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Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate whether airborne fibers were released to the outside air from the asbestos removal area in buildings, and to confirm the existence of asbestos fibers in samples using transmission electron microscopy(TEM). Methods: A total of 1,295 samples was collected from inside and outside 155 asbestos removal areas. To investigate the release of asbestos fibers from the removal area, samples were collected at three locations, such as an entrance to change room, an exit of negative pressure unit(NPU) and perimeter areas. Samples were also collected in the removal area prior to and after removal activity. All samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy(PCM) and one-tenth of the samples was analyzed using TEM to discriminate asbestos fibers. Results: During the asbestos removal activity, 27(4.1%) of 662 samples collected outside the removal area showed airborne fiber concentrations equal to or in excess of 0.01 f/cc, the permissible emission standard of the Korean Ministry of Environment. Further, 111 samples were analyzed using TEM. The distribution of asbestos fiber concentrations was log-normal. It was found that 51 of 111 samples(46%) contained asbestos fibers. Conclusions: There is a potential risk of asbestos exposure among neighbors and the public outside the asbestos removal areas. It is recommended that the asbestos removal work be conducted strictly following the specifications required by government and/or professional organizations.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on decontamination of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) as common pathogens. Methods: This experiment was carried out in a chamber (0.64m<sup>3</sup>) designed by the authors. The plasma was continuously generated by a non-thermal DBD plasma generator (Model TB-300, Shinyoung Air tech, Korea). Suspensions of S. aureus and E. coli of 0.5 McFarland standard (1.5 x10<sup>8</sup>CFU/mL) were prepared using a Densi-Check photometer (bio Merieux, France). The suspensions were diluted1:1000 in sterile PBS solutions (approximately10<sup>4-5</sup>CFU/mL) and inoculated on tryptic soy agar (TSA) in Petri dishes. The Petri dishes (80mm internal diameter) were exposed to the non -thermal DBD plasma in the chamber. Results: The results showed that 95% of S. aureus colonies were killed after a six-hour exposure to the DBD plasma. In the case of E. coli, it took two hours to kill 100% of the colonies. The gram-negative E. coli had a greater reduction than the gram-positive S. aureus. This difference may be due to the structure of their cell membranes. The thickness of gram-positive bacteria is greater than that of gram-negative bacteria. The S. aureus is more resistant to DBD plasma exposures than is E. coli. It should be noted that average concentrations of ozone, a byproduct of the DBD plasma generator, were monitored throughout the experiment and the results were well below the criteria, 50 ppb, recommended by the Korean Ministry of the Environment. Thus, non-thermal DBD plasma is deemed safe for use in hospital and public facilities. Conclusions: There was evidence that non-thermal DBD plasma can effectively kill S. aureus and E. coli. The results indicate that DBD plasma technology can greatly contribute to the control of infections in hospitals and other public and private facilities.