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The emissions of several air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs, etc.) for the replacement of all diesel buses by Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) buses were estimated in the Busan Metropolitan Area (BMA). These emissions were calculated from emission factors considering the different driving speeds with bus routes, distance traveled, and deterioration factors. For the purpose of this study, three categories of fuel type were selected: (1) the combination of diesel (65%) and CNG buses (35%) (DSL+CNG case), (2) all diesel buses (DSL case), and (3) all CNG buses (CNG case). The emissions of NOx and CO in the CNG case were estimated to be significant decreases (by about 50% and 98%, respectively) relative to the DSL case. Conversely, the emission of VOCs (980.7 ton/year) in the CNG case were a factor of 3.3 higher than that (299.8 ton/year) in the DSL case. In addition, the diurnal variations of emissions between two city buses (e.g. diesel and CNG) and all other vehicles were distinctly different because the two city buses operate at a regular time interval. Our overall results suggest the possibility that the pollutant emissions from the CNG buses can exert less influence on air quality in the target area than those from the diesel buses.
The seasonal variations of sea surface winds and significant wave heights were investigated using the data observed from the marine meteorological buoys (nine stations) and Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) in lighthouse (nine stations) around the Korean Peninsula during 2010~2012. In summer, the prevailing sea surface winds over the East/West Sea and the South Sea were northerly/southerly and easterly/westerly winds due to both of southeast monsoon and the shape of Korean Peninsula. On the other hand, the strong northerly winds has been observed at most stations near Korean marginal seas under northwest monsoon in winter. However, the sea surface winds at some stations (e.g. Galmaeyeo, Haesuseo in the West Sea) have different characteristics due to topographic effects such as island or coastal line. The significant wave heights are the highest in winter and the lowest in summer at most stations. In case of some lighthouse AWSs surrounded by islands (e.g. Haesuseo, Seosudo) or close to coast (e.g. Gangan, Jigwido), very low significant wave heights (below 0.5 m) with low correlations between sea surface wind speeds and significant wave heights were observed.
정주희 ( Ju Hee Jeong ), 오인보 ( In Bo Oh ), 강윤희 ( Yoon Hee Kang ), 방진희 ( Jin Hee Bang ), 안혜연 ( Hye Yeon An ), 석현배 ( Hyeon Bae Seok ), 김유근 ( Yoo Keun Kim ), 홍지형 ( Ji Hyung Hong ), 김지영 ( Ji Young Kim ) 한국환경과학회 2016 한국환경과학회지 Vol.25 No.1
In order to improve the prediction of the regional air quality modeling in the Seoul metropolitan area, a sensitivity analysis using two PBL and microphysics (MP) options of the WRF model was performed during four seasons. The results from four sets of the simulation experiments (EXPs) showed that meteorological variables (especially wind field) were highly sensitive to the choice of PBL options (YSU or MYJ) and no significant differences were found depending on MP options (WDM6 or Morrison) regardless of specific time periods, i.e. day and night, during four seasons. Consequently, the EXPs being composed of YSU PBL option were identified to produce better results for meteorological elements (especially wind field) regardless of seasons. On the other hand, the accuracy of all simulations for summer and winter was somewhat lower than those for spring and autumn and the effect according to physics options was highly volatile by geographical characteristics of the observation site.
강윤희 ( Yoon Hee Kang ), 오인보 ( In Bo Oh1 ), 정주희 ( Ju Hee Jeong ), 방진희 ( Jin Hee Bang ), 김유근 ( Yoo Keun Kim ), 김순태 ( Soon Tae Kim ), 김은혜 ( Eun Hye Kim ), 홍지형 ( Ji Hyung Hong ), 이대균 ( Dae Gyun Lee ) 한국환경과학회 2016 한국환경과학회지 Vol.25 No.1
A comparison of ozone simulations in the seoul metropolitan region (SMR) using the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model with SAPRC99 and CB05 chemical mechanisms (i.e. EXP-SP99 and EXP-CB05) has been conducted during four seasons of 2012. The model results showed that the differences in average ozone concentrations between the EXP-SP99 and EXP-CB05 were found to be large in summer, but very small in the other seasons. This can be attributed that the SAPRC99 tends to produce more ozone than the CB05 in urban area like the SMR with low VOC/NOx ratio under high ozone conditions. Through quantitative comparison between two mechanisms for the summer, it was found that the average ozone concentrations from the EXP-SP99 were about 3 ppb higher than those from the EXP-CB05 and agreed well with the observations. Horizontal differences in ozone concentrations between SAPRC99 and CB05 showed that significant differences were found in southern part of the SMR and over the sea near the coast in summer.
The spatial air pollution distribution of the Ulsan metropolitan region (UMR) was analyzed using monitoring data and high-resolution numerical simulations. A three-year (2011~2014) analysis for the average concentrations from the 13 air quality monitoring sites in the UMR showed that SO₂ and PM10 levels in industrial regions were much higher than those in other regions, whereas spatial differences of NO₂ and CO concentrations were not significant. In particular, elevated O₃ concentrations were clearly found at urban sites near petrochemical complex area. Results from high-resolution simulations by CMAQ model performed for four months of 2012 showed large spatial variations in grid-average pollutant concentrations between industrial areas and other areas in the UMR, which displayed significant changes with wind pattern by season. It was noted that the increases of SO₂ and PM10 levels were limited in costal industrial areas or over the area nearby the sea in all seasons. Modeled O₃ concentrations were quite low in industrial areas and main urban roads with large NOx emissions. However, the model presented that all pollutant concentrations were significantly increased in the urban residential areas near the industrial complexes in summer season with increase of southerly wind.
The exposed population of a vulnerable group to high ozone episodes (exceeding 60 ppb/8h) was estimated in Busan metropolitan city from 2000 to 2010. The frequency of high ozone days at monitoring sites and the number of the population aged over 65 were used to calculate the accumulated (total, seasonal, and yearly) number of the exposed older population (EOP) to high ozone episodes during the study period based on administrative areas, by interpolation and zonal mean methods in ArcGIS software. The older population in this city had increased significantly from 2000 to 2010 (representing over 10% of the total population in 2010). The vulnerable areas (e.g. the eastern area of the city) of the EOP to high ozone episodes were different from the areas with frequent high ozone episodes (e.g., the western area) due to the increase of the older population in particular areas. The difference was more significant in spring than in any other season, and in 2010 than in previous years (2000 and 2005).
Spatial-temporal meteorological features of the Ulsan metropolitan region (UMR) were analyzed using observations and high-resolution numerical modeling. Long-term trend analysis (1970~2013) showed a significant increase of 0.033° Cyr<SUP>-1</SUP> in the 5-year moving average temperature, although detailed short-term features varied, whereas wind speed and relative humidity over the same period displayed clear decreases of -0.007 ms<SUP>-1</SUP> and -0.29%yr<SUP>-1</SUP>, respectively. These trends indicate the effects of regional climate change and urbanization in the UMR. Seasonal variations averaged for the most recent three years, 2011~2013, showed that temperatures in three different regions (urban/industrial, suburban, coastal areas) of the UMR had similar seasonality, but significant differences among them were observed for a certain season. Urban and industrial complex regions were characterized by relatively higher temperatures with large differences (max.: 3.6℃) from that in the coastal area in summer. For wind speed, strong values in the range from 3.3 to 3.9 ms<SUP>-1</SUP> occurred in the coastal areas, with large differences clearly shown between the three regions in September and October. Diurnal variations of temperature were characterized by pronounced differences during the daytime (in summer) or nighttime (in winter) between the three regions. Results from the WRF modeling performed for four months of 2012 showed large variations in gridaverage temperature and winds in the UMR, which displayed significant changes by season. Especially, a clear temperature rise in the urban center was identified in July (0.6℃ higher than nearby urban areas), and overall, relatively weak winds were simulated over urban and inland suburban regions in all seasons.
본 연구는 조선시대 초상화에 그려진 족좌대에 관한 연구이다. 공신이나 관직에 있었던 사람들이 교의나 의자에 앉아 발을 얹고 있는 초상화에 족좌대는 거의 필수적이었지만 현존 유물이 없는 실정이다. 조선 초기 초상화는 고려 말을 계승하였고, 족좌대도 마찬가지다. 1453년경의 <신숙주 초상>은 고려 양식을 이어 조선의 족좌대 양식을 보여주는 최초의 초상화이다. 이 양식은 공신상 족좌대의 모범으로 1712년 연잉군 초상까지 이어졌다. 공신상의 족좌대 양식은 정면과 측면의 머름칸 구조와 구름형태로 정교하게 조각된 다리이다. 머름칸 안에는 <손소 초상>부터는 4가지 도형들이 그려졌다. 조선 중기에는 중국 초상화의 팔자형 혜나 호피깔린 의자, 자연스러운 나무결을 좋아했다. 17세기부터 청(淸) 말기까지 지속된 정면관은 잠시 조선에 나타났다 사라지고, 8~9분면의 조선 초상화 양식으로 돌아선다. 중기에는 중국풍의 영향을 <김석주 초상>에서 보듯 천판 위나 아래에 호피나 표피머리가 있고 정면은 다리가 없이 기하학적 안상문(眼狀紋) 형태로 오려낸 족좌대가 선호된다. 천판에는 18세기 중반까지 청색이나 녹색테를 두른 민돗자리가 깔리기도 하지만, 18세기 초부터 화문석이 깔리기 시작해 조선 말기에는 화문석이 거의 놓여진다. 후반기에는 족좌대 형태도 낮은 다리굽이거나 없는 형태에, 전면은 길상문, 불교적 보상화문 등이 조각되며, 목재의 색은 중후한 느낌을 주는 짙은 자단같은 목재의 색감이 선호되고, 19세기 말 <이하응 초상>에는 다시 머름칸 구조 양식에 장석으로 감싸주는 형식이 등장한다. 족좌대는 중국이나 일본 초상화에도 있지만, 고구려 벽화에는 보이지 않는다. 족좌대는 송(宋)의 발받침 양식과 원(元)의 교의 습속이 어우러지면서 발전된 양식으로 생각된다. 조선 초상화에서 족좌대는 공간의 허(虛)를 채워주었고, 보여지는 나를 중시하던 조선의 유교적 문화에서 품격있는 모습을 보여줄 수 있는 조선 특유의 초상화가 창조한 양식이었다. This study deals with footstools shown in the portraits of the Joseon Dynasty period. A footstool was an indispensable element in the portraits of either meritorious retainers or government officials, who sat down on a chair and put their feet on it. Unfortunately, now we have no existing relics of those footstools in the portraits. In the beginning of the Joseon Dynasty, the way of drawing portraits succeeded that of late Goryeo. As such, the footstool did too. <Shin Suk-ju's Portrait>, drawn around 1453 in accordance with Goryeo``s drawing style, was the first portrait with a Joseon-style footstool. The footstool in Shin Suk-ju's portrait represents that which was used to portray meritorious retainers, and continues to appear up to Prince Yeoning's portrait in 1712. This footstool in the portraits of meritorious retainers shows the wainscot structure on both the front and the side while the leg is exquisitely carved with cloud patterns. Since <Shin Suk-ju's Portrait>, or the so-called <Son Soh's Portrait>, the paintings used four kinds of Fig.ures in the space of wainscot. During the mid-Joseon Dynasty period, Chinese-style elements such as 八-shaped shoes, a chair with the rug of tiger skin, and natural wood grain gained popularity. In this context, the splendid expressions made with gold dust on the varnishing or the front style, which existed from the 17th century until the end of the Qing dynasty, appeared for a short period in Joseon Dynasty, only to disappear soon after. Then, Joseon``s portrait style returned to the typical 8th to 9th-division portrait. With the influence of the Chinese style in mid-Joseon, as shown in <Kim Seok-ju's Portrait>, one can observe a preference for a footstool with the fur of a leopard or tiger head either on or below the top board. Furthermore, the front of the footstool does not have legs while it shows a pattern in the shape of an elephant's eye carved in. Until the mid-18th century, a plain-pattern mat surrounded by either a blue or a green frame was spread on the top board, However, from the beginning of the 18th century during King Sukjong's reign, a flower patterned mat replaced the plain one. Since then, in most cases during the late Joseon dynasty period Fig.ured mats were spread on the top board. During the latter period of Joseon Dynasty, the form of footstools was characterized by its low or no heels while the front was carved with patterns symbolizing happiness and longevity or Buddhistic floral medallion motives on the 2nd or 4th column. In terms of the colors of the wood, the most popular one was that of thick rosewood which delivered a sense of solemnity. At the end of the 19th century, in <Lee Ha-eung's Portrait>, one can find resurgence of the patterns of the wainscot structure, now surrounded by metal strips. Footstools were drawn in both Chinese and Japanese portraits, whereas they cannot be found in Goguryeo's murals. In this vein, it can be inferred that footstools may have been developed from a harmonized amalgam of two strands: Sung (宋)'s leg-rest style and Yuan (元)'s fold-down chair style. In Joseon Dynasty's portraits, the footstool had mainly two functions. First, it filled in the emptiness of space. Second, considering Joseon Dynasty's Confucian culture which places much importance on how it is seen, it contributed to exhibiting dignity in the portraits of the Joseon dynasty.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and variability of the oak pollen concentrations over the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR) simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ)-based pollen dispersion model, which is the CMAQ-pollen model integrated with the improved oak pollen emission model (PEM-oak). The PEM-oak model developed is based on hourly emission flux parameterization that includes the effects of plantspecific release, meteorological adjustment, and diurnal variations of oak pollen concentrations. A 33 day-run for oak pollen simulation was conducted by the CMAQ-pollen model with a 3 ㎞ spatial resolution for the SMR during the 2014 spring pollen season. Modeled concentrations were evaluated against the hourly measurements at three Burkard sampling sites. Temporal variations of oak concentrations were largely well represented by the model, but the quantitative difference between simulations and measurements was found to be significant in some periods. The model results also showed that large variations in oak pollen concentrations existed in time and space and high concentrations in the SMR were closely associated with the regional transport under strong wind condition. This study showed the effective application of the CMAQ-pollen modeling system to simulate oak pollen concentration in the SMR. Our results could be helpful in providing information on allergenic pollen exposure. Further efforts are needed to further understand the oak pollen release characteristics such as interannual variation of the oak pollen productivity and its spatio-temporal flowering timing.