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A design method of the new 7λ/6-branch line 3dB directional coupler using fundamental λ/12-section is proposed and their frequency characteristics are analyzed. Furthermore, the experimental verification has been achieved in microstrip network and hence, the validity of the design method of a microwave component with the basic λ/12-section proposed in this paper is confirmed.
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This paper describes the design theories and analyzes the theoretical frequency characteristics of New-type power divider that is compensated with microstripline for CATV/MATV systems. Furthermore, the practical measurements of the frequency characteristics for each fabricated circuit have been carried out and compared with the theoretical results. Especially, the frequency characteristics for the original Wilkinson-type power divider has been analyzed theoretically and has been improved by adding a matching transformer to the original one.
Hwanggeumjackyak-tang (HJT) composed of Scatellaria baicalensis Georgi, Paeonia Lactiflora and Glycyrrhizae uralensis Fischer is a traditional Korean herbal medicine widely used for acute enteritis. In order to develop the tablet formulation of HJT, evaluation of the flow properties, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and disintegration was carried out on four HJT granules according to mixed content of seven additives. Simultaneous analysis used HPLC method was performed of HJT tablet and was determined of the seven marker components; Albiflorin, Paeoniflorin, Liquiritin, Baicalin, Baicalein, Glycyrrhizic acid and Wogonin. The biological activities were examined the effect of HJT on anti-oxidation and pro-inflammation mediated by LPS-stimulation. We confirmed that both of HJT-Decoction (HJT-D) and HJT-Formulation (HJT-F) have the similar contents on total polyphenol and flavonoid and inhibited the secretion of nitro oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β,interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α. Therefore, the developed formulation for tablet of HJT would provide chemically and biologically the same effect compared with decoction of HJT.
Objectives : Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HRHDT) is one of the well-known prescription herbal drugs of Korean herbal medicine, which has been widely used for the treatment of various bacterial and inflammatory diseases. This study was conducted in order to develop the tablet formulations of HRHDT and compare its efficacy with the other commercial formulations. Methods : Corresponding herbal medicines comprising of HRHDT were extracted with water for 3 hr at 95~100℃ and then vacuum dried. Subsequently, some pharmaceutical excipients such as microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, etc were used to prepare the HRHDT tablets. The contents with characterizing components of HRHDT tablet was compared with the HRHDT decoction. The contents of characterizing components were analyzed with HPLC. Furthermore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative abilities of two different commercial HRHDT granules (HJP-1 and HJP-2) and were compared with that of the formulated HRHDT tablets. The anti-oxidant properties of HRHDR were studied using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, contents of total flavonoid and polyphenol. In addition, based on this result the anti-inflammatory effects have verified by mechanism from LPS- treated Raw264.7 macrophages. Results : The results demonstrated that HRHDT tablets showed more anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects than HJP-1, HJP-2. Moreover, it showed more superior effects in terms of dose, usability and stability than the granules. Conclusion : Hence, we concluded that in order to improve the quality and efficacy of the Korean herbal medicine, it is necessary to develop appropriate methods and establish standardized techniques for the development of good formulations.
Objectives: Ojeok-san (OJS), an oriental herbal formula, has been used in Asian countries including Korea, China and Japan to treat the common cold and illnesses including fatigue and gastrointestinal disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effect and molecular mechanism of OJS, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Also, the effects of OJS in obese mice fed a high-fat diet on adiposity were examined. Methods: Preferentially, we analyzed the component of OJS and measured the stability of its component in OJS according to study periods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with OJS (50 to 200 μg/mL) during differentiation for 8 days. The accumulation of lipid droplets was determined by Oil Red O staining. The expressions of genes related to adipogenesis were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. For anti-obesty effect in vivo, we experimented for 8 weeks with four group (normal diet (CON), high-fat diet (HF), high-fat diet with OJS (HF+OJS) and high-fat diet with Bang-pung-tong-sung-san (HF+BTS) in comparison group HF+OJS). Results: OJS showed inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation at 3T3-L1 preadipocytes without affect cell toxicity as assessed by measuring fat accumulation and adipogenesis. In addition, OJS significantly reduced the expression levels of several adipocyte marker genes including proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α). Also OJS-administered mice showed significant inhibitory of body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weights. Conclusions: This study showed that traditional medicine OJS has an anti-obesity effect in vitro and in vivo. Thus, OJS could be developed as a supplement for reduction of body weight gain induced by an obesity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of two different commercial Bangpungtongseong-san (BTS) extract granules (BTS-2 and BTS-3) by comparing with BTS decoction (BTS-1). The contents of characterizing components and biological activities of two different commercial BTS extract granules were compared with those of the BTS decoction. The contents of characterizing components were analyzed with HPLC. The antioxidative effects were determined by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhygrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. Also, we compared the effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The contents of five components except liquiritin and sennoside A were higher in BTS-1. The DPPH radical scavenging and SOD-like activity were higher in BTS-1. BTS-1 significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and showed stronger effects than BTS-2, BTS-3. In addition BTS-1 showed stronger inhibition effects on ROS production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes than BTS-2, BTS-3. These results indicate that BTS decoction has strong biological activities than commercial BTS extract granules. It is also consistent with the contents of characterizing components.
Objectives : Bojungikgitang (BJT), the Oriental medical prescription has been traditionally used about improvement of immune response and infective disease at Asian nation. In this study, we has compared about the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on BJT of three countries including Korea (Korean Traditional Medicine, KTM), China (Traditional Chinese Medicine, CTM) and Japan (Japanese Traditional Medicine, JTM). Methods : We has basically using LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The expression of these inflammatory mediators has measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Also, free radical scavenging assay has tested for anti-oxidative activity as well as the contents of total flavonoid and polyphenol. Results : As a result, we were founded the inhibitory effects of BJT (KTM, CTM, JTM) on LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 as well as the anti-oxidative activities. Especially the KTM was most effective in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Conclusions : These results indicate that BJT (KTM, CTM, JTM) has a good anti- inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. But, there were degree of effects on between pharmacopoeia of the countries. Thus, further study is required that find appropriate methods for extracting as well as establish of standardized processes in order to improve the quality of BJT (KTM, CTM, JTM) as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent for treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Gamiguibi-tang (GGBT) is a traditional herbal medicine generally used to treat anemia, insomnia, anxiety, and nervousness. GGBT is being commercially produced in the form of extract granule and the quality control methods are specified in the Korean Herbal Pharmacopeia (KHP). However, there is no method to simultaneously analyze compound preparations. In this study, a HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of marker compounds in GGBT. And the contents of marker components and biological activities of the commercial GGBT extract granules (GGBT-2 and GGBT-3) were compared with those of the GGBT decoction (GGBT-1). We confirmed the robustness of simultaneous analytical method by monitoring the contents of the commercial GGBT products and carrying out validation. The marker components of GGBT were geniposide (8.03~12.70 μg/mL), paeoniflorin (2.79~4.25 μg/mL) and glycyrrhizic acid (5.06~6.30 μg/mL). DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were 47.34~63.17% and 21.52~33.61% in the GGBT products concentration of 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The GGBT products significantly decreased NO, iNOS and COX-2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. The GGBT–2 had higher contents of marker components and biological activities than GGBT-1 and GGBT-3. The research suggest that be used in developing quality control methods for enhancing the quality of herbal medicines.