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The purpose of this paper is to investigate British attitudes and debates on sexuality in the era of Industrial Revolution. It is an established fact that in this era revolution in population also happened. Viewed from the point of view of the history of sexuality, it is to be interpreted as a result of the increase of heterosexual intercourse. Testimonies and criticisms to the sexual prodigality of working class from both radicals and conservatives evidence it. It was Malthus who fueled the ruling class's panic on the working class sexuality. According to his pessimistic view, social misery resulted from the working class sexuality and there was no escape other than moral restraint of working class. However, some radical working class intellectuals denied this. They insisted that sexual passion was natural to man and woman and not to be suppressed. They also suggested contraception to solve the problem of population and to increase pleasure of sexual intercourse. Amongst them Francis Place and Richard Carlile were most influential to working class. Their radical discourses of sexuality aimed at liberating working class sexuality from Malthusian menace of ruling class.
글로벌 사회가 도래됨에 따라 국가의 이미지가 이전보다 더 중요시 되었다. 국가경쟁력이 더욱 중요시되는 현시점에서 현대사회의 가장 큰 국제적 행사인 올림픽은 세계인의 평화와 화합의장으로서 뿐만 아니라 개최국의 과학과 기술 문화·예술의 총체적 역량을 보여줄 수 있는 기회의 장이라는 측면에서 그 중요성이 날로 부각되고 있다. 성공적인 올림픽으로 국가의 이미지를 긍정적으로 확립할 수 있으며 올림픽 엠블럼은 성공적인 올림픽을 만드는 핵심 비주얼아이덴티티 요소이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 엠블럼이 국제사회에서 국가의 아이덴티티를 표현하는 중요한 비주얼매개체라는 점에 근거하여 올림픽 엠블럼에 관하여 연구하고자 한다. 올림픽 엠블럼에 나타난 개최국의 아이덴티티 적용사례를 살펴보고 모티브와 표현에 따른 국가아이덴티티 유형을 도출하였다. 또 도출된 유형을 내부지향과 외부지향의 관점에서 경향을 분석하고 국가아이덴티티를 표현한 엠블럼에서 중요시되는 특성을 파악하였다. 따라서 본 연구의 결과물은 국가브랜드 관점에서 한국가의 존재감을 나타내는 표현수단인 올림픽 엠블럼에 나타난 국가아이덴티티 유형을 이해하고 향후 국가아이덴티티를 반영한 엠블럼 제작 시 효과적인 국가아이덴티티 전략 수립을 위한 기초자료로 활용 될 수 있을 것으로 기대한다. With globalization national image has become more important. As national competitiveness is stressed the Olympics is considered as an opportunity to show host country's general capabilities. Positive national image can be built through successful Olympic Games and Olympic emblem is a core element of visual identity to make such Olympic Games successful. This study researches on Olympic emblem based on the fact that emblem is an important visual medium to show national identity. Examples of national identities reflected in the Olympic emblems were reviewed and then categorized by motifs and expression. Trend of such categories has been analyzed from inner-oriented and external-oriented point of view and characteristics important for those emblems were studied. This study would be able to be used to understand types of national identities reflected in the Olympic emblems and used as a basic data to effectively establish strategies on national identity.
Republic originated from the Roman words res publica, by which Cicero meant people's commonwealth (res populi) pursuing common good. It was a Roman version of the ancient Greek definition of polis, according to which a community where one man rules is not a polis. Aristotle once described it as the principle of 'rule and ruled' which meant rule by equals. And his teleological definition of man as a political animal who should realize himself by participating in ruling the polis to achieve common good came to be a pivotal principle of republicanism to come. In this way of thinking of republic, civic participation to achieve the common good should be asked as a categorical command of citizens. Without this civic virtue no liberty and equality is possible. Citizens should be vigilant always not to be ruled by superiors pursuing their private interests and ambitions. "Il n'y a dehors de" republic. Liberalism attacks this as a totalitarianism which denies the private spheres of individuals and enforces a monolithic way of life. However it must be remembered that republican voices were shouted in the historical moments when a political community fell to the crisis of the despotic rule by one or few. It was a civic ethics which emphasized to realize that to be free we have to keep republic from the ambitious superiors. Therefore republicans oppose to liberal conception of liberty as non-interference. They insist that liberty is not to be defined negatively only as an absence of interference and impediment. Liberty is fulfilled only when there are no possibility of arbitrary domination. A slave who is not interfered by his master is not free just because his liberty is dependent on his master's benevolence and so he has to always keep eyes to his action not to provoke and to satisfy his master. Now republicanism is discoursed as a new theory of liberty as non-domination against the hegemony of the nee-liberal market logic which emphasizes only non-interference.