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1281년을 전후한 시기에 편찬된 일연스님의 『삼국유사』 앞부분에는 옛 책의 기록을 인용(古記云)하여 “오래 전에 환국임금의 아들인 환웅이 있었다(昔有桓國帝釋庶子桓雄)”로 시작하여 환인의 환국-환웅의 신시-단군왕검의 고조선으로 이어지는 우리 겨레의 뿌리 역사가 기술되어 있다. 그런데, 지난 세기 초 일제가 우리 강토를 점령한 후 우리 역사를 자기들보다 늦추기 위해 단군신화라 하여 단군 이전의 모든 역사를 신화로 조작하면서 나라 이름인 환국의 國자를 사람이름인 因자로 고치고, 환국 옆에 ‘임금을 말한다(謂帝釋也)'는 주석을 달아 “오래 전에 하느님(환인)의 아들 환웅이 있었다(昔有桓因謂帝釋也庶子桓雄)”라고 만들어 신화라는 것을 더욱 믿게 만들었다. 지금 우리나라의 많은 학자들과 정부기관에서도 일본이 왜곡해놓은 논리를 벗어나지 못하고 국사교과서에서조차 환인(하느님)의 아들 환웅이라고 가르칠 정도가 되었다. 그래서 이 논문에서는 판본마다 다른 (원문참조) 자를 因자로 보아 ‘桓因'이라 읽은 것은 잘못이고 모두 國자로서 ‘桓國'이라 읽어야 한다는 것을 강조하고, 남구만의 『약천집』과 이종휘의 『수산집』에서 자신들이 본 『삼국유사』에는 ‘昔有桓國帝釋庶子桓雄'라고 적혀있었다는 내용이 타당한 이유를 논증하여 “오래 전에 환국 임금의 아들인 환웅이 있었다”하고 해석함으로써 선사시대 우리 겨레의 역사를 바로잡는 계기가 되기를 기대한다. In the history book, [Samguk Yusa] of monk the Il Yeon, compiled by approximately 1281, it began with ‘Long time ago, there was Hwan-woong, the son of the king of Hwan-nation(昔有桓國帝釋庶子桓雄)' and described the roots of Han people which leads to the Joseon Dynasty of Hwan-dynasty, Hwanung's Sinsi, and Dangunn Wanggum's gojosen by quoting the records of the old books (Gokiwoon). However, after the Japanese colonial occupation took over Korea at the beginning of the last century, in order to make our history premature than theirs, Dangun mythology was used to manipulate all the history of Dangun as a myth. As a part of this effort, a letter that means ‘Country'(國), was revised to a letter that is used for a person's name(因), and ‘it means a king(謂帝釋也)' was added as an annotation to make it ‘Long time ago, there was Hwanung, the son of the God(昔有桓因謂帝釋也庶子桓雄)' sound more like myths. Many scholars and government agencies of Korea still get stuck in this theory and have been teaching that Hwanung is the son of God even in the Korean history textbooks. Therefore, this paper emphasizes that although the letter of 원문참조 and 원문참조appear differently across a various edition of the book, it is not correct to read by 因(person's name) to make it 桓因(Hwan-in, God) and all should be read by 國 (nation) to make it 桓國(Hwan-dynasty). Furthermore, in the book of Nam, Guman's ‘Yakcheonjip' and Lee, Jong-hui's ‘Susanjip', the authors insist ‘昔有桓國帝釋庶子桓雄(Long time ago, there was Hwan-woong, the son of the king of Hwan-nation)' and this paper proves it is correct and why. It is expected that it will be an opportunity to correct the history of our prehistoric era by arguing the valid reason for this historical fact.
This paper describes for development of electronic impact hammer of the non-destructive for compressive strength measurement of concrete. There is test method for rebound number, it is used most plentifully in safety inspection of the infrastructure. This electronic impact hammer, it solved the problem of schumidt hammer. It acquires the reliability which is excellent existing schumidt hammer compared to. The electronic impact hammer measurement data is acquired from the detection coil the velocity which and a degree of acceleration response waveform, it will be able to measure the compressive strength of the concrete. In this paper described, it is development for accurate measure of the compressive strength of the concrete which it is electronic impact hammer.
The demand for maintenance of structural health and safety to acceptable standards poses challenges for<br/> research and development of effective technologies for monitoring and measurement of parameters governing<br/> safety and health of structures. In this work, an electromagnetic based sensor has been investigated and<br/> developed for measuring force in pre-stressed steel cables and tendons. The change in magnetic<br/> permeability of a material caused by mechanical stress is exploited to measure force in the material. The<br/> sensor consists of a pair of sensing coils and a pair of reference coils. The sensing coils are wound around a<br/> stressed material while the reference pair are wound on a dummy specimen of same material as that under<br/> stress. When sensing and reference primary coils are excited by same current simultaneously, both the stressed<br/> and dummy materials are equally magnetized by the magnetic field generated by the current, and voltage is<br/> induced in the sensing and reference secondary coils. The induced voltage in each secondary coil is dependent<br/> on a number of factors including the magnetic permeability of its core which is a function of the core<br/> magnetizing current, temperature and stress/load. By suitably arranging the sensing and reference coils<br/> electro-magnetically, the effects of temperature and magnetizing current on the permeability of a stressed<br/> material can be eliminated in the output voltage of the sensor. The output voltage is a function of only the<br/> mechanical load in the stressed material, and can be calibrated for determination of force in pre-stressed<br/> materials.
풍력발전기의 핵심 부품인 풍력 블레이드는 예상치 못한 풍 하중과 공력 특성으로 인해 불안전한 상태에 놓여 있다. 그에 따라 필연적으로 발생하는 내부 결함을 검출하기 위해 초음파탐상을 이용한 비파괴 검사가 주로 진행되어 왔다. 하지만 블레이드의 소재 특성으로 인해 음향 신호 분석에 따른 문제점이 발생한다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 풍력 블레이드 인공결함시험편을 제작후, 능동적 광 적외선열화상 비파괴검사 방법을 이용하여 결함의 크기를 정량화하기 위한 실험을 진행하였다. 100 kW 급 블레이드 내부의 결함 크기 정량화를 위해 알루미늄 켈리브레이션 테이프를 사용하였으며, 게재물(inclusion), 디본딩(debonding), 주름(wrinkle) 결함을 삽입하였다. 실험 결과 모두에서 뚜렷한 결함 검출이 가능하였으며, 결함 크기 정량화 결과 debonding 인공 결함 (φ50.0 mm)에서 최대 98.0%의 정확성을 보였다. A wind turbine blade is an important component in wind-power generation, and is generally exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Ultrasonic inspection is mainly used to inspect such blades, but it has been difficult to quantify defect sizes in complicated composite structures. Recently, active infrared thermography has been widely studied for inspecting composite structures, in which thermal energy is applied to an object, and an infrared camera detects the energy emitted from it. In this paper, a calibration method for active optical lock-in thermography is proposed to quantify the size. Inclusion, debonding and wrinkle defects, created in a wind blade for 100 kW wind power generation, were all successfully detected using this method. In particular, a φ 50.0 mm debonding defect was sized with 98.0% accuracy.
This study deals with earth pressure acting on CIP wall and displacement of CEP wall with excavation. The primary purpose of this study analysis the earth pressure using displacement and strut axial force by the measured and calculated values with excavation step. Also, through the comparative analysis of measured axial forces with load cells and calculated earth pressure with principle virtual work, it is the purpose of this study to obtain the measurement analysis source that could solve problems for the process of the stage excavation. This paper compares measurement results with analysis results on the earth pressure and displacement of the wall and describes more exact earth pressure and the change of the wall displacement of deep excavation.
The number of Tunnels for railway, subway, road, rapid railway have been increased and increasing continuously. And the tunnels are to be larger and longer of its dimension. Therefore, inspection, repair, and maintenance of tunnels are an extremely important part of infrastructure management. To inspect surface state of tunnels, concrete structures, it must generally use method of conventional visual inspection, but this method is very not objective. To measure the width, length, position, direction of a crack, it is very difficult, when the tunnel is long span and high rise. Thus, to make up for this demerits, in this paper is proposed the system that we can check conditions of the tunnel structures quickly, detect the detailed data objectively, count automatically the width of a crack by the original software and follow the trend of long term changes in the condition of a structure.
This paper describes for reliability evaluation of electronic hammer of the non-destructive for compressive strength measurement of concrete. There is test method for rebound number, it is used most plentifully in safety inspection of the infrastructure. This electronic impact hammer, it solved the problem of schumidt hammer. It acquires the reliability which is excellent existing schumidt hammer compared to. The electronic impact hammer measurement data is acquired from the detection coil the velocity which and a degree of acceleration response waveform, it will be able to measure the compressive strength of the concrete. In this paper described, it is reliability evaluation for accurate measure of the compressive strength of the concrete which it is electronic impact hammer.
In this study, we performed a dynamic simulation on the roller-coaster vehicle model and we determined the driving behavior. And we suggested a method of real time detection and evaluation by using the infrared thermography NDT.