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Protestant churches in Korea originate from the Western Christianity. Supposedly, both religions share the same religious traits; but, in fact, they don't. From a broader view, of course, they have the same bible, similar worship procedures, many identical melodies in their hymn book. On a closer look, however, it is not hard to see the idiosyncratic traits by which Korean protestant churches are distinguished from those in western countries. The author thought that the idiosyncrasies were hardly explainable within the context of christianity and that they needed to be construed in relation to the folk religion Koreans have held long before the transmission of christianity from the western world. On the basis of this premise, the author netted the following findings: (1) The prayer-meeting-at-dawn is closely related to the worship of ‘chowang,' one of the House Spirits. (2) The three-time calling of “Lord!” ar some prayer meetings is related to the invocation of god in shamanistic practices. (3) Going to a mountain to pray is associated with shamans' practice of mountain prayer. (4) The expression ‘to receive a prayer' is related to the oracle-seeking of Folk Religion. (5) The intentional tone variation of the minister ar special prayer resembles the voice change of the shaman when she tries to get the oracle. (6) ‘Wish-fulfilling thanks donation' or ‘wish-fulfilling offering' resembles the give-and-take offerings of Folk Religion. (7) The rigorous rule of donation preparation is associated with that of sacrifice preparation of Folk Religion. (8) The invocation of blessing heard at donation prayers is related to that of Folk Religion. (9) The blessing-giving holy meeting on New Year's Eve is associated with Folk Religion's various forms of rituals for New Year. (10) The impolite speech of some famous evangelists is associated with the speech style of shamans that they choose whey granting the oracle. As mentioned above, Korean protestant churches have many different traits that are comparable with those of western churches, and these idiosyncrasies are found to be associated with the various phases of Korean Folk Religion. The Christian ministers and believers apparently ruled out the Folk Religion as superstition or idol worship, but interestingly, they actually accept many of the aspects of traditional religion. In a sense, Korean Christianity owes quite a lot of its unparalleled rapid growth to Folk Religion. Had not been for the believers coming from the shamanistic motivation or for the ministers, especially the folk evangelists, fostering the shamanistic belief, such breathtaking quantitative growth of Korean Christianity wouldn't have been possible. Considering that the Koreans have lived under the persistent influence of the base religion called ‘Folk Religion' for over four millennia, the process of receiving and finding faith in a foreign religion called Christianity may well display a different spectrum from the one the western society does. The parallelisms could well be found in both Buddhism and Confucianism as they settled in the mind of Koreans.
김일성유일사상 혹은 유물론이 지배하는 북한 사회에도 민간신앙이 존재할까? 남한에서처럼 북한에도 현대판 구비문학의 일환으로서 현대판 속담이 존재할까? 그 동안 북한에서 공식적으로 발행된 문헌이나 매체 등의 정보만 가지고는 확인이 어려웠던 이 의문을 풀기 위해, 탈북자 들을 면담하여 본 결과, 북한에도 민간신앙과 현대판 속담이 존재한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 점복, 꿈풀이가 전승되고 있으며, 무속도 존재한다는 것을 단편적으로나마 확인할 수 있었다. 점복의 경우, 식량난이 가중되어 탈북하는 일이 많아지면서 흑은 지방으로 추방당할 경우, 그 성공 여부와 미래사를 미리 알고 싶은 욕망에서 매우 활발하다는 것이 밝혀졌다. 공식적으로는 금지하고 있으나, 암암리에 성행하며, 심지어는 당간부들 조차 남몰래 점복자를 찾아가 의뢰하고 있는 실정임을 알 수 있다. 점복자의 유형도, 강신점복자, 역리점복자 등 다양한 유형으로 존재함을 알 수 있다. 꿈풀이에서 몇 가지 차이도 있지만, 대부분 남한에서 길몽으로 여기는 것은 북한에서도 길몽으로, 흉몽으로 여기는 것은 흉몽으로 여기고 있다는 것을 알 수 있다. 남북한 사람이 같은 꿈을 꾸고 같은 꿈풀이를 하고 있다는 것은 여간 다행한 일이 아니다. 남북이 교류할 경우, 꿈 이야기를 화제로 올림으로써 동질성 회복과 화해 분위기 조성에 도움이 될 것임을 보여주는 성과라 하겠다. 70년대 말의 상황이지만, 당국의 탄압에도 불구하고, 은밀하게나마 무속이 존속한다는 것을 확인할 수 있어, 무속신앙이 얼마나 끈질긴 생명력을 가지고 있는지 느끼게 한다. 현대판 속담도 다수 존재하고 있었다. 이들 자료는 북한의 상황을 잘 드러내 주면서, 식량난을 비롯한 북한 현실을 바라보는 북한 주민의 비판적인 의식까지 여과없이 보여주고 있어, 북한 및 북한주민의 실상을 이해하는 데 긴요한 가치를 지니고 있다. 북한의 민간신앙과 현대판 속담 자료들은 남북 교류와 통일을 위해 기여할 만한 가치를 지닌다. 체제와 이데올로기의 차이에도 불구하고 여전히 동질성을 유지하고 있는 부분이 많다는 것, 특히 북한 주민의 내면의식은 남한과 다를 게 없다는 확신을 가지게 하는 자료들이기 때문이다.
Focusing on the case of protestant minister Rev. Joonyeong Lee, who grew up in a ancestor-worshiping family but now became a senior pastor, the author looked into the transformational process of traditional ancestor worship to Christian memorial service. Although it was only a case of many, the research found out that today's protestant worship service had been established through a very natural, reasonable and positive process in Korea. It was also found out that the initial Confucian model underwent a transitional stage where both Confucian and Christian ideas of worship were combined to coexist, finally resulting in a completely Christian memorial worship service. It is presumed that if the first Korean Christians had followed this model the expense could have been minimized so as to accelerate the evangelization. It is further assumed that the model is still useful in that regarding the worship service the conflict between non-Christian family members and Christian ones constantly arises even today. The flexible posture of waiting and embracing that Elder Geunseok Lee or Elder Yoonseung Lee has once suggested is also highly recommendable here. For those who still fail to understand the ways of Christianity, such traditional ways of ancestor worship as writing jibang, preparing tables of food, and taking a prostrate bow should be considered acceptable since it will be far better for mature Christians to wait for them to gradually adopt the idea of Christian memorial service by comprehending the concept of Christian view of filial piety. Furthermore, the awareness that the costly food preparation for the deceased ancestors could be far better utilized if it were practiced for the living parents will have a good impact on the non-Christians. In this paper only the personal or familial history of a senior pastor who the author has known for years was discussed, but more informants need to be involved to do a more far-reaching, more in-depth analysis so that a generalized principle may be found However, one case could be a good start in that it did help the researcher to see what happened in the past, thus to find a due so as to solve today's problems. By and large, the whole attempt was quite significant as far as the author was concerned.
This article is a translation of "Marriages of Aborginal Tribes of Chosun" (Chosun 281, Chosunchongdokbu, 1938, 11) written by Jang Seungdu, a clerk working in the Department of Profit Production during the Japanese Colonization. Previously, Jang had given a description of the matrimonial customs of Koguryo under the same title (Chosun 280, Chosunchongdokbu, 1938, 10) ; then he wrote about the marriage systems of Ye, East Okjeo, Balhae, Euplu These two articles not only belong to relatively initial breakthroughs along with the research fruits of Lee Nunghwa and Choi Namsun but also command a unique view which necessitates a reading of the researchers concerned. However, its content has not been introduced or fully dealt with yet. Especially, this writing is worthy of careful reading in that the author managed to relate the aspects of matrimonial customs of Korea"s ancient tribes to his contemporary folk customs in addition to transmitting the former customs through varied literature surveys. For instance, when introducing the bargain marriage of East Okjeo, Jang specifies the cases in which the prices of women differed according to their appearance and age. In discussing the foray marriage of Balhae, he also reports on the bossam practice which had passed on from ancient times to Chosun Period to his age revealing such a shocking fact that the Balhaevians forced a male passerby to sleep with a woman destined to be a widow so as to kill him after the ill-fortune-driving love-making. The principal descriptions could be summarized as follows : 1. Matrimony of the Ye tribe : There was a custom of excluding the marriage partner from the same clan that the marriage seeker belonged to. 2. Matrimony of the East Okjeo tribe : The minmyeoneuri system was established, where a girl, engaged at the age of ten, was sent to her in-laws family to grow up there. When grown up, she was sent back to her family to get her dowry. This marriage system was of the characteristics of bargain marriage which is still practiced among the poorest in many places. 3. Matrimony of the Balhae tribe : Among this tribe it is cleat that a foray marriage was popular. The stealing in marriage was legally allowed and even accepted by the woman"s family. 4. Matrimony of the Euplu tribe : The Eupluvians had a custom in which a man married a woman who responded favorably to the feather that the man put in her hair. A married woman was considered chaste but an unmarried one lewd 1bis tribe thought little of chastity in girlhood but a married woman prized it. So far the translator has translated and introduced articles written in Japanese by Jang several times. This work follows suit, but it is a pity to say that due to its bulky content only the latter part of the article is published here with the rest of it which deals with the matrimonial customs of Buyeo and Koguryo left for the next issue.