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A new spectropotometric determination of citric acid was examined using carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) which has been used in petide synthesis. CDI was reacted with citric acid to form yellow acyl-imidazole derivative (λ??443nm) in dichloroethane. This colored reaction was so characteristic with tricarboxylic acid that can be used selective determination of citric acid in common carboxylic acid. As increasing the reaction temperature, the acyl compound was decomposed to produce the substance of which physical property was similar to the hydrolized compound. Citric acied was calibrated in the range of 1-6μg/ml and the extinction coefficient of the acyl-imidazole compound was 28000 in this condition.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate about weight control experience and to search the relationship between body image and stress coping in college female students according to obesity. Method: The subjects of this study consisted of 187 college female students. The data was collected from November to December of 2003. A self-rating questionnaire was used to collect data. The data was analysed by the SPSS computer program and it included descriptive statistics, frequency, percentage, X² -test, t-test, ANOVA and the pearson correlation coefficient. Result: The 67.9 percent of subjects had a experience of the diet, why of the diet was because of the appearance at 94.5% and because of the health at 5.5%. The mean score on body image was 111.61(SD=13.58). There was a significant difference in body image among under weight, normal weight, and overweight groups. The mean score of body image in under weight was the highest compared to others. The mean score on stress coping was 73.61(SD=7.91). There was not a significant difference in stress coping among the three groups. There was a significant positive correlation between body image and stress coping. Conclusion: The findings of this study give useful information to construct further studies in intervention program relating overweight control for college female students.
This study was to investigate the following research questions. (1) Are there any gender differences in the mother's socialization-patterns and child's self-concept? (2) Is there any relationship between mother's socialization-patterns and child's self-concept? (3) Is child's self-concept influenced by the mother's socialization-patterns and child's gender? The subjects of this study were 235 boys and 207 girls attending elementary schools in Busan. Lee, Kyung-Hee's questionnaires(1993) on mother's socialization patterns and Kim, Ki-Jung's questionnaires(1984) on child's academic self-concept and Kim, Hee-Kyung's questionnaires(1990) on child's physical, home, social self-concept were used. The results were as follows: 1)The mother's imperative mode for boys differed significantly from that for girls. Boys perceived mother's socialization-patterns as more imperative. And boy's physical self-concept and academic self-concept differed significantly from girl's. Boy had higher scores than girl in physical self-concept and academic self-concept. 2)There were significantly correlations between mother's position-oriented mode and boy's self-concept, between mother's poison-oriented mode and boy's self-concept. 3)The mother's poison-oriented mode was the predictor variable influencing on child's academic self-concept. And the mother's position-oriented mode and the mother's person-oriented mode were the predictor variables influencing on child's home self-concept.
이 연구의 목적은 중학교 과학 수업에서 교사와 학생간의 언어적 상호작용이 실제로 어떻게 이루어지고 있는지를 관찰ㆍ분석하여 이에 대한 특징을 추출함으로써 과학 수업에서 교사와 학생간의 언어적 상호작용에 대한 기초 자료를 제공하는데 있다. 이를 위해 수업 분석 준거를 개발하였으며, 8명의 과학 교사의 수업 12차시를 관찰 및 녹화하였으며, 교사와의 면담을 실시하였다. 수업 분석 결과, 관찰한 과학 수업에서 교사와 학생간의 언어적 상호작용은 주로 교사의 단순 확인/기억 질문, 학생의 단답형 응답, 교사의 즉각적 피드백이 주를 이루었다. 교사가 사고 질문을 하고 지연 피드백을 부여 하는 경우 학생들이 자신의 생각을 드러내고 이를 기반으로 사고를 진전시켜 나갈 수 있었으나 이러한 사례는 그 수가 상당히 적었다. 교사들은 학생들의 사고를 유발하고 이를 진전시키기 위한 노력보다는 수업 내용을 논리적 흐름에 맞추어 체계적으로 제시하는 것에 더 큰 중점을 두는 경향이 있었다. 또한 관찰한 수업에서 교사가 시범 실험, 모형 혹은 실물 수업자료 등을 활용할 때 보다 많은 수의 학생들이 적극적으로 수업에 참여하여 자신의 생각을 드러내었으나 교사가 학생들의 생각을 바탕으로 학생들의 사고과정을 진전시켜 나가는 과정을 도모하지 않음으로써 학생들의 사고과정을 단절시키는 경우가 많았다. 따라서 수업 활동과 수업 자료 활용이 효과를 거두기 위해서는 각각의 활용에 있어서 학생들과 구체적으로 어떠한 상호 작용을 형성해야 하는지에 대해 연구가 이루어져야하며, 또한 교사는 교사의 질문이나 피드백이 학생들의 학습에 중요한 역할을 함을 인식해야 한다. The purpose of this study is to analyze verbal interaction between teachers and students in order to collect qualitative data on the characteristics of the interaction to enhance teaching efficacy. Total of 12 classes of eight science teachers were observed and were interviewed. The classes were video taped and all the verbal interactions were transcribed. The transcribed content and interviews were further analyzed to draw any conclusions on the verbal interaction between teachers and students. Analysis criteria for the data on the class and interview were developed based on the literature review and applied to analyze the collected content. The analyzed data showed that verbal interactions composed of confirmation questions for memorization, students' short responses and teacher's immediate feedbacks. The results of the study also suggested that there needs to be further studies on the interactional techniques for teacher in utilizing the class materials and activities. The teachers should acknowledge the importance of the questions and feedbacks of teachers for students to stimulate their sound learning through literatures.
Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of thyroglobulin(Tg) measurement in fine-needle aspiration(FNA) for detecting cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid cancer(PTC). Materials and Methods: We performed ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) and Tg-FNA for 49 ultrasonographically suspicious lymph nodes in 42 PTC patients. Twenty eight patients were waiting surgery and the remaining 14 patients had undergone thyroid surgery for papillary thyroid cancer. The final diagnosis were determined based on the results of histological examination(n=49). Results: Lymph node metastasis were confirmed in 46 lymph nodes. FNAC detected 39 metastatic lymph nodes, and Tg-FNA detected 41 metastatic lymph nodes. Two lymph nodes with a negative results on both methods had metastatic lymph nodes on the results of histological examination. The sensitivities of FNAC, Tg-FNA and combined both methods were 84.7%, 89.1% and 97.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Ultrasonography with both FNAC examination and Tg measurement in FNA washout is highly sensitive and give important information for detecting lymphnode metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.
Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate incidental thyroid cancer in a woman who underwent breast ultrasonography, and to determine the prevalence of thyroid cancer and the different characters of occult thyroid cancer between breast cancer and non breast cancer group. Methods: From January 2008 to July 2009, we examined thyroid gland during routine breast ultrasonography. They were classified into four categories according to ultrasonographic finding: negative, benign, indeterminate and malignant. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy was carried out for all malignant lesions and some of the indeterminate lesions. We compared the cases of pathologically proven thyroid cancer in two groups; a breast cancer group, and a non-breast cancer group. Results: Among the 3937 cases, 1.37%(54/3937) of all women were confirmed to have thyroid cancer by surgery. Pathologically proven thyroid cancers were identified in 26 of the 1410 breast cancer patient, and 28 of the 2527 non breast cancer patients. The mean diameter of thyroid nodule was 1.17cm and 1.05cm, respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of thyroid cancer was significantly higher in breast cancer group. The routine concurrent breast and thyroid ultrasonographic examinations were helpful in detecting of thyroid cancer in breast cancer womans.
Many reachers have been studied about National Literary Theory in korea critical history. But It is also fact that many reachers have doubts abut identification of it. But We are necessary to notice its historicity and positive aspects. properties of National Literary Theory are historicity, negativity against oppression and pursuit of utopia Thus Because of feudalistic remnants and the tragic division of the Korean peninsula, Debates about National Literary Theory will be continue. But National Literary Theory has been confronting new situation in acceleration of capitalism and post industrial society after 1990. For Creative debates of National Literary Theory have got to establish of National Literature concept and global solidarity of National Literature. Also We will try to search practical methods, creative writing strategies, disidentification discourse strategies, reinforcement plans of critical education, and to strengthen National Literature teaching in Korean language education.
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of pH and storage temperature on the viability of boar sperm diluted with extender KpA for swine arificial insemination. The results obtained in this experiment were summarized as follows: 1. The viability of boar sperm diluted with KpA was higher than that with BTS during storage and especially more than 60% of sperm viability in KpA was maintained through 6 days. The pH values of all extenders were kept during storage of semens following dilution. 2. The sperm diluted with acidic (pH 6.3~6.8) or alkalic (pH 7.8~8.0) KpA and stored at 4℃ or 37℃ were more sensitive in viability than that with neural pH (6.8~7.3) and at 17℃ storage. But pH values of all conditions were not increased rapidly. Especially acidic and alkalic diluents were more stable in pH after dilution. Conclusively, extender pH and storage temperature were the important factors for sperm viability. The KpA setting up around neutral pH was the optimal boar semen extender for maintaining liquid semen at 17℃
기존 국제비교 연구물에 대한 분석 작업은 국제비교 연구의 의의와 대상을 보다 확장된 시각에서 조망하게 한다. 본 연구에서는 지금까지 우리 나라에서 이루어진 교육과정 국제비교 연구가 어떤 식으로 이루어져 왔는지를 고찰하고, 그간에 이루어진 연구물에 대한 엄밀한 분석과 반성에 기초하여 그 강점과 한계성을 파악하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 국제비교 연구물을 분석하기 위한 준거들을 설정하였고, 그에 비추어 분석될 교육과정 관련 국제비교 연구물 10편을 선정하여 국제비교 연구의 경향을 파악하고자 하였다. 이와 함께 향후 교육과정 분야에서 국제비교 연구를 보다 효율적으로 추진하기 위해 짚어보아야 할 주요 쟁점들에 대해 논의하였으며, 그리한 측면들을 보완하기 위한 방안을 개괄적으로 탐색하고자 하였다. This study purports to explore a theoretical ground for the international comparative studies on curriculum so that it could lead to better practices in the curriculum field.This investigation mainly deals with following subjects. The results of meta-level analysis on the previous ten international comparative researches on curriculum show the present level of international comparative studies in the field of curriculum and the direction what we pursue for the better quality of comparative researches hereafter.The criterion of meta-level analysis were the purposes and motivation of research, research contents, data collection and analysis, method of comparison and the utility of results and so on. Based on the findings of meta-level analysis of previous studies, some issues critical to maintain the quality of the future comparative study are discussed.Through the analysis of various aspects of these studies, the valuable suggestions are found out to improve the quality of international researches.Based on the findings of meta-analysis and the results of discussions on the issues of various aspects of comparative study, the future design of valuable international comparative study is constructed.