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김현국(Kim, Hyeon-Kook), 유영숙(Lyu, Youngsook), 우정헌(Woo, Jung-Hun), 홍성철(Hong, Sung-Chul), 김덕래(Kim, Deok-Rae), 서정현(Seo, Jeonghyeon), 신명환(Shin, Myunghwan), 김상균(Kim, Sang-Kyun) 한국기후변화학회 2016 한국기후변화학회지 Vol.7 No.4
We explore the impact of Chinese future air pollutant emissions on ozone air quality in Northeast Asia (NEA) and health in South-Korea using an assessment framework including ICAMS (The Integrated Climate and Air Quality Modeling System) and BenMAP (The Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program). The emissions data sets from the climate change scenarios, the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) (emission scenarios, EMSO), are used to simulate ozone air quality in NEA in the current (1996∼2005, 2000s), the near future (2016∼2025, 2020s) and the distant future (2046∼2055, 2050s). Furthermore, the simulated ozone changes in the 2050s are used to analyze ozone-related premature mortality and economic cost in South-Korea. While different EMSOs are applied to the China region, fixed EMSO are used for other country regions to isolate the impacts of the Chinese emissions. Predicted ozone changes in NEA are distinctively affected by large changes in NOx emission over most of China region. Comparing the 2020s with the 2000s situation, the largest increase in mean ozone concentrations in NEA is simulated under RCP 8.5 and similarly small increases are under other RCPs. In the 2050s in NEA, the largest increase in mean ozone concentrations is simulated under RCP 6.0 and leads to the occurrence of the highest premature mortalities and economic costs in South-Korea. Whereas, the largest decrease is simulated under RCP 4.5 leads to the highest avoided premature mortality numbers and economic costs. Our results suggest that continuous reduction of NOx emissions across the China region under an assertive climate change mitigation scenario like RCP 4.5 leads to improved future ozone air quality and health benefits in the NEA countries including South-Korea.
3D City 모델로부터 CFD 모델 입력자료를 생성하여 모델링 품질을 향상시키고 CFD 모델링 결과를 3D 모델과 통합하여 사실적이고 쉽게 인지할 수 있는 시각화 방법에 대하여 연구하였다. 국토지리정보원에서 구축한 3D City 모델을 이용해 세밀도와 정확도가 향상된 CFD 모델 입력자료를 생산하여 적용함으로써 상세한 도시공간구조를 반영하는 향상된 CFD 모델을 생산하였다. CFD_NIMR_SNU 모델로부터 바람의 흐름과 오염물질 확산을 시뮬레이션 하였으며 3D City Model과 CFD 모델을 통합하여 동적으로 시각화 하였다. 본 대기환경 시각화 도구는 도시기후 계획 및 관리에 있어 의사결정을 위한 시각적 소통능력을 향상시켜 비용과 시간을 최소화할 것이다. The purpose of this study is enhancing CFD model by applying detailed and accurate CFD input data produced from 3D City model and integrating CFD model with 3D city model with OpenGL, 3D city aerodynamic simulation, and visualization tool. CFD_NIMR_SNU model developed by NIMR and SNU and 3D City model produced by NGII were used as input data. Wind flow and pollution diffusion simulator and viewer were developed in this study. Atmospheric environment simulation and visualization tool will save time and cost for urban climate planning and management by enhancing visual communication.
Several fine particle-related policies in Northeast United States were investigated in support of the execution of special measures to improve air quality of Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). The definition of particulate matter (PM) in the Clean Air Act (CAA), components and procedures of Regional Haze Rule (RHR), and Air Quality Management (AQM) were reviewed. Several State Implementation Plans (SIPs) were also reviewed as the way to attain required air quality under the Clean Air Act. PM2.5 attainment SIP of Maryland, 8-hr Ozone attainment SIP of New Jersey, and Regional Haze Rule attainment SIP of MANE-VU were analyzed in detail as case studies. We realized that “Special Measures for Air Quality Improvement in the Seoul Metropolitan Area” has many similarities with its US counterparts in terms of purpose, components, procedures, and implementation methods. US policies, however, have more advanced features, such as standardized procedures and methods, transparent guidelines, and stable relationship among federal/state/local governments and stakeholders, which would be helpful to improve air quality in SMA.
Fast economic growth and urbanization of China have been causing air pollution not only over its domestic but transboundary atmosphere. Recent high fine particle pollution episodes in China made the government move toward more stringent air pollution control policies - which are mostly fuel switching and emissions control. In this research, we tried to understand characteristics of Chinese emissions and their change by analyzing its emissions inventory by year, sector, and region. From the inter-comparison of existing bottom-up emission inventories, we found relatively good agreements (<20% difference) for SO₂ and NOx, but 30% or more discrepancies for some pollutants. Inter-comparison with top-down NOx emissions estimates also showed 20~50% differences by year. The regional distribution and inter-annual changes of emissions revealed different stages of energy/fuel mix and policy penetration. Early increase of pollutants emissions in the eastern part of China might give strong influences to the Korean peninsular in early 2000s but, more stringent control in that region would help improving air pollution in Korea in near future.
The purpose of this study is to understand the impact that temperature and relative humidity have on the volatilization loss of particulate nitrate (NO₃?) from Teflon filters during measurements of ambient fine particles (PM2.5). Fine particles (dp?2.5 ㎛) were measured using an annular denuder system (ADS) at four representive areas in Seoul. The measurements were made during 28 different days at 24-hr sampling intervals from February 14 to October 15, 1997. In this study, nitrate losses, calculated by the ratio of nitrate on the nylon filter to their sum in both Teflon and nylon filters, varied seasonally in the following order: summer (45.5%)>spring (23.8%)>fall (20.6%) >winter (19.7%). The results showed strong correlations with temperature, but we did not observe any significant effects of relative humidity. However, we observed that both temperature and relative humidity influenced the ambient gas/particle nitrate ratio in a different case study using a denuder.
유승성 ( Seung Sung Yoo ), 전재식 ( Jae Sik Jeon ), 정권 ( Kweon Jung ), 신은상 ( Eun Sang Shin ), 정부전 ( Bu Jeon Jung ), 류리나 ( Ri Na Ryu ), 우정헌 ( Jung Hun Woo ), 선우영 ( Woo Young Sun ) 한국환경영향평가학회 2011 환경영향평가 Vol.20 No.1
The results of comparing PM10 concentration between ``Namsan`` and ``Yongsan-gu`` air quality monitoring stations show similar values with averaged concentration in the whole Seoul. The correlation factors in both sites were 0.865, 0.828 in 2005, 2006, respectively. For ``Bukhansan`` and ``Gangbuk-gu`` air quality monitoring stations, different from the results mentioned above, they showed clear differences as altitude changes. PM10 concentration in ``Bukhansan`` monitoring stations was 10 μg/m3 lower than ``Gangbuk-gu`` monitoring station which is located near the ground. Also, averaged PM10 concentration in ``Bukhansan`` and ``Gangbuk-gu`` monitoring stations was lower than that in the whole Seoul. When comparing NO2 concentration between ``Namsan`` and ``Yongsan-gu`` monitoring stations, NO2 concentration in ``Namsan`` monitoring station was lower than ``Yongsan-gu`` monitoring station. For NO2 concentration in ``Bukhansan``, ``Gangbuk-gu`` and ``the whole Seoul``, there were the same pattern in ``Gangbuk-gu`` and the ``the whole Seoul`` and low values in ``Bukhansan`` monitoring station. The correlation factors of NO2 concentration in ``Bukhansan`` and ``Gangbukgu`` was 0.525, 0.549 in 2005, 2006, respectively, which stands for low correlationship.
본 논문에서는 모바일 단말을 이용한 센서 모니터링 및 서비스 제공 방법을 소개하였다. 대기 오염 정보와 같은 대규모 데이터를 모바일 3 차원 가상 환경을 이용하여 효율적으로 시각화 하는 방법을 제시하였다. 사람이 일정 시간 이상 노출 되었을 경우 위해가 발생 할 수 있는 오염도 수치를 기준으로 등방 평면을 생성하여 지역 전반에 걸친 오염 물질 분포 및 확산양상을 시각화 한다. 사용자의 현재 위치의 오염 정도와 더불어 사용자가 속한 지역 전반에 걸친 대기 오염 상태 정보를 3 차원으로 구성된 가상의 환경을 통해 제공 받을 수 있다. 이를 위해 센서 데이터의 서버 내부에서 모바일 기기 용 시각화 데이터로의 변환 방법과 무선네트워크를 통한 서버와 모바일 기기와의 유기적인 연동 방안을 제안 하였다. 그리고 보다 직관적이고 편리한 서비스 제공을 위한 다중 모달리티 렌더링 기법을 소개하였다. In this paper, we propose sensor monitoring and service providing method using mobile device. We also discuss about efficient visualization method for handling massive data set, like air pollutant degree which come through multiple sensors. To mark the area which have air pollutant degree more than certain amount and to describe its spreading condition, we adopt iso-surface generation method. By doing that, user can attain the current air pollution degree using 3D virtual reality constructed in mobile system environment. To make it possible in efficient manner, we devise close integrated system structure between mobile device and server. To provide an information with intuitive way, we adopt multi modality rendering method.
본 논문에서는 비전 기반의 실시간 대기오염 모니터링 시스템을 제안한다. 제안된 시스템은 먼저 실시간으로 제공되는 동영상을 분석하여 차종 별 대수와 평균속도 등의 교통 파라미터를 실시간으로 추출하고, 이를 바탕으로 대기 중의 CO, NO2등의 밀도를 추정하여 시간대별 대기 오염도를 모니터링 한다. 이를 위해 제안된 시스템은 배경모델을 이용한 차량 추출, 차종 별 윤곽선 및 크기 정보를 이용하여 템플릿 기반으로 차종을 인식하고 이를 추적하여 대수 및 속도를 인식한다. 제안된 시스템의 평가를 위해 교통이 밀집된 공간에 설치하여 테스트하였고, 실제 결과와 비교한 결과, 차량 속도에서 정확도 83.3%, 차종인식에서 정확도 86.98%를 보였다. 이러한 실험 결과는 제안된 시스템이 다양한 지역에서 실시간 대기오염물질 배출량을 산정하는데 적용될 수 있음을 보여주었다.
The characteristics of flow and pollutant dispersion for fire scenarios in an urban area are numerically investigated. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled to a mesoscale weather research and forecasting(WRF) model is used in this study. In order to more accurately represent the effect of topography and buildings, the geographic information system(GIS) data is used as an input data of the CFD model. Considering prevailing wind, firing time, and firing points, four fire scenarios are setup in April 2008 when fire events occurred most frequently in recent five years. It is shown that the building configuration mainly determines wind speed and direction in the urban area. The pollutant dispersion patterns are different for each fire scenario, because of the influence of the detailed flow. The pollutant concentration is high in the horse-shoe vortex and recirculation zones (caused by buildings) close to the fire point. It thus means that the potential damage areas are different for each fire scenario due to the diffetent flow and dispersion patterns. These results suggest that the accurate understanding of the urban flow is important to assess the effect of the pollutant dispersion caused by fire in an urban area. The present study also demonstrates that CFD model can be useful for the assessment of urban environment.