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This study aims to address questions regarding the translation of ‘gout’ into ‘tongfeng (痛風)’ in East Asia. To this end, the formation process of the origins, ‘gout’ from Western medicine and ‘tongfeng’ from Oriental medicine, and the translational process were investigated through the relevant records and literature dating from the 16th century on. Symptoms associated with gout were originally mentioned in ancient Egypt and various terminologies were used to refer to gout, such as podagra, cheiragra and gonogra. The word ‘gout’, which is derived from Latin, was used for the first time in the 13th century. The reason for this linguistic alteration is thought to be the need for a comprehensive term to cover the various terms for gout in symptomatic body parts, since it can occur concurrently in many joints. However, it took hundreds of years before gout was independently established as a medical term. In oriental medicine, terms describing diseases with features similar to gout include bibing (痺病), lijiefeng (歷節風), baihufeng (白虎風) and tongfeng (痛風). Among them, the concept of ‘tongfeng’ has been established since the Jin and Yuan dynasties. The cause, prevention and various treatments for tongfeng were proposed throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties. The early translation of gout and tongfeng in East Asia, respectively, is estimated to have occurred in the 18th century. The first literature translating gout in China was ‘An English and Chinese Vocabulary in the Court Dialect (yinghua yunfu lijie, 英華韻府歷階)’. From the publication of this book until the late 19th century, gout was translated into an unfamiliar Chinese character ‘Jiu feng jiao (酒風脚)’, likely because the translation was done mostly by foreign missionaries at the time, and they created a new word on the basis of Western medicine instead of researching and translating similar diseases in oriental medicine. In Japan, the first book translating gout was ‘A Pocket Dictionary of the English and Japanese Language (Eiwa taiyaku shuchin jisho, 英和??袖珍?書)’, Japan’s the first English-Japanese translation dictionary. In this book, gout was translated into tongfeng, a word adopted from oriental medicine. These differences from China are thought to be caused by Rangaku doctors (蘭方醫), who, influenced by oriental medicine in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, played an important role in translating medical terminology at that time.
조재흥 ( Jae Heung Cho ),정순호 ( Soon Ho Cheong ),김현식 ( Hyun Sik Kim ),김세훈 ( Se Hoon Kim ),조광래 ( Kwang Rae Cho ),이상은 ( Sang Eun Lee ),김영환 ( Young Hwan Kim ),임세훈 ( Se Hun Lim ),이정한 ( Jeong Han Lee ),이근무 ( K 대한마취과학회 2009 Korean Journal of Anesthesiology Vol.57 No.2
Background: It is important to assess the level of consciousness in patients with brain injuries to determine modes of treatment and prognosis. We evaluated the Bispectral Index (BIS) to determine if it could be used as an objective tool for evaluation of the level of consciousness in brain-injured patients. We also compared the BIS values to clinical sedation scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), and the Reaction Level Scale (RLS). Methods: Thirty eight patients with brain injuries that were admitted to the neurosurgery intensive care unit (NSICU) were enrolled in this study. An investigator evaluated the clinical sedation scales (GCS, RASS, RLS), while a blind observer noted the BIS in the same patient. The BIS score was obtained three times at an interval of 5 hours. The BISs were measured for 1 minute at 5 min prior to the nursing assessment, during the nursing assessment, and at 5 min after the nursing assessment. The BISs used in the data analysis were the maximal, minimal, and mean values obtained during 1 min, which were defined as BISmax, BISmin, and BISmean. A Spearman`s rank correlation coefficient was used to determine if the clinical sedation scales were correlated with the BIS scores. Results: In 38 patients, the BISmax, BISmin, and BISmean were found to be significantly correlated with the GCS, RASS, and RLS. The BISmean had the highest correlation with GCS (r=0.445, P<0.01), while the BIS min had the lowest correlation with RLS (r=-0.278, P<0.01). Conclusions: The results of BIS monitoring were found to be significantly correlated with sedation scales in patients with brain injuries. These findings suggest that BIS can be used as an objective and continuous method for assessment of the level of consciousness in patients with brain injury. (Korean J Anesthesiol 2009;57:185∼9)
Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of a constraint-induced therapy protocol on patients with chronic stroke. Methods: Constraint-induced theraphy applied to five hemiplegic patients who had been treated by general rehabilitation therapy upon stroke for 2 weeks. The other five hemiplegic patients had only general rehabilitation therapy during same period. Outcomes were assessed by Medical research council scale, Fugl-Meyer score (FMS), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Action Research Arm Test (ARA) and Modified Barthel Index(MBI). Results: Substantial improvements were observed on the FMS, WMFT and ARA, while MBI has not produced significantly meaningful differences between sample and control group. Conclusions: Constraint-induced theraphy may could be used as an efficacious method of improving function of upper limb motor function.
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of imbalance of autonomic nerve system on post-stroke patients with insomnia by Heart Rate Variability parameters. Methods : Sample group of 15 patients with post stroke insomnia was tested Heart Rate Variability parameters which are Mean Heart Rate(MHRT), Standard Deviation of all the Normal RR intervals(SDNN), Root Mean Square of Successive Differences Between The Normal Heart Beats(RMSSD), Total Power(TP), Low Frequency(LF), High Frequency(HF) and LF/HF ratio. This results were compared with that of control group including 15 patients without post stroke insomnia. Results : 1. MHRT and LF/HF ratio were not significantly different between sample group and control group(P=0.061, 0.305). 2. SDNN and RMS-SD were significantly different between sample group and control group(P=0.013, 0.029). 3. TP, HF and LF of sample group were significantly different compared with those of conrol group(P=0.023, 0.037, 0.037). Conclusions : General parameters of Heart Rate Variability except MHRT and LF/HF ratio were dropped off in activity. This result means that post stroke insomnia was affected more by secondary factors than simple stress due to environmental change
Objectives : To analyse the effect of Electroacupuncture(EA) and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation(TENS) in hemiplegic patients with spasticity after Stroke through Meridian-Electromyograph(MEMG). Methods : EA applied to 24 patients who had been treated by general rehabilitation therapy after stroke and the other 25 hemiplegic patients had applied TENS during 15 minutes. Outcomes were assessed at just before and after stimulation, and 30 minutes, 60 minutes by MEMG, Modified Ashworth scale(MAS), Visual Analog Scale(VAS). Results : EA and TENS groups were found to produce a statistically significant decrease of spasticity. The effects assessed by MEMG and MAS were lasted up to 30minutes in EA group and 60minutes in TENS group, while the analgesic effects of EA assessed by VAS was lasted just after stimulation but TENS was lasted up to 30 minutes. Conclusions : EA is an efficacious method to decrease severe spasticity quickly but TENS is better in analgesic effect and persistency of antispastic effect.
Objectives : This study was performed to investigate about clinical application of the Meridian Muscle Electrography(經筋電圖) based on the Meridian Muscle Theory and Electromyography principles. Methods : To draw a plan for clinical application of the Meridian Muscle Electrography and reveal a theoretical relevance between the Meridian Muscle Theory and EMG principles, I had researched various sources such as oriental medicine textbooks, documents on internet, medical journals and books. Results and Conclusions : 1. Electromyography(EMG), one of the neurophysiological diagnostic tool, is widely used in the clinical field of neuromuscular system. 2. The twelve-Meridian muscle theory is made by classifying the whole muscle with making reference to the Medridian system. 3. The concept of meridan muscle reported in the 《Huangdi-Naijing(黃帝內經)》include muscle, tendon, superficial vein and nerve. In《Kyung Keun(經筋)》, it means muscle and tendon. 4. The theoretical basis of Meridian Muscle Electrography is explained by common interests between Electromyography and Meridian muscle theory. 5. Meridian Muscle Electrography is useful in the field of Kyungkuen Chuna(經筋推拿) for diagnosis of pain disorders, identification of Meridian muscle that causes pain and discrimination between muscle disease and perineal nerve disorders ; Doin Chuna(運動 推拿) for assessment of motor neuron disease, motor function and research about efficacy of physical theraphy.
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Recently the global epidemic problem of obesity has stimulated intense interest in the study of physiological mechanisms using animal models as a way to gain crucial data required for translation to human studies. Panax ginseng has been reported to have anti-obesity or antidiabetic effects in many animal studies; however, there have been few studies investigating human obesity. Herein, we will assess and examine the evidence supporting the anti-obesity effect of Panax ginseng in animal models with respect to anthropometric and metabolic outcomes. We will include controlled, comparative studies assessing the effect of Panax ginseng in preclinical studies of obesity. Panax ginseng will be administered during or following the induction of experimental obesity. The primary outcome measure will be anthropometric assessment and the secondary outcome measures will include adipose tissue weight, total amount of food consumed and metabolic parameters. We will search MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus without language, publication date, or other restrictions. Ethical approval will not be necessary as the data collected in this study will not be individual patient data, consequently there will be no concerns about violations of privacy. After finishing the whole procedure, the results will be disseminated by publication in a peer-reviewed journal or presented at a relevant conference. This protocol has been registered on the Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) website (http://www.camarades.info). 최근 비만이 전 세계적인 문제로 대두되면서 임상 연구의 해석에 필요한 중요 자료를 제시해 줄 수 있는 동물 모델을 이용한 생리학적 기전 연구에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있다. 인삼은 많은 동물 실험에서 항비만 또는 항당뇨 효과가 보고되었으나 인체의 임상에서 비만을 연구한 논문은 거의 없는 실정이다. 이 연구에서는 신체계측치수와 대사지표를 활용한 동물 모델에서의 인삼의 항비만 효과의 근거수준을 평가하고자 한다. 전임상 단계에서 비만에 대한 인삼의 효과를 연구한 대조군 연구, 비교 연구를 포함시키고자 한다. 실험적으로 비만을 유도하는 도중 혹은 이후에 인삼을 투여하고, 일차평가변수는 신체계측치수, 이차평가변수는 지방조직의 무게, 섭취음식의 총량, 대사지표 등을 포함한다. 언어, 출판일 등 특별한 제한 없이 MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus를 통해 논문 검색을 시행한다. 본 연구에서의 자료 수집은 개인 정보를 포함하지 않으며, 사생활 침해의 우려가 없으므로 윤리적 승인 대상에서 제외된다. 연구의 전체과정을 수행한 후 연구결과는 연관 저널에 출간하거나 관련 학회에 발표할 예정이다. 본 연구 프로토콜은 the Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) website (http://www.camarades.info)에 등록되었다.
Objectives : To investigate the effect of Dong-si acupoint(Ling-gu, Da-bai) on the tension of Governer vessel and Bladder meridian muscle. Methods : Sample group of 15 healthy subjects had been treated by acupuncture on Dong-si acupoint(Ling-gu, Da-bai) which has been proved effective against back pain and sciatica. Control group of 15-healthful subjects had not treatment during 5 minutes after first check. Outcomes were assessed at just before a step and after 5 minutes by finger to floor method(FFM) for hamstring muscle, back distance method for erector spinae muscle and Meridian-Electromyograph( MEMG) for both muscles. Results : The tension of both muscles assessed by FFM and MEMG had decreased significantly in sample group, while muscle tension assessed by back distance method had no statistical significance. Control group had not produced meaningful consequence on all assessment. Conclusions : Dong-si acupoint(Ling-gu, Da-bai) can usefully reduce the tension of Governer vessel and Bladder meridian muscle, which is accounted for meridian muscle conducting muscle tension between two-body parts distant from each other.
대구경이 가능하며 가벼운 프레넬 렌즈로 10 해리 (18.53 km)까지 빛을 비출 수 있는 해상용 랜턴을 설계하고 배광곡선을 시뮬레이션하였다. 렌즈설계 프로그램으로 직경 250 mm와 300 mm인 프레넬 렌즈를 설계하였으며, 이 프레넬 렌즈의 groove 변수들을 최적화하였다. 해상용 랜턴에서 사용하는 전구의 배광곡선을 고려하여 이 프레넬 렌즈의 배광곡선을 조명설계 프로그램으로 계산하였다. 이 결과 전구를 최적의 위치로 정렬하였을 때 이 해상용 랜턴들의 최대광도는 각각 KS 규격인 720 cd를 훨씬 넘는 1000 cd(직경 250 mm의 해상용 랜턴의 경우)와 1300 cd (직경 300 mm의 해상용 랜턴의 경우)로 계산되었다. 그리고 전구의 정렬오차를 정하기 위하여 렌즈의 초점거리에서 벗어난 정도에 따라 배광곡선이 변하는 정도도 알아보았다. Providing marine signal lanterns with advantages of little weight as well as large aperture, a Fresnel lens has been adopted to transfer the beam from the lanterns up to 10 nautical miles (18.53 km). A Fresnel lens with the diameter of 250 mm and 300 mm was designed by a lens design program and optimized by adjusting the groove parameters of the lens. The angular luminous intensity distribution (ALID) of this lens was calculated by using an illumination analysis program considering the ALID of a light bulb. At the best alignment of the bulb, the maximum luminous intensities (MLI) of the lantern were 1000 cd (in the case of 250 mm diameter) and 1300 cd (in the case of 300 mm diameter). These are more than the critical value of 720 cd that is the Korean Standard of MLI for the marine lantern. The ALID was investigated as a function of misalignment from the lens focus to determine the tolerance of the alignment ranges.