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It was through the process of a merger of three parties that Lee Seung-Yeop rose as a leader of the socialist state movement in South Korea. The inauguration ceremony of the South Korean Worker's Party (남조선노동당) was held under his leadership in November, 1946 after Park Hun-young went to North Korea. He visited secretly PeyongYang accompanied by Kim Sam-yong and achieved the principal that the Opposing Parties individually had to join the South Korean Worker's Party established by centralizing the Korean Communist party. After crossing over the border into North Korea, Lee Seung-Yeop was appointed as a head of judicature of the First Cabinet, North Korea. However, his role was prominent in the Parties. Lee Seung-Yeop rose to the position supervising operations against the South as second secretary of the Party as well as was elected an member of Nine Politics Committeemen of the Korean Workers' Party(조선노동당) which was born due to the merger of Parties. Since then, his activities were concentrated on the leadership for guerrilla war by a partisan. He reorganized a guerrilla unit into three groups in order to develop systematically the guerrilla that was being sporadically progressed in South Korea in July, 1947 and the first group was dispatched to the South in his order. The Korean War was a watershed deciding his fate. He who sent to the South as plenipotentiary of liberated area as soon as the war occurred suddenly was nominated a representative of Seoul city of the Armed Services Committee, North Korea and Seoul temporary Council of People's Commissars the minute that Seoul was occupied. He, an chairman of Council People's Commissars, had to support the People's Army advancing South, recovering ruined product facilities, roads, bridges etc. The management for relief programs, citizens' mobilization, letting volunteer armies go to the war, cultural propaganda programs, land reform, health movement, product power increase was encouraged for about two months. Orders for a guerilla continued. At the same time, Lee Seung-Yeop made people sympathize with the People's Army by infiltrating espionage operators each province, landing the mustered guerrilla to the South through the East Sea on June 25, 1950. Even though his power decreased in the situation an armistice was argued, the first half of 1951, his leadership to the guerrilla was well. The end of the war with Incompletion brought a tragedy to him. Lee Seung-Yeop was arrested with other 11 fellows of the South Korean Worker's Party faction on August 3, 1952. He disappeared in the North, 'a forever strange land', after being sentenced to death and property confiscation upon a quick trial for 4 days, on August from 3 to 6, 1953. The event was not ended in Lee's death. The Purge against the South Korean Worker's Party continued until 1955 and became an overture of the purge against Soviet Union Group(소련파) and Yeon Ahn Group(연안파). His tragic death was not resulted from 'conspiracy of armament riots for the plot against government', but the fact he couldn't clean himself of suspicion even in North Korea, not Kim Il-Sung but Pak Hung-Young whom he assisted as the chief until he died, even if shouting many times 'General Kim Il Sung cheers!' at the official meeting. He failed to free himself from 'a second man of the South Korean Worker's Party until the last moment.
A congenital smooth muscle hamartoma is a rare benign cutaneous abnormality and histologically characterized by smooth muscle hyperplasia with a great number of long and straight bundles of smooth muscle at various angles of the orientation, throughout the dermis. A congenital smooth muscle hamartoma usually presents as a congenital hairy patch or plaque with or without hyperpigmentation on the trunk or extremities. The congenital smooth muscle hamartoma with follicular spotted appearance is a rare clinical variant, and is appeared as a patch with marked follicular papules. Herein, we report a 16-year-old girl with this rare patch follicular variant of congenital smooth muscle hamartoma, on the left upper arm.
This study investigates the rheological properties of bread containing lotus leaf powder, added to the bread bases at 1%, 2%, and 3% concentrations. Physical properties of bread with lotus leaf powder were tested using the rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA), a farinogram, an alveogram, and a rheofermentometer. The initial pasting temperature increased with an increase in lotus leaf powder, whereas peak viscosity and, the peak time decreased. According to the farinogram test, consistency and water absorption increased with an increase in the ratio of lotus leaf powder. The p value of the alveogram increased with an increase in lotus leaf powder, whereas L and G values decreased. The fermentation time of the dough increased with an increase in the ratio of lotus leaf powder. The results suggest the potential development of bread containing functional ingredient such as lotus leaf powder based on the rheological properties identified in this study.
This study investigated the quality of noodles containing different amounts of garlic powder, which was added to the noodle base at 1, 3 and 5% concentrations. Textural properties (cohesiveness, gumminess, hardness, and springiness) measured with a texture analyzer significantly increased with the addition of garlic powder. Gumminess, Hardness, and springiness of cooked noodles increased significantly with the increase in garlic powder content. From the sensory evaluation results, appearance, color, taste, and overall acceptability were not significantly different between the control and the noodle with garlic powder (1%). The noodles containing 1% garlic powder had higher quality when compared to the other samples. Overall results showed that garlic powder is effective for improving the appearance and the texture of noodles. Therefore, it was considered that noodles containing appropriate concentration of garlic powder could be healthy foods.
본 연구는 노년기 인지저하가 연령과 성별에 따라 어떠한 양상을 보이는지, 그리고 인지기능에 영향을 미치는 요인이 연령집단별로 어떠한 차이가 있는지를 검증함으로써 인지기능 유지와 인지저하 예방을 위한 함의를 찾는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 분석 자료는 한국고령화패널조사 2차년의 6,437명에 대한 자료를 활용하였고, 분석 방법은 일반선형모형(GLM)과 구조방정식모형의 다중집단분석(Multi-group analysis)을 실시하였다. 연구 결과 노년기 인지기능은 고령노인과 초고령노인 사이에서 급격히 저하되는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 연령이 증가할수록 여성노인에서 더 급격한 인지저하가 나타나, 고령과 초고령에 이를수록 여성노인과 남성노인 간 인지기능 격차가 더 커졌다. 이는 연령과 독립적으로 성별이 인지기능의 위험요인으로 작용함을 의미한다. 다중집단분석 결과, 인지기능에 대한 영향요인이 연령집단별로 유의한 차이가 있었다. 첫째, 친한 사람들과의 만남횟수, 건강상태, 우울, 운동과 같이 변화 가능한 요인들이 본격적인 인지저하가 나타나기 이전인 연소노인 집단에서부터 인지기능에 긍정적으로 작용하였다. 이러한 요인들은 인지기능 유지를 위한 예방적 역할을 하는 것으로 볼 수 있다. 둘째, 중고령 노년기에는 다른 연령기에 비해 건강 관련 요인들이 인지기능에 주요하게 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 고령으로 갈수록 인지저하에 대한 위험요인의 영향력이 점차 커졌다. 주목할 점은 배우자 유무, 만남횟수, 참여모임수와 같은 사회관계적 특성의 영향력이 고령노인 집단에서 가장 크게 나타났다는 점이다. 이는 75세 이상의 고령 노인일수록 공식적·비공식적 관계망에 기반한 활발한 교류가 인지기능 저하를 막는데 중요하게 작용한다는 것을 의미한다. 이상의 연구결과를 토대로 노년기 인지기능에 대한 이해와 인지저하 예방을 위한 이론적·실천적 함의를 논의하였다. This study examines whether cognitive functioning among elderly varies by age and gender, and whether risk factors of cognitive functioning vary by three age groups such as, the young old(55-64), the middle old(65-74), and the old old(75+). This paper intends to develop useful implications for maintaining cognitive functioning and preventing cognitive declines. Subjects were 6,437 elders aged 55 years and over who participated in the second wave of Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Data were analyzed using the general linear model(GLM) and multi-group structural equation modeling. The key findings are summarized as follows. The decline of cognitive functioning was the most significantly different between the old old and the oldest old. The GLM analysis revealed significant interaction effects between age and gender. The degree of cognitive decline was more remarkable among females than males, indicating that females presented much faster cognitive declines than males with age. The results of multi-group structural equation modeling revealed several differences in risk factors of cognitive functioning across the three age groups. First, some correctable factors, such as friend/neighborhood relations, health status, depressive symptoms, and regular exercise, were positively related to cognitive functioning among the young old. Second, health related factors, such as IADL, depressive symptoms, and regular exercise, presented larger effects on cognitive functioning among the middle old. Third, some factors had a stronger impact on the cognitive functioning as people grow older. Notably, social relations factors, including spouse, friend/neighborhood, and social participation, played a crucial role in the old old. This suggests that active participation in the formal and informal networks is very important for preventing cognitive decline in elderly populations aged 75 and over. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cultural identity and the psychosocial adjustment levels of children in international marriage families by focusing on the effects that different types of cultural identity have on children`s overall psychosocial adjustment. The data for this study came from a survey conducted on 122 third to sixth grades children with foreign mothers living in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do. As a result, it was found that children`s identification with Korean culture was on average higher than their identification with their mother`s culture. Secondly, in terms of identity type, assimilation and separation types appeared to be the most dominant, followed by the integration and marginalization types. Finally, it was found that cultural identities had significant effects on children`s psychosocial adjustment in international marriage families. In particular, the level of self-esteem was the highest for children in the integrated group, while it was the lowest for those in the marginalized group. These results indicate that identification with the mother`s culture is just as important as one`s Korean identity when it comes to determining the degree of psychosocial adjustment of children in international marriage families.
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본 연구에서는 부모의 긍정적인 양육태도가 자녀의 논리적 사고 및 창의성를 매개로 자녀의 자기주도성과 사회정서에 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지를 구조방정식을 사용하여 확인하였다. 본 연구에는 초등학교 1학년(287명)과 그의 부모들(240명)이 연구에 참여하였다. 연구 결과, 첫째, 긍정적 양육태도는 자녀의 창의성 및 논리적 사고력에 긍정적 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 긍정적 양육태도가 자기주도성 및 사회정서에 미치는 긍정적 영향은 직접 및 총효과에서 유의하였으나 창의성과 논리적 사고력을 매개로 한 간접 효과는 유의하지 않았다. 셋째, 긍정적 양육태도가 자녀의 창의성 및 논리적 사고력에 미치는 영향보다 자기주도성 및 사회정서에 미치는 영향이 유의하게 큰 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 창의성과 논리적 사고력은 자기주도성에 긍정적 영향을 미쳤으나 사회정의에 대한 영향은 유의하지 않았다. 이와 같은 연구결과들을 바탕으로 창의성 및 논리적 사고력 교육, 부모교육, 영재교육 등에 시사하는 바를 논의하였다. In this study, we investigated the relations among parenting attitude, creativity, logical thinking, self-regulated leaning, and socio-emotional factor. The subjects for this study were 287 first grader and 240 their parents. The analysis was done using the structural equation modeling. The model was the relations between parenting attitude, and parents' perceived self-regulated learning and socio-emotional factors of their child, through mediating of child's creativity and logical thinking. The results are following. First, the positive parenting attitude predicts positively child's logical thinking and creativity. Second, the positive parenting attitude predicts positively parents' perceived self-regulated learning and socio-emotional factors of their child, but no mediating effect of child's logical thinking and creativity. Third, child's logical thinkjng and creativity predict positively parents' perceived self-regulated learning but did not predic parents' perceived socio-emotional factors of their child. Future research directions were discussed.
이현주 ( Hyun Joo Lee ), 김원정 ( Won Jeong Kim ), 문제호 ( Je Ho Mun ), 김훈수 ( Hoon Soo Kim ), 고현창 ( Hyun Chang Ko ), 김병수 ( Byung Soo Kim ), 김문범 ( Moon Bum Kim ), 송마가렛 ( Margaret Song ) 대한피부과학회 2015 大韓皮膚科學會誌 Vol.53 No.1
Blue toe syndrome involves blue or purplish toes in the absence of trauma, serious cold exposure, or disorderscausing general cyanosis. Clinical presentation can range from a cyanotic toe to a diffuse, multi-organ systemicdisease. A 75-year-old man presented with claudication, sudden bilateral painful discoloration of the sole, bluecoloredtoes, and anuria. Three weeks earlier, he had been diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction and hadundergone catheterization for percutaneous coronary intervention. Histopathologic findings showed vascular ectasiawith mild perivascular inflammation. Based on patient history, physical examination, and laboratory findings, he wasdiagnosed with blue toe syndrome. Our patient presented with clinical manifestations, including peripheral cutaneousinvolvement and acute deterioration of renal function. This case highlights the importance of prompt diagnosis ofblue toe syndrome by careful history-taking and physical examination in order to avoid multi-organ systemic disease. (Korean J Dermatol 2015;53(1):66∼68)