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        • 음소인식 오류에 강인한 N-gram 기반 음성 문서 검색

          이수장,박경미,오영환,Lee, Su-Jang,Park, Kyung-Mi,Oh, Yung-Hwan 대한음성학회 2008 말소리 Vol.67 No.-

          In spoken document retrievals (SDR), subword (typically phonemes) indexing term is used to avoid the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) problem. It makes the indexing and retrieval process independent from any vocabulary. It also requires a small corpus to train the acoustic model. However, subword indexing term approach has a major drawback. It shows higher word error rates than the large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) system. In this paper, we propose an probabilistic slot detection and n-gram based string matching method for phone based spoken document retrievals to overcome high error rates of phone recognizer. Experimental results have shown 9.25% relative improvement in the mean average precision (mAP) with 1.7 times speed up in comparison with the baseline system.

        • KCI등재

          푸코와 하버마스의 도시계획관 비교연구

          이수장(Lee Soo-Jang) 한국도시행정학회 2010 도시 행정 학보 Vol.23 No.4

          Taken together, the works of J.Habermas and M.Foucault highlight an essential tension in modernity. This is tension between the normative and the real, between what should be done and what is actually done. Understanding this tension is crutial to understanding modern planning, what it is and what it could be. It has been argued that an effective way of making democracy stronger is to strengthen civil society. This article contains comparative analysis of the central ideas of Habermas and Foucault as they pertain to the question of democracy and civil society. More specifically, the discourse ethics of Habermas is contrasted with the power analytics of Foucault evaluating their usefulness for those interested in understanding, and bringing about, democratic planning.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          환경분쟁해결에 영향을 미치는 요인과 정책대안

          이수장 ( Soo Jang Lee ) 한국환경정책평가연구원 2010 환경정책연구 Vol.9 No.4

          오늘날 국가 또는 사회 문제 가운데서 가장 해결하기 어려운 것이 행정당국, 사업시행자, 해당 지역주민 그리고 시민단체 간의 환경분쟁이다. 이러한 분쟁은 환경파괴, 비용과 편익의 불공평성 등으로 인하여 입지과정에서 관련 지역공동체의 강력한 저항이나 반대, 즉 님비(NIMBYism)를 유발한다. 지역기피시설(locally unwanted land uses, LULUs)의 입지나 개발에 대한 반대는 지역공동체의 이기적·편협적인 님비에 기인하는 것이 아니라 삶의 장소와 생태계를 보호하려는 지역주민의 합리적이며 정당한 요구의 표현이다. 따라서 이러한 입지갈등을 해결하기 위해서는 종래와 같은 결정-발표-옹호(decide-announce-defend, DAD)로 표현되는 그들과 우리라는 적대적인 관계가 아닌, 이해당사자들의 상호작용, 즉 협상에 의한 합의형성(consensus-building)을 하려는 상황이 이루어져야 할 것이다. 이러한 협상은 보다 바람직하며, 실행가능성이 높은 자발적인 과정으로 대안적 분쟁해결(alternative dispute resolution)방법이다. 이러한 합의형성에 영향을 주는 요인으로 다음 3가지를 들 수 있는데 1)주민참여보장, 2)형평성제고 및3)신뢰성강화 등이 그것이다. 이러한 3가지 요인들은 상호 연계되어 상호작용을 하는 체제로 간주할 때 그 시너지효과는 보다 커질 것이다. Among the various contemporary issues that confront the nation or society, surely one of the most difficult to resolve are environmental disputes between government authorities, developers, local residents and advocacy groups. While such disputes can in some cases be the result of a selfish and illegal NIMBY("Not In My Back Yard") syndrome, they can also be an expression of rational and appropriate demands from local residents to preserve the ecology and quality of life for their communities, particularly with respect to the planning of "locally unwanted land uses(LULUs). Accordingly, rethinking NIMBYism entails several implications for planning of LULUs. Until the 20th century many planners considered only "functional rationality" in their decision making, in a confrontational "us versus them" process of "decide-announce-defend(DAD)". I believe, however, that a fair, voluntary, and negotiated process of alternative dispute resolution(ADR) based on consensus building is the means to resolving these disputes. A voluntary process is more desirable and feasible than a coercive one, making ADR well worth pursuing. From this perspective, I explore several factors which affect the resolution of environmental disputes. I suggest three main factors as follows: ⅰ) extension of citizen participation, ⅱ) enhancement of equity, and ⅲ) building of trust. Alternatives are presented based on these factors.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재후보

          환경갈등해결의 이론적 틀과 제도화 방안

          이수장 ( Soo Jang Lee ) 한국환경정책학회 2006 環境政策 Vol.14 No.1

          Local opposition and protest constitute single greatest hurdle to the siting of locally unwanted land uses(LULUs) not only throughout Korea but throughout the industrialized world. It can be attributed mainly to the NIMBYism, equity problem, and lack of participation. These problems are arisen from rational planning process which emphasizes instrumental rationalty. But planning is a value-laden political activity, in which sustantive rationality is central. To achieve this goals, we need a sound planning process for siting LULUs, which should improve the ability of citizens to influence the decisions that affects them. By a sound planning process, we mean one that is open to citizen input and contains accurate and complete information. In other word, the public is also part of the goal setting process, and as the information and analyses developed by the planners is evaluated by the public, strategies for solutions can be developed through consensus-building. This method is called as a co-operative siting process, and must be structured in order to arrive at publicly acceptable decisions. The model is tentative theory, and will be developed by conjectures and refutations.

        • KCI등재

          고준위 방폐장 입지 선정의 공론화 기초 연구

          이수장 ( Soo Jang Lee ) 한국환경정책평가연구원 2008 환경정책연구 Vol.7 No.4

          거의 20년 끌어 오던 중ㆍ저준위 방폐장 입지가 우여곡절 끝에 주민투표에 의해 경주로 결정났고, 지난7월 산업자원부로부터 방사성 폐기시 계획을 득하여 부지 정지에 착수함으로써 본격적인 사업에 착수하였다. 그런데 이제 원자력 발전소 내와 중간저장시설에 임시로 보관하고 있는 고준위 방사성폐기물(사용후연료 포함)을 영구 처분할 수 있는 입지 선정이 시급한 과제로 대두되고 있다. 특히 현재 4개 원자력 발전소 부지 내에 저장하고 있는 방사성폐기물은 올해부터 단계적으로 포화될 것으로 예상되기 때문이다. 이에 지난 6월말 국회에서 이 문제에 대한 세미나가 있었는데 논의의 결론은 공론화를 할 수 있는 법과 제도를 마련하는 것이었다. 문제는 고준위 방폐장 입지 선정은 중ㆍ저준위에 비해 그 어려움이 비교가 되지 않을 것으로 예상된다는 것이다. 왜냐하면 미국의 경우 네바다(Nevada) 주 유카(Yucca) 산에 방폐장을 건설하려는 노력이 약 30년간 핵규제위원회(NRC), 에너지부(DOE) 및 환경청(EPA) 등 3개의 국가기관이 약 100억달러를 조사ㆍ연구에 쏟아 붓고도 아직 완전히 해결되지 않고 있기 때문이다. 우리나라는 2004년도 12월에 제253차 원자력위원회에서 사용후연료 정책은 충분한 논의를 거쳐 국민적 공감대 하에서 추진하기로 의결한 바 있다. 우리나라에서는 이 문제의 소관부처가 산업자원부인데, 실제로 이를 다룰 법 규정이 거의 전무하다는 것이다. 원자력법에 이에 대한 규정이 있으나 고준위방사성폐기물의 처리ㆍ처분의 관리대책은 제외되어 있다(동 법 제84조의 2). 그러나 금년 초부터는 에너지기본법에 따른 국가에너지위원회 산하의 갈등관리전문위원회와 사용후연료공론화 실무위원회(T/F)에서 사용후연료의 공론화와 최종관리방안 등에 대하여 본격적인 검토와 논의를 벌이고 있는 것은 다행이다. 또한 정부에서도 이에 대한 필요성을 인식하여 방사성폐기물 관리와 관련한 불합리한 제도를 개선하고 관리전담기구 운영 등을 명시한방사성폐기물관리법 제정을 추진하고 있다. 법 제정 원칙은 하향적(top-down)이나 상향적(bottom-up)방식인 아닌 협상을 통한 합의형성식(consensus-building)이 되어야 한다는 것이다. 우호적 또는 협력적 방법으로 결정과정을 진행시켜야 한다는 것이다. 이러한 합의형성식 의사결정과정을 정착시키기 위해서는 다음과 같은 명제가 요청된다. Local opposition and protest constitute single greatest hurdle to the siting of locally unwanted land uses(LULUs), especially siting of high-level radioactive disposal not only throughout Korea but also throughout the industrialized world. It can be attributed mainly to the NIMBYism, equity problem, and lack of participation. These problems are arisen from rational planning process which emphasizes instrumental rationality. But planning is a value-laden political activity, in which substantive rationality is central. To achieve this goals, we need a sound planning process for siting LULUs, which should improve the ability of citizens to influence the decisions that affects them. By a sound planning process, we mean one that is open to citizen input and contains accurate and complete information. In other word, the public is also part of the goal setting process and, as the information and analyses developed by the planners are evaluated by the public, strategies for solutions can be developed through consensus-building. This method is called as a co-operative siting process, and must be structured in order to arrive at publicly acceptable decisions. The followings are decided by consensus-building method.

        • Analysis of Solar Energy Storage Using Effectiveness on Single Span Plastic Greenhouse with Water Curtain System

          이성현(Lee, S.H.),유영선(Ryou, Y.S.),문종필(Moon, J.P.),윤남규(Yun, N.K.),이수장(Lee, S.J.),김경원(Kim, K.W.) 한국신재생에너지학회 2010 한국신재생에너지학회 학술대회논문집 Vol.2010 No.06

          This study was carried out in order to reduce the amount of underground water which is used in the water curtain system for retaining heat. To proceed to the research, two plastic green houses of water curtain system were installed. One was equipped of internal small tunnel for keeping warm air in the interior of the house. Then the internal small tunnel for keeping warm air was fitted with PVC duct of 50cm in diameter filled with subsurface water. Storing surplus solar energy in the water filled in PVC duct was the method used to this house. Another was installed with FCU in the middle of the house, and was fitted a circulation motor in water tank for heat storage which was operated from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. in order to interchange heat with FCU. The latter was installed with four FCUs which has a capacity of 8000kcal per hour. Consequently about 5 degrees celsius could be maintained in the interior of the internal small tunnel for keeping warm air with the external temperature of more than minus 5 degrees celsius. It appeared that the alteration of an internal temperature of the house was flexible depending on the sunlight during daytime. It happened that to prevent the water from freezing, mixing antifreezing liquid in the flowing water of FCU or changing the operating method of FCU was a suitable measure. Also, in order to use the surplus solar thermal energy on plastic green house of water curtain system efficiently, storing the surplus heat during daytime simultaneously finding a method of using water curtain systematic underground water happened to be important. As a result of this research, when the house's interior temperature is below zero the operation of FCU appeared to be impossible. Therefore when supposed that the amount of water used in the house is 150~200ton for stable operation of FCU, using the system mentioned in the above research happened to be appropriate of reducing the amount of subsurface water from 80% to 100% when maintaining the interior of internal small tunnel's temperature for keeping warm air of 5 degrees celsius at the extreme temperature of minus 5 degrees celsius.

        • 논 배수로 토사 퇴적 경로에 관한 연구

          이상봉 ( Lee Sangbong ),전종길 ( Jeon Jonggil ),문종필 ( Moon Jongpil ),김민영 ( Kim Minyoung ),이수장 ( Lee Sujang ) 한국농공학회 2008 한국농공학회 학술대회초록집 Vol.2008 No.-

          Soil deposition at the drainage canal causes weed incidence which leads to cutdown the flow. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a technique to reduce soil deposition. In this study, the path and amount of soil deposited were monitored at two drainage canals in a paddy field. Field monitoring was carried out by measuring the amount of discharged soil into a drainage canal and eroded soil from a slope adjoining to canal. As results, the amount of soil discharged from a paddy field was further influenced by factors, such as harrowing a paddy field and time of discharge, rather than field conditions, such as area and elevation variation. In addition, existing practices of slope management, such as herbicide dispersal, weed emergence and soybean cultivation, also contribute to increasing soil deposition.

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