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김종춘(Jong-Choon Kim), 양영수(Young-Su Yang), 안태환(Tai-Hwan Ahn), 김성호(Sung-Ho Kim), 정수연(Soo-Youn Chung), 이규식(Gyu-Seek Rhee), 정나영(Na-Young Chung), 정문구(Moon-Koo Chung) 한국독성학회 2006 Toxicological Research Vol.22 No.3
This paper presents the first version of a Korean glossary of terms for structural developmental abnormalities in common laboratory animals, mainly rats, mice and rabbits. This is a translation of the glossary entitled Terminology and Developmental Abnormalities in Common Laboratory Mammals that was edited by the International Federation of Teratology Societies (IFTS) Committee on International Harmonization of Nomenclature in Developmental Toxicology. The purpose of the Korean glossary is to provide a common vocabulary that will reduce confusion and ambiguity in the description of developmental effects, particularly in submissions to regulatory agencies worldwide. The glossary contains a primary term or phrase, a definition of the abnormality, and notes, where appropriate. Selected synonyms or related terms, which reflect a similar or closely related concept, are noted. Non-preferred terms are indicated where their usage may be incorrect. Modifying terms used repeatedly in the glossary (e.g., absent, branched) are listed in Appendix A, and syndrome names are generally excluded from the glossary, but are listed separately in Appendix B. The glossary is organized into broad sections for external, visceral, and skeletal observations, then subdivided into regions, structures, or organs in a general overall head to tail sequence. Numbering is sequential, and not in any regional or hierarchical order. Uses and misuses of the glossary are discussed. Updates of the Korean glossary are planned based on the comments received.
The study was conducted to assess the repeated dose and reproduction and developmental toxicities of acetanilide, an intermediate for drug production, as a part of OECD Screening Information Data Set (SIDS) program. The test agent was administered by gavage at dose levels of 0, 22, 67, 200 and 600 ㎎/㎏ to Sprague-Dawley rats (12/group/sex) during pre-mating and mating period for males(up to 30 days) and females and pregnancy and early lactation period for females (up to 39~50 days). At 22 ㎎/㎏, decreases in HGB, HCT (males) and MCHC (females), hyperplasia of spleen red pulp, hyperplasia of femur bone marrow (both sexes) were observed. At 67 ㎎/㎏, salivation (males), reduced food consumption (both sexes), decreases in RBC, HGB, HCT and MCHC (males), increases in MCV (males) and spleen weight (males), hyperplasia of spleen red pulp and femur bone marrow (both sexes) were observed. At 200 ㎎/㎏, decreases in locomotor activity and salivation (both sexes), reduced food consumption (both sexes), decreases in RBC, HGB, HCT and increases in MCV, MCH, BUN, T-BIL (males), enlargement of spleen (both sexes), increased weight of spleen (males), hyperplasia of spleen red pulp and femur bone marrow and extramedullary hematopoiesis of liver (both sexes), atrophy of thymus and corpus luteum hyperplasia of ovary (females) were observed. At 600 ㎎/㎏, decreases in locomotor activity, cyanosis (both sexes), reddish tear, and salivation (males), mortality (4 out of 12 females), decreased body weight (females), reduced food consumption (both sexes), decreases in RBC, HGB, HCT and MCHC and increases in WBC, MCV, MCH, reticulocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, AST, ALT, BUN, T-BIL, ALB, Ca and A/G ratio (males), enlargement of spleen, increased weights of spleen (both sexes), liver (males), kidney and ovary, decreased weights of thymus (females), hyperplasia of spleen red pulp, hyperplasia of femur bone marrow and extramedullary hematopoiesis of liver (both sexes), and atrophy of thymus and corpus luteum hyperplasia of ovary (females) were observed. Regarding the reproduction and development toxicities, there were no treatment- related changes in precoital time, mating index, fertility index and pregnancy index at all doses tested. At 22 and 67 ㎎/㎏, there were no adverse effects on all the parameters observed. At 200 ㎎/㎏, decreased body weight of pups (day 4 p.p.) were observed. At 600 ㎎/㎏, decreased body weight of pups (day 0 and 4 p.p.) and viability index (day 4 p.p.), increased incidence of newborns dead or with abnormal clinical signs were observed. The results suggest that the NOAELs for general toxicity are < 22 ㎎/㎏, LOAELs are 22 ㎎/㎏ and the NOAELs for reproductive toxicity are 67 ㎎/㎏.
허정두(Jeong-Doo Heo), 김충용(Chung-Yong Kim), 강성철(Chen-Zhe Ziang), 서정은(Jeong-Eun Suh), 정문구(Moon-Koo Chung), 김무강(Moo-Kang Kim), 신동호(Dong-Ho Shin), 김종춘(Jong-Choon Kim) 한국실험동물학회 2004 Laboratory Animal Research Vol.20 No.1
2-Bromopropane (2-BP), a halogenated propane analogue, is a substitute for chlorofluorocarbones (CFCs). The present study was carried out to investigate the potential adverse effects of 2-BP on pregnant dams after maternal exposure during the gestational days (GD) 6 through 17 in ICR mice. The test chemical was administered subcutaneously to pregnant mice at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000, and 1500 ㎎/㎏/day. All pregnant females were subjected to autopsy on GD 18. Treatment-related clinical signs, as evidenced by dose-dependent increases in the incidence and severity of rough fur, swelling, induration, crust formation, and ulceration at the injection sites, were observed at dose levels of above 1000 ㎎/㎏/day. Maternal body weight on GD 18 and maternal body weight gain for the intervals GD 6-17 (treatment period) were suppressed at a dose level of 1500 ㎎/㎏ in a dose-dependent manner, but not statistically significant. Hematological investigations revealed a dose-dependent decrease in the number of platelet at a dose level of 1500 ㎎/㎏. Fetal body weights of both sexes in the 1500 ㎎/㎏ group were also decreased in a dose-dependent manner. There were no adverse effects on mortality, food consumption, organ weights, and reproductive findings except for decreased fetal body weight in any treatment group. Based on these results, it was concluded that the 12-day repeated subcutaneous dose of 2-BP resulted in an increased incidence of clinical signs, suppressed maternal body weight, reduced platelet count and decreased fetal body weight at a dose level of 1500 ㎎/㎏/day in pregnant mice. In the present experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 2-BP was considered to be 500 ㎎/㎏ for dams.
Many compounds might become activated after absorption of UV light energy. In some cases, the resulting molecule may undergo further biological reaction of toxicological relevance related especially to the photo-carcinogenicity resulting from photo-genotoxicity. However, no regulatory requirements have been issued with the exception of guideline issued by the Scientific Committee of Cosmetology, Commission of the European Communities (SCC/EEC) on the testing of sunscreens for their photo-genotoxicity. Thus, the objectives of this study are to investigate the utility of photo-Ames assay for detecting photo-mutagens, and to evaluate its ability to predict rodent photo-carcinogenicity. Photo-Ames assay was performed on five test substances that demon-strated positive results in photo-carcinogenicity tests: 8-methoxypsoralen (photoactive substance that forms DNA adducts in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation), chlorpromazine (an aliphatic phenothiazine an α-adr-energic blocking agent), lomefloxacin (an antibiotic in a class of drugs caned fluoroquinolones), anthracene (a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon a basic substance for production of anthraquinone, dyes, pigments, insecticides, wood preservatives and coating materials) and retinoic acid (a retinoid compound closely related to vitamin A). Out of 5 test substances, 3 showed a positive outcome in photo-Ames assay. With this limited data set, an inves-tigation into the predictive value of this photo-Ames test for determining the photo-carcinogenicity showed that photo-Ames assay has relatively low sensitivity (the ability of a test to predict carcinogenicity). Thus, to determine the use of in vitro genotoxicity tests for prediction of carcinogenicity, several standard photo-genotoxicity assays should be compared for their suitability in detecting photo-genotoxic compounds.