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본고에서는 롬 12:12-16 단락을 중심으로 바울이 가지는 율법에 대한 입장이 무엇인지, 이 단락을 기록한 의도가 무엇인지, 그것을 위해 바울이 어떤 방법을 이용하는지에 대해 연구하였다. 바울은 구원과 비슷한 맥락으로 여겨지는 ‘칭의’에 대해 그의 서신들에서 “믿음”을 강조한다. 하지만 그는 이론적으로 “오직 믿음”을 주창하지는 않는다. 그는 그리스도교의 뿌리가 유대교 및 유대인들에게 있음을 인정하는바(롬 11:17-36)와 같이, 그들이 가지는 ‘율법’으로 인한 ‘칭의’의 가능성을 인정한다. 하지만 그것은 단순히 이론일 뿐이다. 바울은 ‘죄’라는 변수 때문에 모든 인간이 모든 율법을, 계속 행할 수 없음을 직시하고, 그것에 대한 대안으로 ‘믿음’을 제시한다. 본고의 본문은 바울이 율법의 행위로 인한 칭의가 이론적으로 가능함에 대해 동의한다는 것을 나타낸다. This study examines Paul’s view of the salvation by the works of the law in Romans 2:12-16. As is often claimed, justification by faith is the major element in Paul’s soteriology in Romans. Yet, it remains unclear whether Paul propagates the notion of a doctrinal position universally applied in any context. I argue that Paul’s understanding of the law as a medium of salvation is attested in Romans 2:12-26. Instead of explicating “Sola Fide” in theory, Paul admits and raises the possibility of salvation by the works of the law. Paul suspects that all human can’t observe all of the law and that is where justification by faith comes in. At the same time Paul hardly denies the possibility of the justification by the works of the law.
본고는 그리스-로마 의학에 집중하여 치유 기록에 대한 새로운 해석의 길로 나아가는 가능성을 확인하고자 한다. 플라톤을 시작으로 아리스토텔레스, 히포크라테스, 갈레노스의 의학 사상을 확인하고, 특별히 몸을 뜻하는 σῶμα라는 단어에 주목하여 당시 그리스-로마 의학 내에서 나타나는 인간이해의 영역을 살핀다. 그리고 신약성서 중 상대적으로 의학적이라 할 수 있는 누가복음을 선택해 σῶμα 용례를 찾고, 관련 본문을 해석하여 누가복음의 저자가 가지고 있던 인간 이해 특징을 확인한다. 이를 통해 누가복음은 히포크라테스, 갈레노스와 유사하게 일원론적 인간 인식, 몸 인식을 가지고 있었음을 확인하고, 이는 그리스-로마 의학 사상의 흐름 내에서 거리감 없이 구분될 수 있는 하나의 인식론임을 주장한다. This study sets out to focus on Greco-Roman medicine and examine the possibilities of paving a new way of interpreting the healing records in the Gospel of Luke. After reviewing the medical ideas of Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen, the research delves into the domain of human understanding in Greco-Roman medicine with a special focus on the word of the human body, σῶμα. The Gospel of Luke, which is considered to have relatively greater medical concern than the other Gospels in the New Testament, is analyzed to deal with the examples of σῶμα. While attempting to interpret the texts related with the topic, this study examines the characteristics of human understanding in the Gospel of Luke. This interpretation indicates that Luke has a monistic perception of human beings and their bodies similar to that of Hippocrates and Galen. Luke’s idea reflects upon an epistemology within the flow of Greco-Roman medical ideas.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Angelica gigas Nakai extract(AGNE) and Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2 (BP2) on atopic dermatitis (AD) induced by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice. Methods: In the experiment, we divided mice into four groups: a control group, a DNCB group, an AGNE group, and an AGNE+BP2 group. Then we examined the changes in scratching frequency, clinical aspects on dorsum skin, immunoglobulin (IgE), cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and expression of COX-2. Resutls: From the experiment, the scratching frequency was significantly dropped in AGNE group and AGNE+BP2 group. Clinical observations of dorsum skin, there were a severe keratotic lesion and drop of dead skin cell in DNCB group, but symptoms of AD were decreased 39.6% in AGNE group and 49.6% in AGNE+BP2 group during 3 weeks. IgE, TNF-α and IL-6 were decreased significantly in both AGNE and AGNE+BP2 group. Expression of COX-2 was also decreased significantly in both groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, these data suggest that AGNE can decrease symptoms of AD and BP2 makes AGNE more effective. So AGNE can be useful herbal therapy for AD.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease, which is a chornic gastrointestinal disorder. Zizyphus jujube (Z. jujube) has been used as a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation. However, the regulatory effect of Z. jujube in intestinal inflammation have not been understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of Z. jujube on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colits. The colitis mice were induced by drinking water containing 5% DSS for 7 days. Our findings showed that Z. jujube attenuated the DSS-induced loss of body weight and shortening of colorectum and improved DAT score. Additionally, Z. jujube inhibited the interleukin (IL)-6 levels in colon tissue, which were elevated in DSS-treated group. Taken together, we provide experimental evidence that Z. jujubemight be a useful therapeutic drug for patients with UC.
Objectives : In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of Careswell on human mast cell-mediated allergy inflammation in vitro and pruritogen-induced scratching behavior in vivo. Method : The Careswell was extract by distilled water. The anti-itching effects of Careswell were investigated on the compound 48/80 (50 μg/kg) or histamine (100 μg/kg) induced scratching behavior male ICR mice for 30 min by an observer blind. Terfenadine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. The cell toxicity of Careswell was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The regulatory effect of Careswell on interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α levels was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI) stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). Also, we evaluated the effect of Careswell on PMACI induced the activation of Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) into nucleus by Western blot analysis. Result : The results revealed that the oral administration of Careswell (200 mg/kg, p.o.) attenuated the compound 48/80 or histamine-induced scratching behavior in mice. We showed that Careswell significantly reduced the PMACI-induced the production of IL-6 (0.5-1 mg/ml) and TNF-α (0.1-1 mg/ml). Additionally, Careswell significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1. Conclusion : Collectively, the findings of this study provide us with a novel insight into the pharmacological actions of Careswell as a potential molecule for use in the treatment of allergic inflammation diseases.
Calcium intake has been insufficient in all age groups in previous Korean national surveys. This study was conducted to investigate calcium intake in Korean and American populations at different ages. We analyzed two national survey data: the 2007∼2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the 2007∼2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Statistically, survey procedures were applied using the weight, cluster, and strata variables. The mean calcium intake of Koreans at ages of 1∼2 y, 3∼5 y, 6∼11 y, 12∼18 y, 19∼64 y, and 65+y was lower than American populations at those ages. The sufficient proportions based on Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 1∼2 y, 3∼5 y, 6∼11 y, 12∼18 y, 19∼64 y, and 65+y in Koreans were 45.5%, 33.1%, 24.3%, 16.6%, 32.7%, and 19.0%. While the sufficient rates based on American EAR of 1∼3 y, 4∼8 y, 9∼13 y, 14∼18 y, 19∼30 y, 31∼50 y, 51∼70 y, and 71+y in US population were 88.5%, 54.4%, 35.2%, 35.8%, 55.3%, 55.2%, 40.6%, and 24.5%. Overall, the major foods contributing to calcium intakes in Koreans were milk, baechukimchi, and anchovies, whereas, milk products, pasta, or bread were major contributions to calcium in American populations. The calcium supplement intakes in the American population were 5.5 mg (1∼2 y), 15.5 mg (3∼5 y), 13.9 mg (6∼11 y), 35.7 mg (12∼18 y), 150.3 mg (19∼64 y) and 334.4 mg (≥65 y). These results suggest that Korean adolescents and older adults are the most insufficient in dietary calcium intakes among Koreans. In order to accurately estimate calcium intakes in Korean populations, calcium supplements and calcium-fortified foods should be considered.