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Background: Vitamin D is known to play roles in immunity through the stimulation of Toll-like receptors, regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and increasing antimicrobial peptide production. Recent studies have revealed the role of vitamin D deficiency in the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective: We aimed to assess the correlation between vitamin D concentrations and the severity of AD and also elucidate the relationship between the amount of sunlight exposure and serum 25-Hydroxy vitamin (25(OH)D) levels using the sunlight exposure questionnaire. Methods: Sixty-one Korean patients with AD and 120 healthy control patients were enrolled. We evaluated the disease severity using the SCORAD index and measured the serum levels of 25(OH)D, and total IgE levels and eosinophil counts. All patients completed a one-week recall sunlight exposure questionnaire. Results: There was no significant difference in the 25(OH)D levels between the two groups. Eosinophil counts (p <0.001) were significantly higher in patients with AD than in control patients. A significant inverse correlation (r=-0.309, p=0.015) was found between the SCORAD score and 25(OH)D levels. A significant positive correlation (r=0.236, p=0.001) was found between the weekly sunlight exposure score and the serum levels of 25(OH)D. Conclusion: Our study suggests that vitamin D deficiency is related to the severity of AD and the serum 25(OH)D concentration is positively correlated with the sunlight exposure score. (Korean J Dermatol 2016;54(2):105∼111)
This study attempted to determine important meteorological parameters related to airborne pollen concentrations in urban areas. Hourly pollen measurement data were prepared from a regular sampling with a volumetric Burkard spore trap at a site in the Ulsan city, during the spring season (March~May) of 2011. Results showed that the daily mean and maximum concentrations for total pollen counts during the spring season were statistically significantly correlated with both air temperature and wind speed; daily mean pollen concentration was the most highly related to daily maximum temperature (r=0.567, p?0.001). It was also identified that pollen concentration has a stronger relationship with wind speed at the rural site than at the urban one, which confirms that strong wind conditions over the pollen sources area can be favorable for pollen dispersal, resulting in increases in airborne pollen concentrations downwind. From the results of an oak-pollen episode analysis, it was found that there was a significant relationship between hourly variation of oak pollen concentrations and dynamic meteorological factors, such as wind and mixing height (representing the boundary layer depth); especially, a strong southwestern wind and elevated mixing height was associated with high nocturnal concentrations of oak pollen. This study suggests that temperature, wind, and mixing height can be important considerations in explaining the pollen concentration variations. Additional examination of complex interactions of multiple meteorological parameters affecting pollen behavior should be carried out in order to better understand and predict the temporal and spatial pollen distribution in urban areas.
This paper examines the effects of the partial solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 across the Korean peninsular on surface temperature and ozone concentrations in over the Busan metropolitan region (BMR). The observed data in the BMR demonstrated that the solar eclipse phenomenon clearly affects the surface ozone concentration as well as the air temperature. The decrease in temperature ranging from 1.2 to 5.4℃ was observed at 11 meteorological sites during the eclipse as a consequence of the solar radiation decrease. A large temperature drop exceeding 4℃ was observed at most area (8 sites) of the BMR. Significant ozone drop (18∼29 ppb) was also observed during the eclipse mainly due to the decreased efficiency of the photochemical ozone formation. The ozone concentration started to decrease at approximately 1 to 2 hours after the event and reached its minimum value for a half hour to 2 hours after maximum eclipse. The rate of ozone fall ranged between 0.18 and 0.49 ppb/min. The comparison between ozone measurements and the expected values derived from the fitted curve analysis showed that the maximum drop in ozone concentrations occurred at noon or 1 PM and was pronounced at industrial areas.
정주희 ( Ju Hee Jeong ), 오인보 ( In Bo Oh ), 강윤희 ( Yoon Hee Kang ), 방진희 ( Jin Hee Bang ), 안혜연 ( Hye Yeon An ), 석현배 ( Hyeon Bae Seok ), 김유근 ( Yoo Keun Kim ), 홍지형 ( Ji Hyung Hong ), 김지영 ( Ji Young Kim ) 한국환경과학회 2016 한국환경과학회지 Vol.25 No.1
In order to improve the prediction of the regional air quality modeling in the Seoul metropolitan area, a sensitivity analysis using two PBL and microphysics (MP) options of the WRF model was performed during four seasons. The results from four sets of the simulation experiments (EXPs) showed that meteorological variables (especially wind field) were highly sensitive to the choice of PBL options (YSU or MYJ) and no significant differences were found depending on MP options (WDM6 or Morrison) regardless of specific time periods, i.e. day and night, during four seasons. Consequently, the EXPs being composed of YSU PBL option were identified to produce better results for meteorological elements (especially wind field) regardless of seasons. On the other hand, the accuracy of all simulations for summer and winter was somewhat lower than those for spring and autumn and the effect according to physics options was highly volatile by geographical characteristics of the observation site.
The seasonal variations of ozone (O3) concentrations were investigated with regard to the relationship between O3 and wind distributions at two different sites (Jung Ang (JA): a semi-closed topography and Seo Chang (SC): a closed topography) within a valley city (Yangsan) and their comparison between these sites (JA and SC) and two non-valley sites (Dae Jeo (DJ) and Sang Nam (SN)) located downwind from coastal cities (Busan and Ulsan). This analysis was performed using the data sets of hourly O3 concentrations, meteorological factors (especially, wind speed and direction), and those on high O3 days exceeding the 8-h standard (60 ppb) during 2008-2009. In summer and fall (especially in June and October), the monthly mean values of the daily maximum O3 concentrations and the number of high O3 days at JA (and SC) were relatively higher than those at DJ (and SN). The increase in daytime O3 concentrations at JA in June was likely to be primarily impacted by the transport of O3 and its precursors from the coastal emission sources in Busan along the dominant southwesterly winds (about 5 m/s) under the penetration of sea breeze condition, compared to other months and sites. Such a phenomenon at SC in October was likely to be mainly caused by the accumulation of O3 and its precursors due to the relatively weak winds under the localized stagnant weather condition rather than the contribution of regional transport from the emission sources in Busan and Ulsan.
The typical characteristics of seasonal winds were studied around the Pohang using two-stage (average linkage then k-means) clustering technique based on u- and v-component wind at 850 hpa from 2004 to 2006 (obtained the Pohang station) and a high-resolution (0.5 km grid for the finest domain) WRF-UCM model along with an up-to-date detailed land use data during the most predominant pattern in each season. The clustering analysis identified statistically distinct wind patterns (7, 4, 5, and 3 clusters) representing each spring, summer, fall, and winter. During the spring, the prevailed pattern (80 days) showed weak upper northwesterly flow and late sea-breeze. Especially at night, land-breeze developed along the shoreline was converged around Yeongil Bay. The representative pattern (92 days) in summer was weak upper southerly flow and intensified sea-breeze combined with sea surface wind. In addition, convergence zone between the large scale background flow and well-developed land-breeze was transported around inland (industrial and residential areas). The predominant wind distribution (94 days) in fall was similar to that of spring showing weak upper-level flow and distinct sea-land breeze circulation. On the other hand, the wind pattern (117 days) of high frequency in winter showed upper northwesterly and surface westerly flows, which was no change in daily wind direction.
강윤희 ( Yoon Hee Kang ), 오인보 ( In Bo Oh1 ), 정주희 ( Ju Hee Jeong ), 방진희 ( Jin Hee Bang ), 김유근 ( Yoo Keun Kim ), 김순태 ( Soon Tae Kim ), 김은혜 ( Eun Hye Kim ), 홍지형 ( Ji Hyung Hong ), 이대균 ( Dae Gyun Lee ) 한국환경과학회 2016 한국환경과학회지 Vol.25 No.1
A comparison of ozone simulations in the seoul metropolitan region (SMR) using the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model with SAPRC99 and CB05 chemical mechanisms (i.e. EXP-SP99 and EXP-CB05) has been conducted during four seasons of 2012. The model results showed that the differences in average ozone concentrations between the EXP-SP99 and EXP-CB05 were found to be large in summer, but very small in the other seasons. This can be attributed that the SAPRC99 tends to produce more ozone than the CB05 in urban area like the SMR with low VOC/NOx ratio under high ozone conditions. Through quantitative comparison between two mechanisms for the summer, it was found that the average ozone concentrations from the EXP-SP99 were about 3 ppb higher than those from the EXP-CB05 and agreed well with the observations. Horizontal differences in ozone concentrations between SAPRC99 and CB05 showed that significant differences were found in southern part of the SMR and over the sea near the coast in summer.
Modeling the effects of high-rise buildings on thermo-dynamic conditions and meteorological fields over a coastal urban area was conducted using the modified meso-urban meteorological model (Urbanized MM5; uMM5) with the urban canopy parameterization (UCP) and the high-resolution inputs (urban morphology, land-use/landcover sub-grid distribution, and high-quality digital elevation model data sets). Sensitivity simulations was performed during a typical sea-breeze episode (4~8 August 2006). Comparison between simulations with real urban morphology and changed urban morphology (i.e. high-rise buildings to low residential houses) showed that highrise buildings could play an important role in urban heat island and land-sea breeze circulation. The major changes in urban meteorologic conditions are followings: significant increase in daytime temperature nearly by 1.0℃ due to sensible heat flux emitted from high density residential houses, decrease in nighttime temperature nearly by 1.0℃ because of the reduction in the storage heat flux emitted from high-rise buildings, and large increase in wind speed (maximum 2 m s<SUP>-1</SUP>) during the daytime due to lessen drag-force or increased gradient temperature over coastal area.
To analyze the physical processes of sea-breeze development over a coastal urban area, numerical simulation for seabreeze (SB) and its frontogenesis was examined based on urbanized MM5 (uMM5) with urban canopy parameterization. On 6 August 2006, SB and its front were well developed in Busan under a weak offshore flow. As a result of wind vector, ZVB (Zero Velocity Boundary), potential temperature obtained the uMM5, at 0900 LST, SB advanced below 200 m height in the coastal areas and the internal boundary grew with the urban coastal region. At noon, the height of the SB head with updraft was approximately one and a half times (~600 m) higher than its depth in central urban. Applying the frontogenesis function, the SB structure for frontogenesis and frontolysis were complicated spatially; the dynamic effects of wind (i.e. convergence and tilting term) could play an important role in the growth of SB, especially the convergence effect.
정종현 ( Jong Hyeon Jung ), 오인보 ( In Bo Oh ), 피영규 ( Young Gyu Phee ), 남미란 ( Mi Ran Nam ), 황미경 ( Mi Kyoung Hwang ), 방진희 ( Jin Hee Bang ), 전수빈 ( Soo Bin Jeon ), 이상섭 ( Sang Sup Lee ), 유승도 ( Seung Do Yu ), 김병석 ( Byun) 한국산업보건학회 (구 한국산업위생학회) 2015 한국산업보건학회지 Vol.25 No.3
Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess airborne particulate matter(PM) pollution and its effect on health of residents living near Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex in Daegu metropolitan region. Methods: The California Puff(CALPUFF) dispersion model, version 5.8, which can estimate the dispersion direction and range of airborn PM10 was used to determine the possible areas affected by PM10 pollutants emitted from Ansim briquette fuel complex. The CALPUFF modeling with 200 m grid-cell resolution was performed based on PM10 emissions estimated from the amount of coal consumption in the fuel complex for four months in 2012. The Weather Research and Forecasting(WRF) fields were processed using CALMET to produce CALPUFF-ready meteorological inputs. Also, the distance from Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex to the residence of each environmental pneumoconiosis patient was analyzed. In addition, the affecting region of the pollutants emitted from briquette factories in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex was determined. Results: CALPUFF modeling results showed that the highest concentrations of PM10 were found near around the fuel complex. The modeled PM10 distributions were characterized by significant decreases in concentration with distance from the complex. Seasonally, the highest concentration of 45 μg/m³ was calculated in October which was mostly due to the distinct variation of amount of emission. Additional modeling with the maximum PM10 emission of about 88 tons per year in 1986 showed that the highest concentration in October was nearly increased by 8 times than the concentration modeled with emission of 2010. As a result of medical examination and interviews for the residents in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex and its surroundings, 8 environmental pneumoconiosis patients were found. These patients do not have occupational exposure and history. These patients have lived 0.3∼1.1 km area in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex and its surroundings. Conclusions: Airborne particles emitted from Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex can contribute to significant increase in PM10 concentration in residential areas near around the complex. Especially, the residents near fuel complex may exposed to the pollutants emitted from the factories in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex.