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In recent years, very large special bridge structures crossing rivers or seas have been popularly constructed and subsequently temporary bridge structures have been increasingly experienced in a relatively long-term service. However, very few studies have been conducted regarding the safety assessment of such structures subjected to a long-term corrosion environment. Accordingly, in the present study, the safety evaluation has been performed on the temporary bridges excursing in a long-term service and thus exposed to marine environment, such as chloride damage, For this purpose, detailed field observation has been carried out and levels of deteorioration for such bridges have been investigated in terms of numerical analysis. Consequently, behavioral characteristics of the bridges are presented.
This study focuses on the middle school textbook TechnologyㆍHome Economics 2, revised in 2009, and aims to analyze the clothing-related contents within the Technology and Home Economics curriculum. All Korean elementary, middle and high school curricula have evolved through a number of changes and repeated revisions from their first versions, and reached their current seventh revised edition in 2009. Over this process, subjects connected to home economics have formed the following structure: Practical Courses in elementary school (5th an d 6th grade) and Technology and Home Economics In middle and high school. The curriculum contents of the subjects Technology and Home Economics are divided into Development and Family, Clothing, Dietary Life, Habitation, Home Management and Consumption. Each curriculum teaches the students about its respective contents, e.g. Clothing brings the students in contact with clothing-related matters. Curricula and education methods help students find their own interests during middle and high school. Their school studies determine what majors they are seeking to choose in college and university. There are diverse university programs in Korea that are related to clothing. The above-mentioned textbook deals with clothing in the chapter Eco-friendly Clothing and Mending Habits. The results of this analysis shall help the development of the constantly changing textbook curricula, and furthermore become a reference to middle and high school students who aspire a practical and creative clothing education.
The BWIM(Bridge Weigh-In-Motion) is a technology to identify vehicle properties, such as weight, speed, axle spacing and running lane, passing over a bridge by using dynamic response of bridge member. Such information will be used for assessing durability and establishing a maintenance strategy of roadway structures. In this paper, as a first step for developing BWIM system, analytical and experimental studies were conducted in order to verify whether the response of vertical stiffener in steel girder bridge can be used to identify vehicle properties running on the bridge. It was known from this study that such vehicle information could be estimated reasonably by using strain time history curve of a vertical stiffener due to running vehicles. It is because the effect of each axle-load of vehicle appears definitely in the curve. However, as the magnitude of strain of vertical stiffener is effected by running pattern of vehicles, further study is necessary to reduce error when estimating vehicle weight
Recently, vibrations occurring in the railway track and its neighbouring structures due to the running trains are attracting public attention as a main problem of pollution. In this study, magnitudes of vibrations generated in the infrastructure are compared by changing the material characteristics of each components of the track, and appropriate track characteristics for anti-vibration are suggested. Track and infrastructure are modelled as a multi-degree-of-freedom lumped mass system by using the effective lengths, and the unsprung mass of the wheel is assumed to contact with the rail through the Hertzian spring. Then, impact vibration response by the wheel dropping from certain height and the frequency response due to the periodic loading are obtained. From this study, it has been found that the proper way to reduce magnitude of vibration transmitted to the infrastructure is to increase masses of the track components and/or to make the fasteners and the mats more flexible. However, it seems that there should be the mechanical proof for their allowable limits considering running safety of the train.