the identity of Korean history and compare it with the world history, and believed that Korean history would develop through harmonization and convergence with natural and external conditions. He thought of Wonhyo's philosophy and the thought of Donghak as examples thereof, and said in summary that having the subjective and individualistic viewpoint of Korean history is the ‘Korean' method. The research area of Cho Ji-hoon's Korean history corresponded to cultural history, and particularly, intellectual history. Having started with the formation of the nationality under the reign of King Sejong and the formation of national consciousness during the Japanese and Manchu invasion, he systematized the history of the development of national consciousness through the Silhak Movement, Hong Gyeong-rae's Rebellion, the Samjeong Riot, the Gapsin Coup, the Donghak Revolution, and the Gabo Reformation. He also included the independence movement in the range of the intellectual history, and thought highly of people's struggle for independence, e.g. the March 1st Movement, the June 10th Independence Movement and the Gwangju Student Independence Movement, and tried to accommodate socialism within the scope of national consciousness. Cho Ji-hoon's description of national consciousness had a strong normative and ethical personality that gives absoluteness to national consciousness, which was different from the internal development theory of the young researchers of those days who emphasized the development of history due to the contradictions in our society. Cho Ji-hoon verified the historical genealogy of Korean studies through the research of Korean history in the early 1960's when Korean studies came under the spotlight for the first time, and sought for the direction of Korean studies through the experience of studying intellectual history. As a result, Cho Ji-hoon's study of Korean history became the blueprint of the nation-centric Korean studies and national cultural movement.
'Mong-yu-rok(夢遊錄)' is a historical genre of Cho-sun(朝鮮) Dynasty. Most works of this genre were written in the Chinese characters, and produced especially in the hard times of the nation - for example, Cho-sun vs. Japan War[Hideyoshis Invasion of Korea in 1592], Cho-sun vs. Ching War[the Mandch Invasion of Korea in 1636], or the time just before the Japanese annexation of Korea. The stories included in Mong-yu-rok works are about the experience in dream and have the 'beginning of dream-experience during dreaming-awakening from sleeping' structure. <Gang-do-mong-yu-rok(江都夢遊錄)> is based on the experience of war in Gang-hwa-do(江華島, Gang-hwa island) during Cho-sun vs. Ching War. It is also written in the Chinese characters and its author is unknown. This work begins with a story about a monk who had a chance of watching the women's meeting in a dream. As he was a man of compassion, he arrived Yeon-mi-jung(燕尾亭, Yeon-mi pavilion) in Gang-hwa island to bury the bodies that had been neglected after the war. At night he was led to a certain place by women's various weeping, laughing, and crying sounds, and that meant he was already in dreaming. When the War broke out, the king and the ministers took refuge in Nam-han-san-seong(南漢山城, Nam-han mountain fortress) and the women of noble class including royal family took refuge in Gang-hwa island. However, all the high-ranking officials who took charge of defending the island ran away before the fights started, and the fortress was helplessly surrendered. And those countless women who took refuge in Gang-hwa island had committed suicides for keeping their dignity as a human being. They readily chose a suicide for their honor, because Cho-sun society rigidly called upon women to keep the chastity. Therefore those women in this work were the ghosts, that were not alive. Their appearances were horrible, which showed their tragic death. All those 14 women ghost characters came from the noble families except one woman. They poured out their words of rebukes, resentments, and sorrows. After all, it is the officials that they severely criticized in turn, who couldn't fulfill their responsibility during the war. The officials could be their own husbands, sons or fathers-in-law, in fact. This work very impressively used the sound image: at the last scene of women's meeting, the meeting place was filled with all women's wail. And which was effective enough to remind us a tutti in a symphony. <Gang-do-mong-yu-rok> reported the sufferings of women who had to take refuge in Gang-hwa island at the wartime. It would be hard to find a work which reflected the experience of women in war as realistic as this work, although many literary works about war were written after Cho-sun vs. Japan war & Cho-sun vs. Ching war. It is the literary works that were concerned about the concrete aspects of those women's death as a human even though they had to choose honorable suicide, while the historical documents briefly praised those women's death in formal manner and rhetoric. <Gang-do-mong-yu-rok> successfully described the miserable aspect of Cho-sun vs. Ching war and the women's voices in it became the fierce criticism about the failure of policy and the fall of the ideology at that time.
The Chinese Hamster Ovarian cells CHO-K1 are one of the most extensively used cells for the evaluation of gene expression and toxicology. However, these cells are frequently used for biomedical research without consideration of their cytogenetic characteristics. Therefore, we carried out to investigate the karyologic profiles, the frequency and type of chromosome aberration, and the distribution of telomeric DNA on chromosomes of the CHO-K1 cells. The GTG banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization on CHO-K1 cells were performed to characterize the karyotype and the distribution of telomeric DNA The present study revealed that the chromosome modal number of CHO-K1 cells was 2n=20; eight chromosomes appeared to be identical with those of the normal Chinese hamster, whereas the remaining 12 chromosomes were shown to be translocated, deleted, inversed, or rearranged from Chinese hamster chromosomes. The telomeric DNA on CHO-K1 chromosomes was intensively distributed at the centromeres rather than the ends of chromosomes. In addition, three chromosomes had interstitial telomeres and one marker chromosome entirely consisted of telomeric DNAs. The frequency and type of chromosome aberrations in CHO-K1 cells were examined. Of the 822 metaphase spreads, 68 (8.3%) cells resulted in chromosome aberrations of which the chromosome breakage was the most frequently occurred.
Background : Thyroid stimulating antibodies result in the development of hyperthyroidism and goiter in Graves disease. However, thyroid stimulating antibody activities do not correlate with the clinical features in many patients with Graves disease. The purpose of this study is to address this discrepancy between thyroid stimulating antibody activities and clinical features of Graves patients. Methods: We measured thyroid stimulating antibody activities simultaneously using human TSH receptor transfected Chinese hamster(hTSHR-CHO) cells and rat thyroid(FRTL-5) cells in 57 untreated patients with Graves disease, and compared their activities with clinical features including thyroid hormone levels. Results : The detection rate of thyroid stimulating antibody measured by hTSHR-CHO cells was 90% in 57 untreated Graves patients and it was higher than that measured by FRTL-5 cells. Thyroid stimulating antibody activity by hTSHR-CHO cells was significantly correlated with that by FRTL-5 cells(r=0.5, p$lt;0.001), however, 18 of 57(32%) patients showed marked discrepancy of thyroid stimulating antibody activity between in hTSHR-CHO and FRTL-5 systems. Thyroid stimulating antibody activity measured by hTSHR-CHO cells was significantly correlated with serum total T3, free T4 levels, and goiter size but not 99mTc-thyroid uptake. On the other hand, thyroid stimulating antibody activity measured by FRTL-5 cells was significantly correlated with goiter size and 99mTc-thyroid uptake but not thyroid hormone levels. The difference between function and goiter size with respect to thyroid stimulating antibody measurement in two cells system is, nevertheless, particularly evident in the free T4/goiter ratio in patients with high hTSHR-CHO and low FRTL-5 cell assay values. Conclusion: These findings suggest that thyroid stimulating antibodies in Graves disease are heterogeneous population in terms of responses to different origin of cells. Further, thyroid stimulating antibody activities measured by FRTL-5 cells tend to correlate better with goiter size and Tc-thyroid uptake, whereas thyroid stimulating antibody activities measured by hTSH-CHO cells correlate better with thyroid hormone levels(J Kor Soc Endocrinol 11:18-29, 1996).