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During the international effort to develop the next generation nuclear reactor technologies, many new power cycle concepts were derived to improve efficiency and reduce the capital cost. Among many innovative power cycles, it was identified that the supercritical CO₂ (S-CO₂) Brayton cycle technology has a big potential to outperform the existing steam cycle and eventually replace it. The S-CO₂ cycle achieves high efficiency with very compact size, which is the ultimate advantage for a power cycle to have. The S-CO₂ cycle has a great potential not only for the future nuclear applications but also for general heat sources such as coal, natural gas, and concentrated solar. In this paper, a brief introduction to the S-CO₂ power cycle technologies will be first provided, and a short summary of current research and development status of the power cycle technology around the world will be followed. Especially the research works performed by KAIST, KAERI and several related research institutions in Korea will be reviewed in more detail, since they have recently developing a strong infrastructure to test these ideas by constructing a demonstration facility while producing many innovative ideas to improve and realize the concept.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading metabolic diseases that cause an increasing rate of mortality and morbidity. Recently, rather than the current drug treatment, pancreatic islet transplantation has been regarded as a potentially promising strategy for insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus while preventing complications such as kidney damage, vascular damage, nerve damage, and blindness. Recently, a number of advanced islet encapsulation techniques have been designed to enhance the efficiency of islet transplantation, including cell sheet engineering and generation of 3D islet spheroids by high density suspension system (HDSS). Chondrocytes derived from cartilage sources have been used as an encapsulation biomaterial for islets not only for autograft but also for allograft and xenograft transplantation. Cartilage is an avascular, white connective tissue that is rich in extracellular matrix, and expandable in vitro. Hence, this tissue might have immunologically privileged properties that make it an intelligent cell source for manufacture of encapsulation biomaterials. However, cell sheet engineering and HDSS still have their respective limitations, which need to be elucidated. This review will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the current encapsulation techniques in order to provide a comprehensive foundation for further modifications and improvements of tissue engineering for islet transplantation.