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The aim of this article is to clarify the origin of the Korean armed struggle in Chien tao and Russian Far East in the early 1920s. In conclusion, I believe that the origin of Korean armed struggle is the Russian Revolution in 1917 and ensuing civil war in Siberia. In particular, Japanese forces in Siberia after the Russian Revolution made Koreans in that region to struggle with Soviet Red Army and Russian partisan troops. Japan has sent troops to Siberia in 1918 and supported White army in Russian civil war. For this reason Koreans naturally jumped into the fight against the Japanese and the Whites. And the armed struggle taken place in Siberia soon had an impact on the Korean community in Chientao. Korean patriots in Chien tao also began a battle with the Japanese. From this wide range of armed struggle has unfolded in Chientao and Russian Far East in the early 1920s. But the Koreans partisan movement in Russia also had to be affected to the presence and movements of Koreans in that Region in the previous time. Korean community in Russia also had a class problem. Some of Koreans who early imigrated to the Russian territory and acquired Russian nationality, received land distribution from the Russian government and were incorporated into the ruling class. They were called 'Won-he-in'. In contrast, there were Koreans who were not acquired Russian nationality. As there was no land for them, They had cultivated the land of Russian landlord or Won-ho-in. otherwise, became the daily agricultural workers. They were "Yo-ho-in". And of course, Won-he-in were the side of White army and Red army had the support of Yo-ho-in.
Lee Wi-jong is well known as one of the Korean envoys of the second Hague Peace Conference and a son of the last ambassador in Russia . Lee Beom-jin. But aside from this, his life tells us many things in modern history of Korea. He was a person with a very colorful history. He was born in Chosun as a member of Yangban, went to America in te early 10's and received a modern education in the United States and France. Through this he became modernist. While he worked as a Korean diplomat in Russia, he accepted the Russian Orthodox Church to marry with the daughter of a Russian nobleman. His marriage shows us that he was a real modernist who was completely cut off from tradition of Chosun. In 1907-1909, he was playing an important role in the Korea national liberation movements. But in Hague due to indifference of the western imperialist countries and in Russian Far East due to hypocrisy of imperialist Russia, he failed to achieve the goal. Thus He has recognized the reality of imperialism. From then he abandoned the idea of the civilized modernity and accepted that of the colonial modernity. As a result, after the Russian Revolution he stood on the side of the Red Army and fighted against White Army and troops of the imperialist countries. During the Civil War in Siberia he became a commander of the Red Army and members of the Communist Party of Russia. He considered Russian revolution of the foothold to the independence of Korea and for the liberation of the Korean people. Such recognition was also found to many Koreans who struggled for the victory of the Russian revolution in the territory of Russia.
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the causes of Korean deportation from Russian Far East to Central Asia in 1937. From what has been discussed above, we can state the following two points. According to the decision of the Soviet government, the official aim of deportation is “to prevent the penetration of Japanese espionage in the Far Eastern Territory.” And given the international and domestic situations at that time, this concern of the Soviet government had a sufficient basis. In the late 1930s there was possibility of the Japanese invasion to the Russian Far East and some Japanese spies were doing espionage in the Maritimes. But if we have a little more in-depth study, we can find that the ultimate cause of deportation was to be changes in national polices of the Soviet Union. After the death of Lenin, the principle of national self-determination was not followed in the Soviet Union. Especially Stalin`s theory of socialism in one country encouraged Russian chauvinism. In the process of agricultural collectivization and construction of the socialist society, self-determination of the Minority and rights of the people were ignored. As a result, deportation of Koreans in Russia could be executed.
The purpose of this article is to reveal the reality of the Daehan Dongnipgundan and explain how it has been contained in the textbooks. Through this I want to peel the myth which has been placed upon the armed struggle of Gando in the early 1920s. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea proclaimed 1920 as ‘the first year of the War of Independence'. In response to this decree Independence Army troops of Gando started a full-scale anti-Japanese battle. As a result, they achieved a great victory against the Japanese army in Bongo-dong and Cheongsan-ri. However, they were forced to retreat due to the strong attacks of the Japanese forces. Nevertheless, they had a plan where to go and what to do there. Their destination was Jayu-si of Siberia where was occupied by Soviet Russia at that time. They intended to organize large-scale unified Corps in Jayu-si. Eventually Independence Army troops of Gando moved to Jayu-si through Milsan and Iman. Thus June 1921, about 3,000 Korean Independence Army soldiers were gathered in Jayu-si from Gando, Russian Maritime Provinces and Siberia. Among these, soldiers from Gando are estimated to 1,000-1,200. The troops of Gando did not create large-scale unified Corps, but acted on their own during the retreat. But so far studies of independence movement looked over differently. According to those studies, the troops of Gando organized Daehan Dongnipgundan as unified Corps in Milsan in December 1920, then moved to Iman together. They said that the Corps was made up of 10 troops. Andthis claim was directly reflected in textbooks of Korean history. However, Daehan Dongnipgundan did not exist. Has given the dire circumstances at the time of the retreat, it was mpossible to organize large-scale unified Corps such as Daehan Dongnipgundan. It was a myth created by the researchers. It is dangerous of this myth, because that is not only error of historical fact, but also instills a false perception of history on independence movement. The descriptions on Daehan Dongnipgundan in the highschool textbooks 『Korean History』 should be revised.
Fundamentally, the railroad and train are the tools which are used by ruling class. However, if they are used carefully and properly, railroad and train can be the useful means for resistance. The purpose of this article is to elucidate that the railroad had been used not as the object of resistance but as the method of resistance. Japanese imperialism tried to prevent the resistance of the Korean patriots from occurring by the consistent inspection and arrestment on the railroad and train. However, the Korean patriots who kept thinking of more effective ways came up with some tricks to avoid the inspection of the Japanese police. And through these ways, the patriots wanted to establish the nationwide movement network. Also, they tried to connect all of the independence movements within and outside of the country, by the help of nationwide spread railway network. The railroad is the symbol of modern history and the messenger of modern civilization and thought. On the other hand, it is the embodiment of the imperialism invasion history. This can be applied to the railroad of Korean peninsula as well. Until now, the history education regarding the development of railway has solely focused on this point of the railroad. However, by slightly turning the point of view, we can capture the veiled side that the railroad had been used not as the object of resistance but as the method of resistance.
The final battle of the civil war in Siberia began in winter 1921. White army tried to attack the Far Eastern Republic. So-called ‘Liberation war in Maritime Province' has begun. White army received the support of the Japanese forces. Korean partisan unit in Iman(Taehanuiyonggun) fought against the White army with People's Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic. Many Korean partisans including Han Unyong, who was the captain of the unit, were killed in battle in Iman. Hereafter People's Revolutionary Army launched a counterattack. In the process, Korean partisan unit played a major role. With the help of Korean partisan unit, People's Revolutionary Army could recapture the city Iman. When People's Revolutionary Army was ready for the last attack on the White army, unification of Korean partisan troops was accomplished once again. The revolutionary military Soviet of Korean partisan troops was organized. Under the leadership of the Soviet, Korean partisans participated in the last battle against the White army and the Japanese forces. Eventually on 25 October 1922 Vladivostok was occupied and the five-year civil war in Siberia was ended. After closing the civil war in Siberia there has been ordered to dissolve the Korean partisan forces in Maritime Province. It was made to switch the direction from the military struggle to political struggle. All Korean partisans did not accept the redirection. Some have resisted to dissolve the unit and some went over to Chinese territory. But most of the partisans accepted the dissolution. They were incorporated into the Red Army of the Soviet Russia or took part in socialist construction in Maritime Province.