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A non-linear vehicle model and an observer are designed to observe the yaw rate and the body side slip angle when a vehicle is turning maneuver in this study. The developed vehicle model is a full car model and has fourteen degree of freedom. A Luenberg observer is applied to develop the observer. The vehicle model is validated with a reference result and shows good accordance. The observer is tested on dry asphalt, wet asphalt and snow paved road. The results prove the performance of observer is robust and reliable.
This paper presents a mathematical vehicle model that is designed to analyze the dynamic performance and to develop various safety control systems. Wheel slip controllers for ABS is also formulated to improve the vehicle response and to increase the safety on slippery road. Validation of the model and controller is performed by comparison with a commercial software package, CarSim. The result shows that performances of developed vehicle model are in good accordance with those of the CarSim on various driving conditions. Developed ABS controller is applied to the vehicle model and CarSim model, and it achieves good control performance. ABS controller improves lateral stability as well as longitudinal one when a vehicle is in turning maneuver on slippery road. A driver model is also designed to control steer angle of the vehicle model. It also shows good performance because the vehicle tracks the desired lane very well.
Churg-Strauss 증후군에서 위장관 천공은 드물지만 천공 발생시 사망률이 높고 응급 수술이 필요하므로 급성 복통이 있을 경우 반드시 염두에 두고 조기에 치료해야 한다. 또한 적절한 스테로이드의 투여 및 면역억제제 사용을 통해 천공의 위험성을 줄여야 한다. 본 저자들은 Churg-Strauss 증후군 환자에서 동일 부위에 발생한 재발성 소장 천공을 복강경을 통한 봉합과 스테로이드로 치료한 경험이 있어 문헌고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic disorder characterized by asthma, eosionphilia and necrotizing vasculitis affecting small-to-medium-sized vessels. Although it is frequently associated with gastrointestinal mucosal lesions, recurrent bowel perforation is rare and potentially life threatening. We report a case of a 66-year-old man with Churg-Strauss syndrome, who presented with recurrent small bowel perforation. He was admitted with abdominal pain developed previous night, who had a previous small bowel perforation history treated with laparoscopic closure 5 months ago. Laboratory data showed remarkable eosinophilia. Physical examination indicated positive signs of peritoneal irritation in the entire abdomen, and abdominal computed tomography scanning showed edematous small bowel with intra-abdominal free air, suggesting intestinal perforation. He underwent laparoscopic small bowel closure and was treated with steroid.
Impairment of balance between bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts result in bone disease. Especially, increased osteoclast formation and activity are responsible for bone diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease. Natural metabolites of plants have recently received much attention as an alternative tools for the development of novel therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to search the natural products to inhibit osteoclast differentiation and was to evaluate of its mechanism. Water extract of Gastrodia elata Blune significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose dependent manner. However, water extract of Gastrodia elata Blune did not affect cytotoxicity when compared with control. The mRNA expression of c-Fos, NFATc1, and TRAP induced by RANKL was inhibited by water extract of Gastrodia elata Blune treatment. Also, water extract of Gastrodia elata Blune inhibited the protein expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 expression in BMMs treated with RANKL. Water extract of Gastrodia elata Blune suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 induced by RANKL. In general, RANKL considerably inhibited the expression level of Id2 and MafB known as negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis, but RANKL did not inhibit Id2 and MafB expression in BMMs when it was co-treated with Gastrodia elata Blune. Taken together, these results suggest that Gastrodia elata Blune may be a useful drug in the treatment of bone-related disease.
We present a patient with high 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake detected in a neurofibroma that was confused with sarcomatous transformation on a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan. A 39-year-old male patient with a 20-year history of neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) performed FDG PET/CT scan for the evaluation of lesions with sarcomatous transformation. The FDG PET/CT images demonstrated varying degrees of increased FDG uptake in the multiple nodules throughout whole body. The left pelvic mass with the highest FDG uptake had a maximum standardized uptake values (maxSUV) 5.0 and surgical resection was performed. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of a benign neurofibroma infiltrated with inflammatory cells. (Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009;43(4):361-362)