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This study was carried out to investigate the water requirement of green peppers which are cultivated in a greenhouse under the different soil water conditions. The meteorological conditions during the experiment period was not predominantly different from the conditions in a normal year. The highest leaf area per plant, plant height, and yield were 6,143㎠/plant, 107cm, and 751g/plant, respectively. And daily variation of water requirements of green peppers ranged from 30 to 1,250g/d/plant which was fluctuated with significant difference. Total water requirements per plant which cultivated under the soil water conditions with different saturation ratios were 23,619g for P100, 43,044 for P80, and 2915g for P60, respectively. There were close correlation between plant height and water requirements. Low correlations were found between greenhouse ambient temperature and water requirement, while significant linear regression was shown between both of humidity and solar radiation and water requirement.
Various analyses were made to investigate the stochastic structure of the daily rainfall in Korea. Records of daily rainfall amounts from 1951 to 1984 at Chinju Metesrological Station were used for this study. Obtained results are as follows : 1. Time series of the daily rainfall at Chinju were positively, serially correlated for the lag as large as one day. 2. Rainfall events, defined as a sequence of consecutive wet days separated by one or more dry days, showed a seasonal variation in the occurrence frequency. 3. The marginal distribution of event characteristics of each month showed significant differences each other. Events occurred in summer had longer duration and higher magnitude with higher intensity than those of events occurred in winter. 4. There were significant positive correlations among four event characteristics ; duration, magnitude, average intensity, and maximum intensity. 5. Correlations among the daily rainfall amounts within an event were not significant in general. 6. There were no consistant significancy in identity or difference between the distributions of daily rainfall amounts for different days within events. 7. Above mentioned characteristics of daily rainfall time series must be considered in building a stochastic model of daily rainfall.
This study was carried out to investigate the time distribution of single storms and to establish the model of storm patterns in korea. Rainfall recording charts collected from 42 metheorological stations covering the Korean peninsula were analyzed. A single storm was defined as a rain period seperated from preceding and succeeding rainfall by 6 hours and more. Among the defined single storms, 1199 storms exceeding total rainfall of 80 mm were qualified for the study. Storm patterns were cklassified by quartile classification method and the relationship between cummulative percent of rainfalls and cummulative storm time was established for each quartile storm group. Time distribution models for each stations were prepared through the various analytical and inferential procedures. Obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. The percentile frequency of quartile storms for the first to the fourth quartile were 22.0%, 26.5%, 28.9% and 22.6%, respectively. The large variation of percentile frequency was show between the same quartile storms. The advanced type storm pattern was predominant in the west coastal type storm patterns predominantly when compared to the single storms with small total rainfalls. 3. The single storms with long storm durations tended to show delayed type storm patterns predominantly when compared to the single storms with short storm durations. 4. The percentile time distribution of quartile storms for 42 rin gaging stations was estimated. Large variations were observed between the percentiles of time distributions of different stations. 5. No significant differences were generally found between the time distribution of rainfalls with greater total rainfall and with less total rainfall. This fact suggests that the size of the total rainfall of single storms was not the main factor affecting the time distribution of heavy storms. 6. Also, no significant difference were found between the time distribution of rainfalls with long duration and with short duration. The fact indicates that the storm duration was no the main factor affecting the time distribution of heavy storms. 7. In Korea, among all single storms, 39.0% show 80 to 100mm of total rainfall which stands for the mode of the frequency distribution of total rainfalls. The median value of rainfalls for all single storms from the 42 stations was 108mm. The shape of the frequency distribution of total rainfalls showed right skewed features. No significant differences were shown in the shape of distribution histograms for total rainfall of quartile storms. The mode of rainfalls for the advanced type quartile storms was 80~100mm and their frequencies were 39~43% for respective quartiles. For the delayed type quartile storms, the mode was 80~100mm and their frequencies were 36!38%. 8. In Korea, 29% of all single storms show 720 to 1080 minutes of storm durations which was the highest frequency in the frequency distribution of storm durations. The median of the storm duration for all single storms form 42 stations was 1026 minutes. The shape of the frequency distribution was right skewed feature. For the advanced type storms, the higher frequency of occurrence was shown by the single storms with short durations, whereas for the delayed type quartile storms, the higher frequency was shown gy the long duration single storms. 9. The total rainfall of single storms was positively correlated to storm durations in all the stations throughout the nation. This fact was also true for most of the quartile storms. 10. The third order polynomial regression models were established for estimating the time distribution of quartile storms at different stations. The model test by relative error method resulted good agreements between estimated and observed values with the relative error of less than 0.10 in average.
This study was performed to figure out an optimum water environment and to obtain the fundamenLal data related with saving labor and water consumption for the chinese cabbages being grown in greenhouse. The productivity of cabbages cultivated in both pots and floor were compared to each other in the aspects of height and weight depending on the soil saturation levels. Obtained results are as follows; In case of pot cultivation, the height as well as weight of cabbage in 80% soil saturation level(P80) were measured to be larger than those in the other 2 soil saturation levels(P100 and P60). The weight of floor cultivated cabbages were relatively larger than that of pot cultivated ones. In accordance with saturation ratio, the general trend of water consumption rate was maximum in P80 and was decreased in the order of P80. PIOG and P60. And the average indoor temperature as well as the plant growth rate were found to be closely related with water consumption rate.
This study was performed to figure out water consumption of the twisted sweet pepper in a greenhouse. Obtained results are as follows; 1. The ambient temperature was nearly same as the normal year, while the average air temperature and the relative humidity in the green house were little bit higher than those of the outside condition. The transparency of the greenhouse roof was approximately 50%. The total amount of rainfall during the irrigation period was 1,040㎜ which is 350㎜ higher than 1997 during the same period. 2. In case of pot cultivation, as the saturation ratio was increased, the aeaf area and plant height and yield were also increased. The yield from the field cultivation was higher than the average yield from the pot cultivations which are treated by three levels of saturation ratio. 3. The variation of daily consumptive use of the twisted sweet pepper was very large in it's range. In case of the pot cultivation, as the saturation was increased, the daily and the total consumptive use were increased. 4. The daily consumptive use was strongly correlated with the ambient temperature, while it was weakly correlated with the relative humidity and solar radiation. 5. There were close correlation between plant environment; leaf area, plant height and yield, and consumptive use. As the saturation ratio was increased, the correlation between those plant factors and consumptive use was getting stronger.
In an effort to clarify the wetted patterns of sandy loam soil under trickle irrigation conditions, the distance of wetted zone, infiltration capacity and soil wetted patterns, etc. were measured by gypsum block as soil moisture sensor located every 5 cm vertically and horizontaly in the soil bin under the such conditions as a). irrigation rates set to 2, 4, 6, 8 liters per hour b). total amount of water applied fixed to 14.62 liters per soil bin c) the hearing force of soil measured by plate penetrometer ranging from 1.04 to 1.22kg/㎠ The results can be summarized as follows ; 1. The wetted distance in horizontal direction(H), the wetted distance in vertical direction(D), the horizontal infiltration capacity (i<sub>H</sub>) and the vertical infiltration capacity(i<sub>D</sub>)could by explained as a function of time t. 2. The horizontal wetted distance (H) is explained by an exponetial function H= aㆍt where b was found ranging from 021 to 026 under surface trickle irrigation, which was considered a lotlower than the classical value of 0.5 and these measurements were indifferent to the increasing irrigation rates. 3. As for the surface trickle irrigation where horizontal infiltration capacity(i<sub>H</sub>) is explained as i<sub>H</sub> = Aㆍt<sup>(1-b)</sup>, the coefficient A increases with respect to irrigation rates within the limits of 0.89~1.34. 4. In terms of surface trickle irrigation of the ratio of Dm Which is maximum vertical wetted distance to Hm, which is maximum horizontal wetted distance, found to be within range of 1.0 to 1.21. It was also noted that the value of Dm decreses when irrigation rates increases while the value of Hm changes the opposite direction. 5. The optimum location of sensors from emitter for surface trickle irrigation should he inside of hemisphere whose lateral radius is 28~30cm long and vertical radius is 10~12cm long. The distance between emitters should be within 60cm long. 6. In the study of vertical wetted distance(D) where D= aㆍt<sup>b</sup>, the exponential coefficient b ranged from 0.61 to 0.75 in surface trickle irrigation, and from 0A9 to 0.68 for subsurface trickle irrigation. These measurements showed an increasing tendency to with respect to irrigation rates. 7. In case of vertical infiltration capacity(i<sub>D</sub>), where i<sub>D</sub>= Aㆍt<sup>(1-b)</sup>, the coefficient A for surface trickle irrigation found to be within range of 0.16 to 0.19 and did not show any relationships with varying degree of irrigation rates. However, the coefficient was varying from 0.09 to 0.22 and showed a tendency to increase vis-a-vis irrigation rates for subsurface trickle irrigation, in contrast. 8. In the observation of subsurface trickle irrigation, it was found that D<sub>m</sub>/H<sub>m</sub> ratio was within 1.52 to 1.91 and showed a decreasing tendency with respect to increasing rates of irrigation. 9. The location of sensors for subsurface trickle irrigation follows same pattern as above, with vertical distance from emitter being 10~17cm long and horizontal 22~25cm long. The location of emitter should be 50 cm. 10.The relationship between VS which is the volume of wetted soil and Q which is the total amount of water when soil is reached field capacity could be explained as VS= 2.914Q<sup>0.91</sup>and the irrigation rates showed no impacts on the above relationship.
This study was carried out to investigate the water requirement of twisted sweet peppers which are cultivated in a green house. The meteorological conditions during the experiment period was close to that of normal year except the temperature and relative humidity. The growth status was improved with the increased saturation ratio. The range of the variation of daily water requirement were very large. The peak consumption occurred in the early August. And the higher saturation ratio resulted in higher water requirement. The total water requirement were about 57.180g/d/plant for pot with 100% (P100) of saturation, about 38.700g/d/plant for pot with 80%(P80) of saturation, about 23,720g/d/plant for pot with 60%(P60) of saturation, and about 53,390g/d/plant for field cultivation in the green house, respectively. The water requirement was correlated with average ambient temperature and growing status, while no significant correlation were found between water requirement and minimum relative humidity or intensity of solar radiation. And the higher correlation was shown as the saturation ratio was increased. The transpiration coefficients of twisted sweet pepper were 378.0g/g for field cultivation in the green house, 363.3g/g for P100, 338.7/g for P80 which was the smallest among pot cultivation, and 472.1g/g for P60 , respectively.
To investigate the status of repeated use of irrigation water observations of irrigation water were made on dry days during the irrigation periods in 1986 and 1987 crop year. The total area of studied site is 1,441 ha. The site is a major portion of Jedaecheon basin which is located in Bubuk-myeon, Miryang-gun, Gyeongnam Province. The studied area was subdivided into six small blocks. The inflow and outflow of daily irrigation water for these subdivided blocks were checked. Obtained results are as follows : 1. The over all possible ratio of the repeated use of irrigation water in studied area was 48.3%, which means that approximately one half of the surface flow was possible to be repeatedly used as irrigation water in this area. 2. The ratio of repeated use of irrigation water in sloppy paddy area was 4.29%, whereas, the ratio was 21.97% in the plain area. The average figure of this ratio over studied area was estimated as 17.43%.
To investigate the status of irrigation water use and the degree of repeated use of irrigation water, observations for water balance analysis were made during the irrigation periods in 1986 and 1987 crop year. The total area of studied site is 1,441 ha. The site is a major portion of Jedaecheon basin which is located in Bubuk-myeon, Miryang-gun, Gyeongnam Province. The studied area was subdivided into six small blocks. The water balance analysis for these subdivided blocks were carried out considering characteristics of each block. Obtained results are as follow: 1. In mountainous sloppy paddy area(less than 7% slope), the surface inflow was 5A mm/day in average that is one third of the surface inflow into plain paddy area ; 16.7 mm/day. 2. The surface inflows at the vegetative stage and the ripening stage were 15.5 mm/day and 10.4 mm/day, respectively. Those figures were larger than the actual consumptive use at respective same stages ; 13.3 mm/day and 9.2 mm/day, respectively. Whereas, the surface inflow at generative stage was 12.5 mm/day which was less than 14.0 mm/day ; the actual consumptive use. 3. The range of the variation of water storage term was 1 mm/day. This means that there were no change in depth of ponded water on paddy fields. The relationship between the variation of water storage(△S) and the variation of ground water table(H) could be expressed as follow: : △S=0.14H+0.26 4. The ground water inflow: into the transition region ; paddy fields which are located continuously from the mountainous area to the plain area, was larger than the out flow from this region, in general. Rowever, in the plain region where the ground water utilization was predominant, the ground water outflow from this region was larger than inflow: to this region. The relationship between the ground water flow(G<sub>2</sub>- G<sub>1</sub>) and the consumptive use in large paddy area(D<sub>1</sub>-D<sub>2</sub>) could be expressed as follow: (G<sub>2</sub>-G<sub>1</sub>) =0.95(D<sub>1</sub>-D<sub>2</sub>) -3.79.
Soil-water content(θ) is a basic parameter that characterizes water and soluble substance transport in vados zone. TDR(time domain reflectometry) has been developed as an alternative method to measure soil-water content non-destructively, and been widely applied in situ and laboratory experiment. In this study, experimental laboratory tests were carried out to assess the effect of solute concentration of soils on the measurement of TDR. In the test, the phosphorus concentration of pore water of sand was manipulated and the variation of waveform of TDR was observed.