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      • KCI등재

        SOFC 연결재용 Al이 도핑된 (La<sub>0.8</sub>Ca<sub>0.2</sub>)(Cr<sub>0.9</sub>Co<sub>0.1</sub>)O<sub>3</sub>(LCCC)계 세라믹스의 합성 및 치밀화 특성

        이호영,강보경,이호창,허영우,김정주,김재육,이준형,Lee, Ho-Young,Kang, Bo-Kyung,Lee, Ho-Chang,Heo, Young-Woo,Kim, Jeong-Joo,Kim, Jae-Yuk,Lee, Joon-Hyung 한국전기전자재료학회 2012 전기전자재료학회논문지 Vol.25 No.5

        In the $(La_{0.8}Ca_{0.2})(Cr_{0.9}Co_{0.1})O_3$ (LCCC), which has been using as interconnector materials in SOFC, Al ions were substituted for Co because ionic radius of Al is similar to that of Co. Because of the almost identical ionic radius of Al and Co, the substitution was not thought to be affect the tolerance factor of LCCC, and the densification behavior, high temperature electrical conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient were examined as a function of Al concentration. In the cases of the x= 0 and x= 0.02 in $(La_{0.8}Ca_{0.2})(Cr_{0.9}Co_{0.1-x}Al_x)O_3$ (x= 0~0.1), the samples showed the relative densities above ${\geq}95%$ when those were sintered at ${\geq}1,350^{\circ}C$. In the case of the $x{\geq}0.06$ the sintered density deteriorated greatly at lower sintering temperatures. High temperature electrical conductivity of the samples decreased as the content of Al increased. Since the valence state of Al ion is unchangeable, while Cr or Co ions contribute to the electrical conduction by changing those valence states, Al substitution resulted in the decreased electrical conductivity. Al doping of LCCC was an effective way of decreasing the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC).

      • KCI등재

        인장하중하에서의 고분자/거친금속 계면의 파손에 대한 비교연구 I: 실험결과

        이호영,김성룡,Lee Ho-Young,Kim Sung-Ryong 한국재료학회 2005 한국재료학회지 Vol.15 No.1

        Copper-based leadframe sheets were immersed in two kinds of hot alkaline solutions to form brown-oxide or black-oxide layer on the surface. The oxide-coated leadframe sheets were molded with epoxy molding compound (EMC). After post mold curing, the oxide-coated EMC-leadframe joints were machined to form sandwiched double-cantilever beam (SDCB) specimens. The SDCB specimens were used to measure the fracture toughness of the EMC/leadframe interfaces under quasi-Mode I loading conditions. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by various equipment to investigate failure path. The present paper deals with the failure path, and the cause of the failure path formation with an adhesion model will be treated in the succeeding paper.

      • Foraminifera from shell deposits of the Jindo Island

        이호영,Lee Ho-Young The Korean Society Of Petroleum Geology 1993 한국석유지질학회지 Vol.1 No.1

        진도에 분포되는 패각층의 유공충 군집은 온난환경에서 퇴적되었음을 지시한다. 총 12개의 표품에서 10속 11종의 저서성 유공충이 산출되었다. 이중에서 Cavarotalia annectens가 주요종으로 57에서 90퍼센트를 차지한다. 본역의 패각층은 유공충 군집으로 보아 흘로세 퇴적물이다. Foraminiferal assemblages from shell beds of Jindo Island indicate shallow water accumulation under warm to temperate condition near the mouth of a small estuary. 11 species of benthonic Foraminifera belonging to 10 genus have been extracted from 12 samples. Cavarotalia annectens dominates, accounting for 57 to 90 percent of the total fauna. The foraminiferal assemblages of the shell beds indicates Post-glacial sedimentation.

      • KCI등재

        혼합 하중하에서의 고분자/거친금속 계면의 파손경로

        이호영,김성룡,Lee Ho-Young,Kim Sung-Ryong 한국재료학회 2004 한국재료학회지 Vol.14 No.5

        Copper-based leadframe sheets were oxidized in two kinds of hot alkaline solutions to form brown-oxide or black-oxide layer on the surface. The oxide coated leadframe sheets were molded with epoxy molding compound (EMC). After post mold curing, the oxide-coated EMC-leadframe joints were machined to form sandwiched Brazil-nut (SBN) specimens. The SBN specimens were used to measure the fracture toughness of the EMC/leadframe interfaces under mixed-mode (mode I + mode II) loading conditions. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by various equipment to investigate failure path. The results revealed that the failure paths were strongly dependent on the oxide type. In case of brown oxide, hackle-type failure was observed and failure path lay near the EMC/CuO interface with a little inclining to CuO at all case. On the other hand, in case of black oxide, quite different failure path was observed with respect to the distance from the tip of pre-crack and phase angle. Different failures occurred with oxide type is presumed to be due to the difference in microstructure of the oxides.

      • 한국어의 변이음 규칙과 변이음의 결정 요인들

        이호영,Lee Ho-Young 대한음성학회 1992 말소리 Vol.21 No.-

        This paper aims to discuss determining factors of Korean allophones and to formulate and classify Korean allophonic rules systematically. The relationship between allophones and coarticulation, the most. influential factor of allophonic variation, is thoroughly investigated. Other factors -- speech tempo and style, dialect, and social factors such as age, set, class etc. -- are also briefly discussed. Allophonic rules are classified into two groups -- 3) those relevant to coarticulation and 2) those irrelevant to coarticulation. Rules of the first group are further classified into four subgroups according to the directionality of the coarticulation. Each allophonic nile formulation is explained and discussed in detai1. The allophonic rules formulated and classified in this paper are 1) Devoicing of Voiced Consonants, 2) Devoicing of Vowels, 3) Nasal Approach and Lateral Approach, 4) Uvularization, 5) Palatalization, 6) Voicing of Voiceless Lax Consonants, 7) Frication, 8) Labialization, 9) Nasalization, 10) Release Withholding and Release Masking, 11) Glottalization, 12) Flap Rule, 13) Vowel Weakening, and 14) Allophones of /ㅚ, ㅟ, ㅢ/ (which are realized as diphthongs or as monophthongs depending on phonetic contexts).

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        구리계 리드프레임/EMC 접합체의 파괴거동

        이호영,유진,Lee, Ho-Young,Yu, Jin 한국재료학회 2000 한국재료학회지 Vol.10 No.8

        구리계 리드페임의 표면에 흑생산화물을 형성시키기 위하여 알칼리 용액에 담궈 산화시킨후 EMC(epoxy molding compound)로 몰딩하였고 기계적 가공을 하여 SDCB(sandwiched double-cantilever beam) 및 SBN(sandwiched Brazil-nut)시편을 만들었다. SDCB와 SBN 시편은 리드프레임/EMC 계면의 접착력을 각각 준 mode I 하중 및 혼합모드 하중 하에서 파괴인성치로 측정하기 위하여 고안되었다. 파괴경로를 밝혀내기 위하여 접착력 츨정 후에 얻어진 파면에 대하여 glancing-angle XRD, SEM, AFM, EDS 및 AES를 이용하여 분석하였다. SDCB 실험 후의 파면은 파괴되는 양상에 따라 세 가지 형태로 나눌 수 있었으며, 각 형태는 리드프레임의 접착전 표면 산화물 형성 상태와 밀접한 관계가 있었다. SBN 실험 후의 파면은 균열에서 가까운 부분과 먼 부분으로 나누어지는 특징을 보였는데, 이는 동적 파괴 효과(dynamic fracture effect)에 기인하는 것이라 생각된다. 또한 위상각에 따라 확실히 다른 파괴 양상을 보였는데, 이는 위상각에 따라 mode II 성분이 변하기 때문으로 생각된다. Cu-based leadframe sheets were oxidized ic a hot alkaline solution to black-oxide layer on the surface and molded with epoxy molding compound(EMC), and finally machined to form sandwiched double-cantilever beam(SDCB) and sandwiched Brazil-nut(SBN)specimers to measure the adhesion strength of leadframe-EMC interface. The SDCB and the SBN specimens were designed to measure the adhesion strength in terms fracture toughness under puasi-mode I and mixed mode loadinf, respectively. After the tests, fracture surfaces were analyzed paths were observed in the SDCB-tested speciments, failure paths varied with crack speed and loading conditions.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        산화처리된 구리계 리드프레임과 EMC 사이의 접착력 측정

        이호영,유진,Lee, Ho-Young,Yu, Jin 한국재료학회 1999 한국재료학회지 Vol.9 No.10

        Due to the inherently poor adhesion strength of Cu-based leadframe/EMC(Epoxy Molding Compound) interface, popcorn-cracking phenomena of thin plastic packages frequently occur during the solder reflow process. In this study, in order to enhance the adhesion strength of Cu-based leadframe/EMC interface, brown-oxide layer was formed on the leadframe surface by immersing of leadframe sheets in hot alkaline solution, and the adhesion strength of leadframe/EMC interface was measured by using SDCB(Sandwiched Double Cantilever Beam) and SBN(Sandwiched Brazil-Nut) specimens. Results showed that brown oxide treatment of leadframe introduced fine acicular CuO crystals on the leadframe surface and improved the adhesion strength of leadframe/EMC interface. Enhancement of adhesion strength was directly related to the thickening kinetics of oxide layer. This might be due to the mechanical interlocking of fine acicular CuO crystals into EMC. 본래 약한 구리계 리드프레임/EMC(Epoxy Molding Compound) 계면의 접착력은 솔더 리플로우 (solder reflow) 공정 중에 종종 박형 플라스틱 패키지의 팝콘 균열 현상(popcorn-cracking phenomena)을 일으킨다. 본 연구에서는 리드프레임/EMC 계면의 접착력을 향상시키기 위하여 리드프레임을 알칼리 용액에 담궈 표면에 brown oxide를 형성시켰으며, EMC로 몰딩(molding)하여 SDCB(Sandwiched Double Cantilever Beam) 시편 및 SBN(Sandwiched Brazil-Nut) 시편을 준비하여 접착력을 측정하였다. 리드프레임의 brown oxide 처리는 미세한 바늘모양의 CuO 결정들을 리드프레임 표면에서 형성시켰으며, 리드프레임/EMC 계면의 접착력을 향상시켰다. 접착력의 향상은 산화층의 평균두께와 직접적인 관련이 있었다. 이는 미세한 바늘모양의 CuO 결정들이 EMC와 기계적인 고착(mechanical interlocking)을 하기 때문으로 생각된다.

      • 국어 머리 억양의 음향 음성학적 연구

        이호영,Lee Ho-Yeong 대한음성학회 1997 말소리 Vol.33 No.-

        This paper aims to investigate the internal structure of the pre-nuclear intonation pattern and to discuss the inventory and usage of the phrasal tone in Korean based on the acoustic analysis of 80 test sentences. CSL Model 4300 was used for recording and filing, and Multi-speech Model 3700 for analysis. It is shown that the pre-nuclear intonation pattern is composed of one or more phrasal tones, the intonation pattern of the rhythm nit. It is observed that the second phrasal tone begins with a higher pitch than the first one and that the phrasal tones following the second one begins with a lower pitch than the preceding phrasal tone unless a certain word is emphasized. In addition to Level, Rising, Falling, and Rise-Fall phrasal tones already established in Lee (1990, 1991, 1996), Pall-Rise and Rise-Fall-Rise phrasal tones are newly established in this paper. It is observed that Rising and Rise-Fall-Rise phrasal tones are most frequently used as the first phrasal tone of a pre-nuclear intonation pattern and the falling tone as the last phrasal tone, and that Fall-Rise and level tones appear most frequently in the middle of a pre-nuclear intonation pattern.

      • 공정거래법상 경성카르텔 제재의 개선

        이호영,Lee, Ho-Yeong 한국공정경쟁연합회 2007 경쟁저널 Vol.130 No.-

        경성카르텔에 대한 충분한 억지력을 갖추기 위해서는 과징금의 부과수준을 상향조정하고, 형사처벌을 적극적으로 활용하여야 할 것이다. 그러나 전자는 현행법상 산정방법이 가지는 문제뿐만 아니라 과징금의 법적 성격과 관련된 법리상의 문제 때문에 충분한 억지력을 발휘하기 어렵고, 형사처벌 역시 경쟁당국의 증거조사권한 및 형사소추기관의 인식과 관련하여 단기간에 적극적으로 활용되기를 기대하기 힘든 상황이다. 그렇다면 공적 제재의 대안으로서 기업의 내부 제재를 카르텔에 참여한 개인에 대한 제재 및 이를 통한 카르텔의 억지를 위하여 활용하는 것을 고려하여야 한다.

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