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In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of So-Dang-Tang (SDT) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (45 mg/kg body weight) into Sprague-Dawley rats. The SDT (200 mg/kg) and the reference drug, glibenclimide (1mg/kg), were orally administered once a day for 28 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, including those of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and the levels of glutathione (GSH) and production of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the liver, kidney, and pancreas of diabetic rats. Treatment with SDT in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH levels in the liver, kidney, and pancreas when compared to those of the STZ-control group. SDT also significantly decreased lipid peroxidation product and MDA levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These results indicate that SDT has an antioxidative action in STZ-induced diabetic rats. 본 연구에서는 STZ로 당뇨병이 유발된 흰쥐의 간, 신장, 췌장 조직으로부터 소당탕(SDT)의 항산화 효과를 확인하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. SDT의 투여는 간, 신장, 췌장 내 항산화효소인 SOD의 활성을 유의적으로 증가시켰다. 2. SDT의 투여는 간, 신장, 췌장 내 항산화물질인 GSH의 농도를 유의적으로 증가시켰다. 3. SDT의 투여는 간, 신장, 췌장 내 지질과산화 산물인 MDA의 농도를 유의적으로 감소시켰다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때 소당탕은 STZ로 유발된 당뇨병 흰쥐에서 항산화효소 활성과 항산화물질 생성을 증가시키고, 산화물질 생성을 억제함으로써 항산화 효과가 확인되었다.
본 연구에서는 STZ로 당뇨병이 유발된 흰쥐의 간, 신장, 췌장 조직으로부터 소당탕(SDT)의 항산화 효과를 확인하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. SDT의 투여는 간, 신장, 췌장 내 항산화효소인 SOD의 활성을 유의적으로 증가시켰다. 2. SDT의 투여는 간, 신장, 췌장 내 항산화물질인 GSH의 농도를 유의적으로 증가시켰다. 3. SDT의 투여는 간, 신장, 췌장 내 지질과산화 산물인 MDA의 농도를 유의적으로 감소시켰다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때 소당탕은 STZ로 유발된 당뇨병 흰쥐에서 항산화효소 활성과 항산화물질 생성을 증가시키고, 산화물질 생성을 억제함으로써 항산화 효과가 확인되었다. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of So-Dang-Tang (SDT) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (45 ㎎/㎏ body weight) into Sprague-Dawley rats. The SDT (200 ㎎/㎏) and the reference drug, glibenclimide (1 ㎎/㎏), were orally administered once a day for 28 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, including those of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and the levels of glutathione (GSH) and production of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the liver, kidney, and pancreas of diabetic rats. Treatment with SDT in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH levels in the liver, kidney, and pancreas when compared to those of the STZ-control group. SDT also significantly decreased lipid peroxidation product and MDA levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These results indicate that SDT has an antioxidative action in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
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가상훈련은 가상현실을 기반으로 효율적으로 훈련을 수행할 수 있는 방법으로써 안전과 비용효율성을 기반으로 널리 사용되고 있다. 본 논문은 해사안전 훈련 중 구명정 정수 훈련, 밀폐 구역 훈련, 초기 화재 소화 훈련의 가상훈련으로써의 구현 및 이에 대한 유효성 평가를 제안한다. 구체적으로 각 훈련의 목표에 맞도록 가상훈련을 구현하는 방법을 논의하며 이 방식으로 구현했을 때의 피훈련자 유효성 평가 방식을 각 훈련에 맞게 제안한다. 제안된 평가 방식은 피훈련자의 훈련도 평가 및 훈련 방식의 훈련 효율도 평가, 훈련의 해사 안전 기여도에 대한 정량적 평가 지표로써 사용될 수 있다. Virtual training is widely used based on safety and cost efficiency as a way to efficiently train based on virtual reality. In this paper, we propose the implementation and validation evaluation of life safety training, life training in closed area training, initial fire extinguishing training as a virtual training in maritime safety training. Specifically, we discuss how to implement virtual training to meet the goals of each training, and we propose training methods for evaluating trainees effectiveness when implemented in this manner. The proposed evaluation method can be used as a quantitative evaluation index of the trainee s training assessment of the training and the safety contribution of the training to the evaluation of the training efficiency.
Objectives : In this study, we investigated the effect of Saposhnikoviae Radix on allergic responses in ovalbumin(OVA)-induced Allergic rhinitis(AR) mice. Methods : BALB/c mice were orally administrated with Saposhnikoviae Radix water extract (SRW, 50 ㎎/㎏) or anti-histamine drug, Ketotifen (10 ㎎/㎏) as a reference drug, followed by sensitization and challenge of OVA. Mice were measured clinical symptoms and the serum levels of histamine, IgE, IL-4, and IFN-γ, and observed histopathological changes of nasal mucosa H&E staining. Results : SRW significantly decreased rubs and the serum levels of histamine, IgE, and IL-4, and then increased the serum levels of IFN-γ in OVA-induced AR mice, and inhibited histopathological changes of nasal mucosa with inflammation and the eosinophils infilteration. Conclusions : These data suggest that SRW has anti-allergic effect through the inhibitory property of Saposhnikoviae Radix against allergic responses in allergic rhinitis.
Objectives: To evaluate the toxicity of KOB03, polyherbal medicine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, we performed the dose-range finding test of KOB03 by oral supplementation for 4 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: The water extract of KOB03 consisting of five different herbs was supplied from GLP company. KOB03 was supplemented by gavage at 0, 500, 2,500 and 5,000 ㎎/㎏/day for 4-week consecutive days. We recorded the clinical signs of toxicity, body weight, organ weights, hematology, gross and histological changes in target organs of rats, and clinical chemistry analysis. Results: KOB03 at all doses was shown no mortality or abnormal clinical signs in rats during at the observation period. Furthermore, there was no difference in body weight and food-take consumption, organ weight, gross pathological findings, and urine analysis among the groups of rats treated with different doses of KOB03. The hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry data were revealed no toxic effects from KOB03-supplemented rats. Conclusions: The results suggest that KOB03 is a wide margin of safety on dose-range toxicity in rats. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the test, KOB03 in rats is no less than 5,000㎎/㎏/day.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of manufactured Wen-pi-tang-Hab-Wu-ling-san (WHW<SUP>®</SUP>) in vitro. Methods: WHW<SUP>®</SUP> was prepared by the pilot manufacture of WHW water extract from a GMP system appointed company. Antioxidative activities were determined by in vitro tests as follows: the scavenging activities of oxygen free radicals including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radicals, as well as ferrous ion chelating capacity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Results: WHW<SUP>®</SUP> significantly scavenged oxygen free radicals such as DPPH (IC50=115.28 ± 0.25㎍/㎖), superoxide anion (IC50=8.56 ± 0.08㎍/㎖), hydrogen peroxide (IC50=240.36 ± 3.41㎍/㎖) and nitric oxide (IC50=162.28 ± 0.21㎍/㎖) radicals. WHW<SUP>®</SUP> also showed ferrous ion chelating activity (IC50=543.19 ± 4.85㎍/㎖) and Trolox equivalent effects (IC50=45.311㎍/㎖) in TEAC and ORAC assay, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that WHW® has strong antioxidative properties through free radical scavenging activity. These data suggest that WHW<SUP>®</SUP> be used as an antioxidant agent.
Objectives: So-Dang-Hwan (SDH) is used as a traditional treatment of diabetes in oriental clinics in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect of SDH in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by i.p. injection of STZ (45 ㎎/㎏) to Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental animals (eight per group), were treated by oral administration of SDH (60 ㎎/㎏ body weight) and glibenclimide (1 ㎎/㎏), a known antidiabetic drug for comparison, during 5 weeks. To veridy the effect of SDH, the levels of glucose, triglyceride, insulin, BUN and creatinine were measured in sera from experimental diabetic rats, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed. Results: SDH prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. SDH exhibited at termination, a significant reduction in blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats. SDH significantly reduced serum creatinine levels toward the normal levels. The OGTT results showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in rats treated with SDH. Conclusions: These data indicate that SDH treatment may improve glocose homeostasis in STZ-induced diabetes.
Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effect of modified-Okbyungpoongsan (mOP) on mast cell-mediated allergic response in basophilic leukemia cell line, RBL-2H3 mast cells. Methods: Cells were stimulated with anti-DNP-IgE after the treatment of DNP-HSA (AI/D), and then incubated with different concentrations of mOP (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 ㎎/㎖) in RBL-2H3 cells. Cell toxicity was determined by WST-1 assay. The degranulation of mast cells was observed by microscope with toluidine blue staining and also the levels of beta-hexosaminidase, histamine and TNF-alpha were measured in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: mOP inhibited anti-DNP-IgE-imduced degranulation of mast cells in RBL-2H3 cells. mOP also significantly decreased the levels of histamine and inflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha in RBL-2H3 cells, but slightly decreased the level of beta-hexosaminidase. Conclusions: These results indicate that mOP, an oriental prescription could be inhibit the allergic response through suppressing the mast cell activation.
폐 폴리스티렌 수지의 재활용에 대한 관련 기술의 추이 및 동향을 조사하기 위하여 특허 출원 검색을 시행하였다. 검색 범위는 공개 특허를 대상으로 하였으며 특허 검색 데이터베이스는 미국의 USPTO 및 DELPHION, 일본의 PAJ, 유럽의 EPO, 그리고 한국의 KIPPIS를 선정 조사하였다. 폴리스티렌 수지의 재활용 관련 키워드는 PS, polystyrene, 폴리스티렌, 스티로폼, 그리고 IPC 분류 중 B29B-017, C08J-011를 대상으로 하여 검색하여 총 534건을 선정하였으며 이를 1974년부터 2002년까지 년도 별, 미국, 일본등 주요 국가별, 주요 회사별, 그리고 관련 기술별로 분류하여 분석하였다. In this paper the world wide patents on the recycle of used polystyrene were inspected. The trends and directions of on going and future technologies on this matter were analyzed. The range of search was limited in the open patents and in DB of U.S.A.(USPTO, DELPHION), Japan(PAJ), Europe(EPO), and Korea(KIPRIS). For the search condition the keyword, polystyrene or PS, and IPC classification, B29-017 and C08J-011 were used. The total of 534 cases was selected and analyzed according to years, countries, companies, and technologies.
Objectives: Allergy is an immune dysfunction caused by degranulation from mast cells in the early phase of allergic disease including allergic rhinitis (AR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Osterici Radix, roots of Ostericum koreanum Maximowicz in human mast cells and experimental allergic animal models. Methods: The anti-allergic effect of Osterici Radix water extract (NK-W) was investigated in human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells, and compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic response in rats and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR in mice. Animals were orally administrated with NK-W (10 and 50㎎/㎏) or anti-histamine drug, dosodium cromoglycate (50㎎/㎏), and then intraperitoneally injected with compound 48/80 (8㎎/㎏) or sensitized with 0.1% OVA into nasal. Animals were observed plasma histamine and histological changes of nasal mucosa. Also, mast cell degranulation and histamine production were determined in compound 48/80-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Results: NK-W inhibited compound 48/80-induced degranulation of mast cells and histamine releasing in HMC-1 cells. NK-W decreased mortality and serum histamine releasing in compound 48/80-induced anaphylatic rats in a dose-dependently manner. NK-W also inhibited serum histamine levels in OVA-induced AR mice and improved abnormal histological changes such as expansion of grandular cells and hypertrophy of epithelium in the nasal mucosa. These results indicate that Osterici Radix water extract suppress allergic response through downregulation of mast cell activation. Conclusions: This study suggests that a therapeutic potential of Osterici Radix as a source of anti-allergic agents for use in a number of allergic diseases.