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Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 was newly recorded in Korea as a invasive species at Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea in 2010 and 2011. Leptoglossus Guerin-Meneville, 1831 is also newly recorded Coreid genus in Korea. The diagnostic shape is expanded leaf-like hind tibiae. The origin of this species is North America and it has been rapidly propagated around the world as a pest. This bug recognized as a pest on almost of Pinaceae plants and they suck on developing cones, so the monitoring on the present invasion of this species in Korea is urgent. It was presumed that the invasion of Leptoglossus occidentalis into Korea was before 2010 with present study.
Corythucha marmorata Uhler was newly recorded in Korea as a invasive species at Pohang-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea in 2011 and at Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea in 2012. Adults of this species show reticular forewings with a lot of transparent membranes and also show pterigoid process of paranotum with strong processes. This invasive species was originated from North America, and then intruded into Europe and Japan. This species is presumed became an epidemic horticultural pest at present and it is injuring almost of Asteraceae leaves. It was presumed that the invasion of Corythucha marmorata into Korea was prior to September of 2011.
초파리 단안의 발생단계에 따른 각막형성세포의 형태적인 변화를 관찰하고, 생산된 단백질의 이동방향을 조사하였다. 그 결과 우화 후 수일이 지나면서 각막형성세포는 그 기능이 급격하게 감소하는 것으로 보인다. 반면 우화 직후의 각막형성세포는 왕성한 분비활동을 하는 것으로 생각된다. 특히 자기방사섭의 결과에서는 각막형성세포에서 생산된 대부분의 단백질이 랜즈쪽으로 가는 것을 볼 때, 이 시기에서 이들 세포는 시세포에 기능하기보다는 렌즈형성에 주 기능을 할 것으로 사료된다. 번데기시기의 각막형성세포는 더욱 잘 발달되어 있었다. 렌즈가 형성되고 있는 시기의 각막형성세포에는 rER이 잘 발달되어 물질생산이 왕성하게 일어나고 있음을 보여주었다. 또한 분비과립과 미세소관이 많이 관찰되는데, 후자는 물질이 이동하는 통로를 제공하기 때문이다. 발생도중의 단안에서 새롭게 만들어진 렌즈의 가장 아래층의 저밀도의 불연속적 라멜라구조를 이루고 있고, 이 부분의 각막형성세포는 미세융모가 잘 발달되어 있어 물질을 분비하는 조직의 일반적인 특징을 보여준다. 결론적으로 각막형성세포는 렌즈가 왕성하게 형성되는 시기에는 잘 발달하고, 우화 후 완전히 형성된 추에는 그 기능이 급격하게 감소하면서 세포의 크기도 작아진 다는 것을 알 수 있었다. Morphological changes of Drosophila ocellar corneagenous cells were studied to the development with electron microscopy, and the movement of produced proteins was traced with autoradiography. Corneagenous cells of immediate postemergence showed very active secretion pattern. However, a few days after the emergence, the secretory activity of corneagenous cell was supposed to be dropped suddenly. In autoradiography, almost of proteins that produced by corneagenous cells moved toward lens. From this, it was supposed that the corneagenous cells do not function in photoreceptor cells rather in the formation of lens at the postemergence stage. Corneagenous cells of pupal stage were well developed. In the period of lens formation, rER of corneagenous cells were well developed and it suggested very active material metabolism. Granules and microtubules were also frequently observed and the later would be a pathway of the movement of materials. In conclusion, corneagenous cells were well developed at vigorous lens forming stage. After emergence, when the lens formation was completed, both the function and the size of corneagenous cells were reduced.
The morphological phenotype on ocellus of Drosophila rdgC mutant was observed with electron microscope. The result showed the particular phenotype that was not found in other retinal degenarative mutants. The most distinct difference was the orientation of photoreceptor cells. The photoreceptor cells did not attached to corneagenous cells but dropped under corneagenous cells and assembled around newly formed space. Enormous multivesicle bodies caused by the degeneration of photoreceptor cells were frequently found. Rhabdomeres were also severely degenerated in consequence of the mutant. Another degeneration was found in a part of photoreceptor cell, but the degeneration of subrhabdomeric cisternae (SRC) was not found. It was a ovious difference of rdgC comparing with other two retinal degenerative mutants, rdgA and rdgB. As a result, rdgC mutant was affected on the attachment between photoreceptor cells and corneageneous cells, and it suggested the defect of cell-cell attachment. In addition, rdgC mutant was accompanied by the defect not only in retina but nerve system. The results were agreed to the reference discussion that the rdgC molecule is exist in the nerve.
성충초파리의 단안을 일반적인 방법(conventional)과 오스뮴침착법(osmium impregnation)을 이용한 전자현미경적 수준에서 미세구조를 비교하였다. 오스뮴침착법에서는 세포내의 특정 소기관들이 강하게 염색되었는데, 그 중에서도 간상분체의 바로 아래에 있는 SRC가 강하게 염색되고, 복안에서와 같이 그물구조를 보이고 있었다. SSC, ER, 핵막, 색소과립 미토콘드리아 등이 강하게 오스뮴에 의해서 염색된 것이 관찰되었다. 이들 소기관들은 공통적으로 칼슘이온의 저장과 깊은 관계가 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. 결론적으로 오스뮴침착법에 의해 얻어진 강한 명암대비 및 막구조의 강조효과는 이들 칼슘저장고에 존재하는 칼슘이온과 오스뮴의 강한 결합에 의한 것으로 사료된다. 그러므로 저자들은 세포소기관들의 형태를 비교하는 데에는 오스뮴침착법이 유용한 방법이 될 것이다. Ultrastructure of adult Drosophila ocellus was compared with conventional electron microscopic method and osmium impregnation. When osmium impregnation was applied, some organelles of cells were strongly stained. Especially, subrhabdomeric cisternae (SRC) were strongly stained and showed network-iike structure as in compound eye. Other organelles including SSC, ER, nuclear envelope, pigment granules and mitochondria were also strongly stained. These organelles are known as a general calcium ion reservoir. In conclusion, the strong effect of light and shade by osmium impregnation was regarded as a result of strong binding between calcium ion and osmium tetroxide. Thus, we agree to the opinion that osmium impregnation is very useful methods to the comparative morphology of cell organelles.
We investigated the toxic effects of difenoconazole on the development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. To test the toxic effects, frog embryo teratogenesis assays using Xenopus were performed. Embryos were exposed to various concentrations of difenoconazole (0-30 μM). LC100 for difenoconazole was 30 μM, and the LC50 determined by probit analysis was 27.19 μM. Exposure to difenoconazole concentrations ≥5 μM resulted in 10 different types of severe external malformation. Histological examinations revealed dysplasia of the eye, heart, liver, somatic muscle, and swelling of the pronephric ducts. The tissue-specific toxic effects were investigated with an animal cap assay. Blood cells were normally induced at a high frequency by mSCF and activin A. However, the induction of blood cells was strongly inhibited by the addition of difenoconazole. Electron micrographs of tested embryos showed the degeneration of somatic muscle and the shrinkage of microvilli on pronephric duct. The gene expression of cultivated animal cap explants was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). It revealed that the expression of the blood-specific marker(β -globin Ⅱ) and muscle-specific marker (XMA) were more strongly inhibited than the neural-specific marker(XEn2) by the addition of difenoconazole.
Leptalina unicolor is a hesperiid butterfly with a restricted distribution in Korea, Japan, China, and Russia. Recently, the number of individuals is rapidly decreased in their natural habitat. This skipper has been classified as an endangered species in the `Red Data Book`, and according to an IUCN report, is under threat of extinction. Therefore, the conservation and restoration of this species both locally and globally are urgently needed. A population of L. unicolor was found in an unknown habitat in Jaeyaksan, Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea in 2011, and these individuals were used in the present study. Here, the life cycle, characteristics of each instar larva and breeding information were determined by breeding L. unicolor in the laboratory from 2012 to 2015. The results indicated that L. unicolor occurs twice a year and over-winter as a fifth instar larva. A spring-form female individual laid 17.25±5.52 eggs, and summer form laid 29.00±5.86 eggs; it takes 53.79±0.73 days for L. unicolor to develop from eggs to adults. After spawning, the eggs developed in 6.16±0.18 days, and larvae developed in 33.71±0.58 days; the pre-pupal stage to emergence required 14.22±0.31 days. Based on these results, we presented effective breeding information for the restoration and proliferation of the species. Several candidate plants species have been reported in the literature as a food source for L. unicolor, but we found that the preferred diet this butterfly was Miscanthus sinensis. The larvae could move easily when their preferred diet was planted in ≥ 80% the cage floor area Year-round breeding was achieved by placing overwintering individuals in low temperatures in autumn. To our knowledge, this is the first study to the biology of L. unicolor in Korea, and the results of this study could be used as preliminary information for the conservation and restoration of this species in its natural habitat.
We have studied characteristics of community structure on the benthic macro-invertebrates at twelve selected sites in upstream, midstream and downstream of Paemsagol, Piagol, Chilseongol and Daeseonggol, major streams of Jirisan Mountain, for three years from April 2008 to September 2010. As a result, 2 phyla, 3 classes, 11 orders, 41 families, 119 species and 4,449 individuals of benthic macro-invertebrates have been collected and classified in this study. Among them EPT group (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera), commonly appearing taxa in clean stream ecosystem, was found most frequently. The highest species number of benthic macro-invertebrates were collected in 2008, the year with lower climatic influence including heavy rain. In almost all of survey sites 80% or over of EPT group were counted, and St. 1 scored highest rate of EPT group at 92.59%. Most dominant species was Ecdyonurus kibumensis at 12.83% of dominance index, and subdominant species was Goerodes KUb at 6.81% of dominance index. The investigation of the feeding function group indicated that gathering-collectors were dominant with 26 species and 1,334 individuals, while the number of filtering-collectors was lowest with 11 species and 230 individuals. This result represents that the feeding function group of Jirisan Mountain is mountainous stream-specific one. Both diversity index and richness index were lowest at the midstream of Chilseongol (St. 5), while the midstreams of Daeseonggol (St. 11) and Piagol (St. 8) were highest in diversity and richness indices respectively. The analyses of linear regression and correlation were performed in order to investigate and to predict the appearance aspect of EPT group by altitude. The results showed that the ratio of Plecopteran species number has increased by the elevation of the altitude at 0.05 significance level. Cluster analysis was also carried out for evaluating environmental similarities among survey sites. As a result, upper regions of Paemsagol (St. 1) and Piagol have clustered as most similar sites each other, while the midstream of Piagol (St. 8) has separated with lower similarity value than other sites in species composition.