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대법원 2015. 2. 12. 선고 2013후1726 판결에서 제시한 PbP 청구항의 해석 법리는 기존의 PbP 청구항의 논란을 불식시키는 데 있어서는 한계가 있고, 그러한 점에서 많은 분석과 비판의 대상이 되고 있는 것이 사실이다. 그렇지만, 대법원 판결이 제시한 `물건동일성설`은 제s조방법을 영향을 미치는 의미 내에서 고려하여 PbP 청구항을 해석해야 하는것을 판시한 것으로서, 이와 다른 전제 하에서 위 대법원 판결을 비판하는 것은 타당하지 않다고 생각된다. 또한, 대법원 판결에서의 `물건동일 성설`은 제조방법을 고려하여 물건의 구조나 성질을 파악하는 것으로서, 청구범위에 기재된 제조방법 자체로 한정되는 `제조방법한정설`과는 분명히 구분된다. 위 대법원 판결이 PbP 청구항의 유형에 따른 구분 없이 동일한 해석기준을 제시함에 따라, 향후에는 `제조방법이 물건의 구조나 성질에 영향을 미치는지 여부에 대한 판단` 및 그러한 경우 물건의 구성을 어떻게 파악하여 대비하여야 하는지에 대한 검토가 중요하게 되었다. 위 대법원 판결은 원칙적인 물건동일성설 적용의 예외사항으로서 `발명의 실체에 비하여 권리범위가 지나치게 넓다는 등의 명백히 불합리한 사정`을 제시하였는데, PbP 청구항으로 기재된 발명의 실체적 내용이 권리범위와 부합하는가의 관점에서, PbP 청구항 해석 시에 `명백히 불합리한 사정`의 존재여부를 고려할 필요가 있다. 또한, PbP 청구항의 해석 경우 청구범위 문언 그대로 해석하는 것이 아니고 처음부터 물건동일성설에 의하여 일단 물건의 발명으로 해석하여 보고 그러한 해석이 명백히 불합리하다고 인정되는 경우에는 청구범위 문언 그대로 해석하는 것으로서, 일반적인 청구범위 해석에 있어서의 제한 해석과는 그 구체적인 의미가 다르다는 것에 유의할 필요가 있다. Since two Korean Supreme Court`s decisions(2011Hu927 and 2013Hu1726) presented new construction rule regarding Product by Process(PbP) claim in 2015, they have been under a lot of controversies and critics. However, under the product identity theory articulated by the Supreme Court`s ruling, the process element in PbP claim must be considered as long as it affects the product itself. Criticisms based on other interpretations of the ruling(e.g. it means total disregard of process element) seem not to be reasonable. Additionally, the product identity theory under the ruling should be distinguished from the process limitation theory, in that the product identity theory should identify the structure and characteristics of the product through the consideration of process element. Because the ruling of the Supreme Court presented a unified construction rule regardless of the types of PbP claims, the questions such as whether process element affects product itself and how, if so, can identify structure and characteristics of product are to be addressed. Moreover, the ruling presented `clearly unreasonable situation` as an exception to the application of the product identity theory. The criteria of clearly unreasonable situation should be examined not only by considering the desirability of two track(patentability and infringement) theory, but also by considering invention substance.
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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of massage therapy of blind masseurs on pain, sleep quality, depression and quality of life of adult women with chronic pain. For this purpose, the subjects underwent therapeutic massage therapy of Blind masseurs once a week for 10 weeks, and the changes in the scores of pain, sleep quality, depression, and quality of life were examined before and after intervention. As a result, the subjects pain scores were significantly decreased statistically (p <0.001) and the quality of sleep was significantly increased (p <0.001), and massage therapy has been shown to relieve pain and improve sleep quality in adult women. In addition, depressive symptoms score in adult women before and after massage therapy were significantly decreased (p <0.001) and quality of life scores were significantly increased (p <0.001), and it can be understood that ten weeks of massage therapy alleviated depression in adult women and improved quality of life. According to the results of this study, massage therapy of blind masseurs may not only relieve physical symptoms such as pain and sleep quality in adult women with chronic pain but also improve psychological symptoms such as depression and quality of life.
It is important to evaluate strength of dissimilar weld zone to use dissimilar materials safely. This study<br/> examines mechanical characteristics of dissimilar weld zone between low alloy steel and austenitic stainless<br/> steel that satisfies welding related requirements of ASME Code, experimentally reviews metallurgical and<br/> mechanical properties at and adjacent to weld interface. It is confirmed that hardness singularity occurs at the<br/> weld interface, and that optimum buttering thickness is more than 5㎜from view points of tensile & yield<br/> strength. From a macroscopic view, brittle fracture characteristics is observed in buttering weld zone by tensile test.
In this paper,. stress intensity factor K; of a crack along the straight interface between two dissimilar materials, one of the very important criterion in fracture mechanics, is analysed accurately by boundary element method(BEM) which is known as superior in elastic analysis. Stress intensity factors of a central interface crack in dissimilar materials. a central interface crack and a equal length parallel crack in dissimilar materials, two neighbor interface cracks in dissimilar materials are calculated. It is confirmed that the present results of the stress intensity factor for various interface cracks in finite plate or infinite plate are completely consistent with other results. It is observed that how much do Young's modulus of materials and interference of cracks effect on stress intensity factor of interface crack
It is necessary to analyze the effect of the cracks which are expected to exist in structures and machines at the initial design phase by calculating the stress intensity factor(SIF). In this paper, therefore, the stress intensity factor analysis was performed using boundary element method(BEM) of 2-dimensional elastic problem. A simple analytical method is also presented for the determination of the elastic stress intensity factor at the crack tip of edge stiffened two dimensional crack. In this study, the crack models considered are as follows: 1) Edge crack located on the hole. 2) Center thorough crack on interface of length 2a subjected to uniform tension. In each case, stress intensity factors are determined by using BEM. The results of this study are summarized bellows: 1) When the ratio of crack tip element length and crack length is 1/10, the best results are obtained. 2) Calculated SIF in case of edge crack located on the hole, and center thorough cack on interface of cohesion was compared with Kitagawa's solutions and Rice's. The mean errors were 0.627% and 0.452%, respectively.
Applications of brazing in the studying fields such as high-speed machining are very increasing in various industry fields. Therefore, applying to the fracture mechanics by numerical analysis method is very important to analyse the crack problem dissimilar materials in brazed interface. In this study, stress intensity factor(SIF) is analysed to investigate crack behavior on the crack tip of dissimilar materials in brazed interface such as a hardmetal and a HSS by two dimensional(2-D) BEM. Kelvin's solution was used as a fundamental solution in BEM analysis and stress extrapolation method was used to determine SIF.
In this paper, stress intensity factor of a crack alone the straight interface between two dissimilar materials, one of the very important criterion in fracture mechanics, is analysed accurately using boundary element method(BEM). Stress intensity factors of a central interface crack in dissimilar materials, a central interface crack and a equal length parallel crack in dissimilar materials, and two neighbor interface cracks in dissimilar materials, are calculated. It is confirmed that the calculated values of the stress intensity factor for various interface cracks in finite plate and infinite plate are completely consistent with the previously reported results. Also, the effects of Young's modulus and interference of cracks on stress intensity factor are investigated.