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고구려 적석총과 관련된 연구는 적석총과 봉토분 사이의 선후관계(20세기 초반), 적석총의 기원문제 (20세기 중반), 적석총의 형식분류(20세기 중반 이후), 왕릉급 적석총에 대한 피장자 비정(최근)으로 이어지고 있다. 본고에서는 吉林省文物考古硏究所에서 2002년에 발간한‘洞溝古墓群-1997年調査測繪報告'의 적석 총 규모데이터를 기초로 하여 분석하였고, 최근에 나온 보고서를 참고하여 수정 및 보완과정을 거쳤으며, 통구고분군의 고구려 적석총 중에서 잔존상태가 비교적 양호한 적석총 3,329기를 선정하였다. 통계프로그램을 활용한 분석결과 통구고분군 적석총은 형식별로 규모가 차이나는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 계단적석총은 무기단ㆍ기단적석총보다는 확연하게 큰 규모를 가지고 있는 것이 분명하며, 이를 같은 기준으로 분류하는 것은 무리가 있어 보인다. 무기단적석총과 기단적석총은 규모에 있어서는 차이가 크게 나지 않으나, 범위에 있어 약간의 차이를 보인다. 고분군별 분포양상을 정리하면 첫째, 왕릉급으로 분류할 수 있는 초대형적석총은 총 37기이며, 우산하고분군은 다른 고분군에 비해 초대형으로 분류된 적석총이 많이 분포하고 있다. 둘째, 적석총의 규모는 형식별로 획기에 있어 차이가 나지만, 규모가 곧 시기차를 반영하는 것은 아니다. 셋째, 분석자료 중 97.4%에 해당하는 적석총이 중소형에 속하며, 중형 중에서도 소형에 속하는 중형Ⅲ군에 집중하고 있는 것은 적석총이 비단 왕들만을 위한 묘제가 아니라 일정계급 이상의 귀족이면 누구나 축조할 수 있는 묘제임을 확인할 수 있다. 적석총의 규모에 따른 분석결과를 통해서 집안 통구고분군의 고구려적석총은 총 18개의 군으로 분류된다. 이들은 4ㆍ5ㆍ6ㆍ8ㆍ14ㆍ16ㆍ17군 등 무기단적석총군과 3ㆍ6ㆍ7ㆍ10ㆍ12ㆍ13ㆍ16ㆍ18군 등 기단적석총 및 계단적석총이 혼재된 군으로 크게 분류되며, 초대형적석총의 경우는 다른 적석총들과 혼재되어 분포하는 경우와 독립적인 입지를 확보한 경우로 구분해 볼 수 있다. 또한, 군집 중에는 적석총의 형식에 따라서 4군 → 3군 → 2군으로, 5군 → 6군으로, 11군은 서쪽에서 동쪽으로, 13군 → 12군으로, 18군은 마선하를 따라 남에서 북으로 열상 분포하는 경향성을 확인할 수 있었다. The research concerning the Koguryo stone-mound tomb has progressed from the precedence relations between the mound tomb and the stone-mound tomb (the early 20th century), through the question of the origin of the stone-mound tomb (the mid 20th century), and the classification of the forms of the stone-mound tomb (after the mid 20th century), to the decision of the buried of royal level stone-mound tomb (recently). The research was primarily based on the scale data of the stone-mound tomb in ‘TongguTombComplex-TheReportonthe1997MeasurementSurvey(洞溝古墓群-1997年調査測繪報告)'published by the Jilin Archaeological Institute (吉林省文物考古硏究所) in 2002, and in Chapter III modified and supplemented by referring to a more recent report. Of the Koguryo stone-mound tombs in Tonggu Tomb Complex, relatively wellpreserved 3,329 tombs were selected to be researched. The research proves that the stone-mound tombs in Tonggu Tomb Complex show different periodical transitions by type. It is obvious that the stair stone-mound tomb(階段積石塚) has distinctively larger scale than the non-stylobated stone-mound tomb(無基壇積石塚) and stylobated stone-mound tomb(基壇積石塚), thus making it inadequate to classify them by applying the same standard. The non-stylobated stone-mound tomb and stylobated stone-mound tomb do not substantially differ in scale, but show little difference in range. A brief description on the clustering pattern by tomb complex is as follows. Firstly, there are 37 ‘ultra large'stone-mound tombs that can be classified as the royal level, and there are more ultra large stone-mound tombs in Usanha tomb complex than others. Secondly, the scale of stone-mound tombs differ in periodical transition depending on their types, but the scale does not directly reflect the periodical difference. It has been indicated that in the late years of stair stone-mound tomb the scale of the tomb rather decreased with more sophisticated process of the stone, presumably to focus more heavily on the exterior of stone-mound tombs. Thirdly, 97.4% of the subject of the research falls under small and medium scale, particularly concentrating on the mid-small or medium III scale. This indicated that stone-mound tombs were not merely for the kings but for any nobility of over certain class. The stone-mound tombs in Tonggu Tomb Complex have been classified into 18 groups and each group's characteristics and clustering pattern have been examined. The 18 groups of tombs in Tonggu Tomb Complex are largely divided into two: Group 4, 5, 6, 8, 14, 16, 17 of non-stylobated stone-mound tombs and Group 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 16, 18 of a mixture of stylobated stone-mound tombs and stair stone-mound tombs. In the case of ultra large stone-mound tombs, they can be divided into two types of coexisting along with other stone-mound tombs and holding an independent position. Further, the lineal distribution tendencies by type were discovered in the clusters of stone-mound tombs: Group 4 → 3 → 2, Group 5 → 6, west east of Group 11, Group 13 → 12, south north along the Masen River of Group 18.
This research is not only for understanding the current lifeguard licence system through the comparative analysis of several organizations which are issuing licences, but also for furnishing basic information for lifeguard research. To achieve the objective, the documentary research was carried among 10 out of 15 organizations which are designated as a official education centers by Korea coast guard and. Also, through comparative analysis of Japanese organizations, the following results were come out for developing the basic data of education and evaluation to meet domestic circumstances in Korea. First, education for qualification should be carried depends on the areas by 5 levels such as CPR rescuer, water life saver, basic-surf guard, advance-surf guard, RB driver. Second, only authorized organizations should manage and control the qualification by minimizing the scope of domestic approval. Third, according to the possibility of the agency business for the life guard and rafting training after revising the water-leisure law and launching Water Leisure Safety Association, the inland waters and outland waters should be distinguish like Japan. And also, the contents of lifeguard training programs should be unified and confident. Fourth, an institutional strategy for joining the insurance obligatorily should be provided for all the life guards to keep their own safety. Last, re-evaluation of the life guards should be carried by holding the life guard contest in Korea.
The drop jump is a popular form of plyometric exercise often udnertaken to enhance jump height. Despite its popularity why the drop jump is superior as a training method for jumping ability than other jump styles? That is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare among the jumping styles; countermovement jump, drop jump, squat jump, and then to identify which one is more effective training method at aspect of overload and specificity. Motion and force data were recorded for each performance and used to compute kinematic and kinetic variables, including jump height, hip, knee and ankle angles, resultant joint force, resultant joint power, maximum GRF and a number of temporal variables. Teh average of 8 trials(n=8) for each jump styles(countermovement jump, drop jump, squat jump) was used in a series of repeated measures ANOVA. We conclude that the countermovement jump may be more effectiv ethan the drop jump and the squat jump at jump performance, that the drop jump may be more effectiveh tan the countermovement jump and the squat jump at aspect of overload for enhancing the peak propulsion during upward phase, and that the drop jump has a greater training exercise specificity to performance a quick jump performance than the others.
The main objective of school computer education in Korea is to increase computer literacy of students. The specific objectives include understanding about computers correctly, improving scientific and problem solving ability, and fostering positive attitude about information society. It cannot be denied that current computer education is oriented toward teaching computer programming in BASIC. Cumputer programing is one area of computer literacy. However, it should not take over computer education in schools. Various subjects about computer and its social political implications should be added to curricular of computer education. Recent massive flow of computers into schools resulted in concerns about cost and types of after service. The cost for after service should be provided to each school on government level. Also, there should be research on using different types of computers installed before. There were often reported problems about LAN system used in the classroom. Now is the time we should examine LAN with educational perspectives. Educational software now used in schools is most CAI programs. There are seldom education support programs such as CMI programs. This is partly due to the scarcity of specialists in educational computing. Also basic research on how to design and develop courseware is needed. It should be noted that there is no authoring tool developed until now. Teacher education has been emphasized frequently by many educators and scholars. However, well prepared materials for teacher education are urgent in both preservice and in service education. Current curriculum is focused on introduction to hardware organization and computer programming, It should be enlarged to include implications of computer to school education, educational applications of computers, etc. The followings are suggested for better computer education in Korean schools. First, more detailed support should be provided on the following; 1. giving financial and administrative support on government level. 2. supporting educational software house. 3. establishing related departments in colleges and universities for training specialists in computer education. Second, basic research on computer education should be conducted especially for the following: 1. directions of computer education. 2. contents and methods of computer education. 3. development of sophisticated CAI programs. Third, besides CAI, another approach should be developed to make teachers familiar with computers so that they can have positive attitude about computer. Finally, continuous support and concerns should be provided to computer education by shcool level.
This paper is analyzed a new modulation method of OSW(Optimized Sine-Wave) modulation strategy for cascaded H-bridge multi-level inverter. The inverter structure was modified with the maximum output voltage level, and the switching angle was calculated easily to adjust the requested Vrms of the output. The suggested modulation method could make output waveform very close to the ideal sine wave, and the THD value was improved also remarkably.
There are many changes in the electrical propulsion control system field along with fast development semi-conductor field. Research for electrical propulsion system that have profitable point excellently pulsation and noise aspect than existent Diesel propulsion system is progressing variously. This paper proposed modelling and simulation of independence multiphase PMSM propulsion electric motor drive system and new control techniques to use in propulsion system and verified effectiveness and validity through an experiment in reply.
본 연구에서는 양극산화 처리에 따른 고강도 PAN계 탄소섬유의 표면 특성 변화가 기계적 계면 물성에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 탄소섬유의 표면성질은 산·염기도, SEM, XPS, 그리고 접촉각 측정을 통하여 알아보았으며, 복합재료의 기계적 계면 특성은 ILSS와 K_IC를 통하여 고찰하였다. 탄소섬유 표면의 산도와 O_ls/C_ls가 증가하였는데, 이는 산소관능기의 발달에 기인하고, 양극산화된 탄소섬유의 표면자유에너지의 증가는 극성요소의 증가에 기인하는 것으로 사료된다. ILSS와 K_IC 같은 기계적 계면 성질은 양극산화로 향상되어졌는데, 이러한 결과는 좋은 젖음성이 최종 복합재료의 섬유와 에폭시 수지 매트릭스 사이의 계면결합력을 증가시키는 중요한 역할을 하기 때문으로 사료된다. In this work, the effect of anodic oxidation on surface characteristics of high strength PAN-based carbon fibers was investigated in mechanical interfacial properties of composites. The surface properties of the carbon fibers were determined by acid-base values, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angles. And their mechanical interfacial properties of the composites were studied in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and critical stress intensity factor (K_IC). As a result, the acidity or the O_ls/C_ls ratio of carbon fiber surfaces was increased, due to the development of the oxygen functional groups. Consequently, the anodic oxidation led to an increase in surface free energy of the carbon fibers, mainly due to the increase of its specific (or polar) component. The mechanical interfacial properties of the composites, including ILSS and K_IC, had been improved in the anodic oxidation on fibers. These results were explained that good wetting played an important role in improving the degree of adhesion at interfaces between fibers and epoxy resin matrix.