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Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density and remaining teeth in Koreanadults. Methods: Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES) 5th Year 1(2010), 1,985 adults over 50 years oldhaving bone mineral density test were selected. Male adults were 883, and female adults were 1,102. The raw data consisted ofgeneral characteristics of the subjects, bone density data, and oral examination data. The questionnaire consisted of general healthsurvey, laboratory examination study, and nutrition study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 program for multiple regressionanalysis, ANOVA, t-test. The variables included general characteristics of the subjects, health behavior, diet habit, and oral healthbehavior. General characteristics consisted of gender, age, residence area, education level, marital status, monthly income, andvocation. Health behavior consisted of smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index(BMI), physical activity, and mental health. Diethabit consisted of frequency of meal, milk, coffee, and calcium ingestion. Oral health behavior consisted of frequency of toothbrushing, use of oral health care devices, and oral examination. Systemic diseases were measured by the questionnaire forhypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Bone density was measured in T-score of femoral bone, neck of femur, andlumbar vertebrae. Bone density was classified into normal(T-score ≥ -1.0), osteopenia(-2.5 < T-score < -1.0), and osteoporosis(T-score ≤ -2.5). The remaining teeth were measured by the differences between normal teeth and missing teeth. Results: Smoking and age are the most influencing factors on the number of remaining teeth and bone density(p<0.01)(p<0.05). Those who had higher bone density, younger age, and nonsmoker significantly had more remaining teeth. Those who were men,diabetic, lowly educated women, and low birth weighted persons tended to have less number of teeth(p<0.01). Conclusions: The study suggested that there were significant differences between men and women according to the oral healthmanagement behavior and systemic disease control. Proper management of the oral health and good quality of bone mineral densitycan reserve the remaining teeth through the whole life.
Carney triad is a rare syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by having at least two out of three following neoplasms: gastrointestinal stromal tumor, pulmonary chondroma and extra-adrenal paraganglioma. About 100 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case of Carney triad in a 42-year-old woman presented with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach and a malignant functioning paraganglioma in the retroperitoneum that was fatal five years after diagnosis. The gastrointestinal stromal tumor was diagnosed as intermediate-risk of aggressive behavior and diffusely positive for c-kit whereas the retroperitoneal paraganglioma was negative for ckit. Genetic analyses showed no mutations of KIT, PDGFRA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes in both tumors. To our best knowledge, this is the first case of Carney triad in Korea. Carney triad is a rare syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by having at least two out of three following neoplasms: gastrointestinal stromal tumor, pulmonary chondroma and extra-adrenal paraganglioma. About 100 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case of Carney triad in a 42-year-old woman presented with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach and a malignant functioning paraganglioma in the retroperitoneum that was fatal five years after diagnosis. The gastrointestinal stromal tumor was diagnosed as intermediate-risk of aggressive behavior and diffusely positive for c-kit whereas the retroperitoneal paraganglioma was negative for ckit. Genetic analyses showed no mutations of KIT, PDGFRA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes in both tumors. To our best knowledge, this is the first case of Carney triad in Korea.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) has potential use in forensic science for the determination of postmortem interval. We report the first study on serial sampling of messenger RNA (mRNA) from surgical specimens to determine if there is a correlation between mRNA quantity and elapsed time. Skin tissues were collected from modified radical mastectomy specimens. After a defined period of time, bisected skin sections were cut and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Serial collection of the specimens was conducted, and frozen sections were obtained from all samples. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction was performed using the extracted RNA to measure the transcriptional activity of 2 selected housekeeping genes. The selected loci were mRNA sequences that exhibited time-dependent quantitative changes in a previous study. We collected 44 samples from 9 different patients, with 3-10 samples collected per patient. The amount of mRNA transcripts present in the serial samples showed a weak time-dependent correlation trend only in some cases. Further studies to evaluate different target mRNA sequences are necessary, as is exploration of additional methods to evaluate mRNA transcript degradation.
최근 이상기후로 인해 도시지역에서는 폭우재해로 인한 피해가 크게 발생하고 있다. 이에 대한 지금까지의 대응에는 하천, 하수도 등 전토적인 방재시설이 중요한 역할을 해 왔으나, 기존의 방재시설로 도시의 전체적인 방재성능을 향상시키는 것은 경제적․물리적 한계에 이르게 되었다. 따라서 공원녹지와 같은 비방재적 도시계획시설에 유출저감기능과 같은 방재성능을 추가하여 일정용량의 재해방지역할을 수행하도록 하는 새로운 도시방재수법이 필요하다. 특히 가상유역에 대한 공원녹지의 우수유출저감 모의분석을 한 결과, 공원녹지에 저류기능을 부가할 경우, 약 15%의 저감효과가 나타났음에 따라 공원녹지가 방재시설의 역할을 수행할 수 있을 것으로 예상된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 폭우재해 발생 시 재해저감기능을 수행할 수 있는 공원녹지의 설계기법을 개발하고자 한다. 이를 위해서, 해외 방재관련 법제도의 검토와 가상유역에 대한 공원녹지의 우수유출저감능력 모의분석을 통하여 새로운 공원녹지 설계 가이드라인(이하 ‘공원녹지 설계기법')을 작성하였다. 그리고 이 공원녹지 설계기법을 실제 공원녹지에 적용하여 시범설계를 함으로써 공원녹지 설계기법의 실제 적용 가능성을 평가하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 폭우재해 발생지역에 재해저감적응형 공원녹지를 설계할 수 있는 기준으로 활용할 수 있다.
To study the effects of corticosteroids to the bone tissues, author grouped young(3 weeks affter birth) and adult ICR mouse by dosage, injected intramusculaily prednisolone, a series of corticosteroids, to posterior leg during 6 weeks per day, obtained femurs and tibias, measured the lengths of tibias and femurs. The portions of the distal end of tibial crests were cross-sectioned, general H-E stain was perpormed. The adjacent distal portions of femoral neck were sectioned longitudinally, observed endosteal surface by scanning electron micrscope The results were followings: 1. The adult group injected by large dosage (0.56mg/100g body weight/day) and the young group injected by small dosage(0.14mg/100g body weight/day) from 3 weeks after birth were significantly shorter than the normal group according to statistics. And the adult group injected by small dosage (0.14mg/100g body weight/day) was not different from normal group according to statistics. 2. In the light microscopic sutdy, the adult group injected by large dosage decreased in bone mass of compact bone severely, the adult group injected by small dosage changed a little grade. The young group injected by small dosage from 3 weeks after birth was not severe in bone change, but bone thickness decreased. 3. In the scanning elctron microscopic study, the adult group injected by large dosage and the young group iniected by small dosage from 3 weeks after birth decreased in trabeculae. The trabeculae of the adult group injected by small dosage were decreased slightly. 4. Integrating above all, the changes by prednisolone injection osteoporosis, of young period were more severe than those of adult, too.
대상판결은 개인정보를 처리하는 자가 수집한 개인정보를 그 피용자가 해당 개인정보의 정보주체의 의사에 반하여 유출한 경우, 그로 인하여 그 정보주체에게 위자료로 배상할 만한 정신적 손해가 발생하였는지 여부는, 유출된 개인정보의 종류와 성격이 무엇인지, 개인정보의 유출로 정보주체를 식별할 가능성이 발생하였는지, 제3자가 유출된 개인정보를 열람하였는지 또는 제3자의 열람 여부가 밝혀지지 않았다면 제3자의 열람 가능성이 있었거나 앞으로 그 열람 가능성이 있는지, 유출된 개인정보가 어느 범위까지 확산되었는지, 개인정보의 유출로 추가적인 법익침해의 가능성이 발생하였는지, 개인정보를 처리하는 자가 개인정보를 관리해온 실태와 개인정보가 유출된 구체적인 경위는 어떠한지, 개인정보의 유출로 인한 피해의 발생 및 확산을 방지하기 위하여 어떠한 조치가 취하여졌는지 등 여러 사정을 종합적으로 고려하여 구체적 사건에 따라 개별적으로 판단하여야 한다고 판시하였다. 이 글에서는 먼저 논의의 기초로서 개인정보의 의미와 보호의 법적 근거, 다양한 개인정보 침해 사안의 분류를 살펴보고, 개인정보 유출로 인한 손해배상책임 전반에 관하여 대상판결 이전의 관련 판결들에서 판단한 내용들에 초점을 두어 살펴본 후, 대상판결을 검토하였다. 대상판결은 우선 개인정보에 대한 위법한 침해가 있다고 하여 당연히 위자료로 배상할 만한 정신적 손해가 인정되는 것은 아니라는 점을 명확히 하였다는 점에서 의미가 있고, 또한, 대상판결에서 제시한 정신적 손해 발생 여부의 판단기준은 대규모 개인정보 유출 사고가 반복적으로 발생하여 이로 인한 손해배상청구소송이 줄을 잇고 있는 상황에서 기본적인 판단기준으로 적용될 수 있다는 점에서도 큰 의미가 있다. 대상판결에서 제시한 기준은 향후 다양한 사실관계에 기초한 여러 건의 손해배상사건에 적용되면서 더욱 정교하게 발전해 나갈 것으로 생각된다. The Supreme Court's decision at issue is a case where personal information collected by a person who handles the information was leaked out by the person's employee against the intentions of the subject of the personal information(hereinafter‘data subject'). The decision held that when determining whether the leakage caused the data subject to suffer emotional distress which qualifies as compensable damages, the determination should be made after considering the following circumstances, and judged accordingly and specifically to each individual case. Firstly, the type and characteristic of the leaked personal information; whether the data subject is identifiable through the leaked information; whether a third party accessed the leaked information, and if it did not occur, whether there is probability that a third party had such access or will have access in the future; to what extent the leaked information was spread; whether the leakage possibly caused any additional infringement of rights; the actual reality of how the personal information was managed by the person who handled the information, and the specific circumstances in which the information was leaked; and what measures were taken to prevent injury caused by the leakage, and to prevent the spread of leaked information. This article examines the meaning of personal information, the legal ground for the protection of personal information and the various types of personal information infringement as a basis for discussion, and then reviews existing decisions on related issues, and finally reviews the Supreme Court's decision at issue. The Supreme Court's decision at issue is meaningful in the aspects as follows: Firstly, the Decision made it clear that the personal information infringement does not necessarily cause emotional distress which qualifies for compensation; Secondly, the standard on the data subject's emotional distress which qualifies as compensable damages set in the Decision can be a basic standard for damage claims based on the personal information leakage accident. The standard will be developed more elaborately through the application to various types of personal information infringement cases.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed PANArray™ Human papilloma virus (HPV) kit for detection and genotyping of 19 high-risk and 13 low-risk HPV types, and compare it with the commercially available DNA chip kit geno-typing of 24 HPVs. We llected cervical swabs from 741 patients with various stages of invasive cervical carcinoma being treated at the Samsung Medical Center. The overall HPV positivity rate was 73% using PANArray™ HPV and 72.1% with the DNA chip, and no statistically significant differences were found with respect to the cytology grade. Comparing the results of the two chips, concordant results were found in 637/741 samples (85.9%), compatible in 69/741 (9.3%) and discordant in 35/741(4.7%). Type-specific sequencing analysis of all samples revealed a 99.7% confirmation of PANArray™ HPV genotyping results, compared to 91.0% of DNA chip. The PANArray™ HPV test thus proved to be highly sensitive and accurate even when multiple HPV infections were present.
본 논문에서는 지역적 특성을 가지는 작은 인식기(마이크로 인식기)의 모음으로 인식기를 구현하는 다중 인식기 시스템을 제안한다. 각 학습패턴에서 k개의 이웃한 학습패턴을 추출해서 학습한 인식기를 마이크로인식기라고 한다. 각 학습패턴에는 한개 이상의 마이크로 인식기를 부여한다. 본 논문에서는 선형 커널을 사용한 SVM과 RBF 커널을 사용한 SVM등 두 가지 형태의 마이크로 인식기를 사용한다. 테스트 패턴이 인가되면 테스트패턴 주변의 마이크로인식기들 중에서 성능이 가장 좋은 것 하나를 선택한 후 선택된 인식기로 최종 클래스를 결정한다. 테스트패턴 주변에 있는 학습패턴들을 인식한 결과를 성능 측정 척도로 사용한다. Elena 데이터 베이스를 사용하여 기존의 단일 인식기, 다중 인식기 결합, 다중 인식기 선택 방법들과 인식률을 비교한 결과 제안된 방법이 우수함을 알 수 있다. This paper proposes a multiple classifier system having massive micro classifiers. The micro classifiers are trained by using a local set of training patterns. The k nearest neighboring training patterns of one training pattern comprise the local region for training a micro classifier. Each training pattern is incorporated with one or more micro classifiers. Two types of micro classifiers are adapted in this paper. SVM with linear kernel and SVM with RBF kernel. Classification is done by selecting the best micro classifier among the micro classifiers in vicinity of incoming test pattern. To measure the goodness of each micro classifier, the weighted sum of correctly classified training patterns in vicinity of the test pattern is used. Experiments have been done on Elena database. Results show that the proposed method gives better classification accuracy than any conventional classifiers like SVM, k-NN and the conventional classifier combination/selection scheme.
Solitary pulmonary lymphangiomas are extremely rare. We report here on an unique case of solitary pulmonary lymphangioma in an adult. A well-circumscribed, 6 cm-sized, pleural based lesion with fluid attenuation was found in a 50-year-old Korean male. He had no previous history of disease or trauma. The wedge-resected lung revealed an ill-demarcated lesion with multiple microscopic cysts and the cystic walls had loose intervening stroma. Solitary pulmonary lymphangiomas are extremely rare. We report here on an unique case of solitary pulmonary lymphangioma in an adult. A well-circumscribed, 6 cm-sized, pleural based lesion with fluid attenuation was found in a 50-year-old Korean male. He had no previous history of disease or trauma. The wedge-resected lung revealed an ill-demarcated lesion with multiple microscopic cysts and the cystic walls had loose intervening stroma.