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In this paper, we apply the concept of rhetoricalness and intonation-dependency on the syntax-semantic property ‘discourse component', to propose a speech act-level categorization for spoken Korean in text form. By this, we primarily aim to make up a non-domain-specific speech act typology that requires less burden in annotation, which also resolves the vagueness in understanding human speech and eventually satisfies the boosting demand for the analysis and understanding of spoken language in speech-based AI services. We constructed the resource for quantitative analysis by annotating 6K Korean utterances, and based on it, via a recurrent neural network-based evaluation, implicitly observed that the proposed speech act typology has consistency in the way it categorizes the utterances. The corpus and trained models are to be distributed online for research purpose.
The aim of this study is to find the distribution and semantic function of cataphora based on quantitative research in social media news. When looking at the frequency from 2015 to 2020, it was being used more frequently than before. By section, it was frequently used in “culture” and “entertainment” then “social” and “political”. The cataphora often appears in combination with specific adverbs or exclamations, or in combination with extreme or exaggerated expressions, indicating that the cataphora have a more systematic function for discourse functions. In terms of combination, the cataphora, combined with nouns or investigations, clearly indicate specific people or situations, but use rhetorical techniques that cause interest because they do not explicitly reveal the person or event they are subject to using correspondence. The range of cataphora, the target of coordination, which is directed by the cataphora in the title, was often implicit in sentences, images, or discourse, not only in the trailing vocabulary, therefore it was used in various ways. if the main information is covered by a cataphora, it could create a misunderstanding amongst the readers.
Although leaf springs are less satisfactory for ride quality and driving stability than coil springs, they have advantages of simplifying the structural constitution and bearing heavy loads. Thus, they are widely used as major suspension components in buses or trucks. There are several methods to design leaf springs such as 'Uniform strength method' and 'Leaf tip contact method', which are used as basic theory. But nowadays many analyses are performed by numerical methods, therefore this paper analyzed the progressive leaf spring, which is kinematically nonlinear. The results have shown that the disassembled model provides closer results to the experimental ones than assembled model.
Until now, many researches on laser-arc hybrid welding processes have been conducted mainly for high power CW laser and high direct current arc to weld the thick steel plates for shipbuilding. Recently, however the usage of thin steel plates, which tend to be deformed easily by thermal energy, is been increasing because of demand of light structure such as car body in the automobile industry. Accordingly, heat sources having relatively low heat input such as pulsed laser, dip-transfer DC GMA and pulsed GMA seem to be applied more increasingly and the study about those heat sources is needed more intensively. Any heat source mentioned above can not stand alone without weld defects at a relatively high welding speed for increasing the welding productivity. This is main reason to apply the hybrid welding process which uses pulsed laser and low-heat-input GMA heat sources simultaneously to weld the thin steel plate. In this study, parameters of pulsed laser and dip-transfer DC GMA welding are studied firstly through preliminary experiments, and then analyzed in the viewpoint of their physical phenomena. Before conducting the hybrid welding, a pulse control technique is developed based on the parallel port communication and Visual C++ 6.0. Owing to development of this technique, interactions of laser and arc pulses can be controlled consistently. Using the pulse control technique, the hybrid welding is conducted and then its interactive welding phenomenon is analyzed.
본 논문에서는 규칙 기반의 4성부 합창 음악 생성 과정에 화성 진행 학습 모델을 적용해 보고자 한다. 제안하는 시스템은 32음의 멜로디를 입력으로 받아 다른 세 성부를 화성학의 규칙에 맞게 완성시켜 주며, 그 과정에서 사용하는 화성 진행을 CRBM 모델을 이용하여 예측한다. 학습 데이터는 화성학 교육 자료집에서 다수 발췌하였으며, 화성 진행을 조성에 독립적으로 추출하여 주어진 데이터를 효과적으로 활용할 수 있도록 하였다. 학습 모델을 적용한 결과물이 기존의 규칙 기반 4성부 합창 음악에 비해 보다 자연스러운 진행을 보임이 확인되었다. In this paper, we apply a chord progression learning model to a rule-based generation of a four-part chorus. The proposed system is given a 32-note melody line and completes the four-part chorus based on the rule of harmonics, predicting the chord progression with the CRBM model. The data for the training model was collected from various harmony textbooks, and chord progressions were extracted with key-independent features so as to utilize the given data effectively. It was shown that the output piece obtained with the proposed learning model had a more natural progression than the piece that used only the rule-based approach.