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In the high speed rail system, the distortion of the voltage and the current waveform of the input power line, increases the power loss and make a several electro-magnetic problems such as EMI or the interference of the communication line.<br/> In this paper, the control scheme of the PWM converter to make a good power factor and to regulate the output voltage as well as to reduce the harmonic component of the input current is proposed. Also a control schem of the PWM converter in the parallel operation to reduce the harmonics of the input current is proposed<br/>
PtRu catalyst is most widely used as anode catalyst for a direct methanol fuel cell(DMFC). To promote the efficiency of the catalysts, it Is important to increase the triple phase boundary. In this study, we have tried to increase the triple phase boundaries in preparing electrocatalysts of the fuel cells, based on the process of grafting a proton-conducting agent onto the catalyst This grafted proton-conducting agent can act as an ionomer like Nafion, currently widely used ionomer. First, we have prepared the 80wt% PtRu/Ketjen Black electrocatalyst by an improved colloidal method. And, we have grafted methylsulfonate groups (-CH₂SO₃H) into the catalyst as proton-conducting agents. As results of cyclic voltammety and single cell test of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), we can conclude that the activity of the grafted electrocatalysts is superior to that of conventional ones, in performance of DMFCs. For our further study, we will investigate the optimum ratio of catalyst/grafted proton conduct Ing agent with maximum performance of a DMFC.
The purpose of this study is to seek out the relations between concepts through establishes the relation between the brand equity and the purchase decision factors of sports goods by youth football club students based on theoretical backgrounds and also, to provide basic data that is needed to study on the sports goods consumers. This study represents a population of 373 persons who are selected as the subject for the final analysis of this study, by the convenient sampling method, from football club students in 20 high schools located in B Metropolitan city, U Metropolitan city, or K Prefecture. For processing data, Window SPSS 15.0 statistics package is used as follows, and the significance level of all data analysis is a=.05. Factor analysis, reliability analysis, co-relation analysis, frequency analysis, and multiple regression analysis have been done, and the results of these analyses are as follows: First, among sports goods purchase decision factors, advertisement has a positive effect on the brand loyalty. Second, such factors as quality, brand, and purchase place among sports goods purchase decision factors have a positive effect on the brand image. Third, such factors as quality, brand, and purchase place among sports goods purchase decision factors have a positive effect on the brand awareness.
이 연구의 목적은 청소년활동 진행과정에서 청소년활동 참여자의 청소년활동몰입을 설명하는 종합모델을 구안하고, 청소년활동몰입에 영향을 미치는 관련요인들 간의 구조적 인과관계를 밝히는데 있다. 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위해, 청소년수련시설에서 운영하는 청소년활동에 참여한 460명의 중학생을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하였다. 배포된 설문지 중 417매가 회수되었으며, 분석에 적합하지 않은 설문지를 제외한 301매가 분석에 이용되었다. 수집된 자료는 AMOS 4.0을 사용하여 공변량구조분석을 실시하였으며, 경로계수의 통계적 유의수준은 5%였다. 연구결과에 따르면 가정환경요인은 자기목적적성격에 직접적인 정적영향(β=.61)을 갖고 있었다. 주관적 안녕감을 유의하게 설명하고 있는 변인은 동료관계(β=.25), 가정환경요인(β=.21) 그리고 지도자관계(β=.14)였으며, 매개변인인 자기목적적 성격은 주관적 안녕감에 유의한 영향을 미치지 못하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 활동진행내용요인(β=.40), 활동진행방법요인(β=.37), 자기목적적 성격(β=.21), 주관적 안녕감(β=.10)은 청소년활동몰입에 직접효과를 갖는 것으로 나타났으며, 독립변인인 가정환경요인(β=.16), 지도자관계(β=.01), 동료관계(β=.02)는 청소년활동몰입에 유의한 간접효과를 갖는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a structural model through the identification of the cause-and-effect relationships among factors that affect the youth activity flow of participants in youth activity programs. The subjects in this study were 460 middle school students who had participated in a youth activity program managed by a youth center. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire used was proven through a preliminary research Exercise. Out of a total of 460 questionnaires, 417 were collected, invalid or otherwise inappropriate questionnaires were exempted and 301 questionnaires were used in the research. AMOS 4.0 was used to examine the covariance and the level of statistical significance was 5%. The results of this research are as follows. Family environment was found to statistically influence autotelic personality(β=.61). Moreover, a positive relationship with teammates(β=.25), family environment(β=.25), and a positive relationship with one's leader(β=.14) directly affected subjective well-being. However, the family environment did not directly affect subjective well-being. Additionally, the activity content factor(β=.40), the activity method factor(β=.37), autotelic personality (β=.21) and subjective well-being(β=.10) directly affected the level of the participants'youth activity flow. The factor of family environment (β=.16), autotelic personality (β=.01) and the relationship between leader and teammates (β=.02) indirectly affected the level of the participants'youth activity flow.
The deterrnination that a particular head injury is low-risk is usually made clinically. Observation at home or in the hospital has been the usual treatment for such patients. Recent reports of relatively high morbidity among patients with low-risk head injury in other countries suggest the need for advancement in diagnostic criteria. A retrospective review of 1202 patients admitted to Chung Ang Gil Hospital between January 1992 and June 1992 who had a Glasgow coma scale(GCS) score of 13 to 15 on admission and who experienced a brief loss of conscious- ness or amnesia after the injury, was performed to evaluate the benefit of computed tomographic(CT) scanning of the head. In 14.9% of patients abnormalities were seen on the initial CT scan and 5.7% required surgery. Among the 831 patients with GCS 15, 10.3% had abnormalities on the CT scan and 3.4% required neurosurgical operation. In cases of GCS 14, an initial CT scan showed abnormality in 19.5% and 8.1% needed operation. Only 4 of the 1022 patients with normal CT scans on admission showed subsequent deterioration and required operation. These figures suggest that history and neurologic examination alone are not adequate to assess head injury or severity of risk and that the addition of a CT scan greatly improves patient assessment. Patients with normal CT scans and with GCS 14 or 15 could be considered for observation at home because their chance of deterioration is so low, allowing hospital personnel to devote their full attention to more seriously injured patients.
본 연구는 청소년활동 참여동기 수준이 다른 청소년들이 청소년활동에 지속적으로 참여하는데 영향을 미치는 청소년지도자의 리더십 유형을 실증적으로 밝히고 그 시사점을 찾기 위해 수행되었다. 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위해 서울경기지역 청소년수련관 10곳을 선정하여, 수련관에 소속된 동아리 회원 235명의 응답을 분석에 이용하였으며, SPSSWIN/ver14.0과 AMOS 4.0 통계프로그램을 사용하여 상관관계분석, 다중회귀분석, 경로분석을 통해 분석하였다. 연구결과 자유방임적리더십은 청소년활동 참여동기와 활동지속의지에 영향을 주지 못하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 거래적리더십의 경우 외적동기를 통한 간접효과만을 갖는 것으로 나타났으며, 변혁적리더십의 경우 내적 동기를 통한 간접효과 뿐 아니라 무동기를 통한 간접효과를 갖는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 청소년활동 지속의지에 대한 효과 크기를 비교해본 결과 거래적리더십보다 변혁적리더십이 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study was to explore the effective leadership elements of youth leaders which effect the continuance in activities by youth based on motivation. The subjects were 235 youths affiliated with youth centers in Seoul and Kyong-Gi-Do. Pearson Correlation, Multiple Regression, Path Analysis with SPSSWIN 14.0 and AMOS 4.0 were used for the purposes of data analysis. The results indicated that Laissez-faire leadership had no effect on youth activity motivation and continuance. Transactional leadership had an indirect effect on the continuance of the activity by youth when mediated by extrinsic motivation. However, transformational leadership had an indirect effect on the continuance of the activity by youth when mediated by intrinsic motivation and amotivation. As to the degree of effect on the continuance of the activity by youth, transformational leadership was mere effective than transactional leadership.
In this paper, we proposed a new sensorless drive system for the trapezoidal type brushless DC motor, which does not use any mechanical position or speed sensor and applicable to the systems requiring a constant speed and torque such as Fan.<br/> For this, a novel indirect rotor position sensing technique based on a detailed analysis of the terminal voltage characteristics is proposed in this paper. And a sensorless drive system for the brushless DC motor is implemented using a 87c196mc for the main microprocessor, and a power FET for the inverter.<br/> The experimental results will show the validity of the proposed indirect sensing method and the practical use of the sensorless drive.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of classic heat stroke in Korea and to identify factors of prognosis for heat stroke by comparing a survival group with a non-survival group. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 27 patients with heat stroke who visited the Emergency Department of Kyungpook National University Hospital from March 2001 to February 2005. First, we divided the patients into two groups, the classic heat stroke group and the exertional heat stroke group, and compared them. Second, we compared the survival group with the non-survival group. Age, sex, cause, place where patients were found, underlying diseases, cooling time, performance of endotracheal intubation, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, initial vital sign, and laboratory findings were reviewed. Results: Five of 27 patients in heat stroke died. The classic heat stroke group had 20 patients. They were old and had more patients in the bathroom than the exertional heat stroke group had. The non-survival group showed lower blood pressure, lower initial GCS score, and higher respiratory rate than the survival group. In laboratory findings, the non-survival group also showed lower HCO3- level, lower albumin level, lower glucose level, more prolonged PT, and higher CK-MB level than the survival group. Delay in recognition of heat stroke and cooling were poor prognostic factors in heat stroke. Conclusion: The classic heat stroke group had patients who were old and found in the bathroom. Early recognition and treatment of heat stroke is important to reduce mortality. Cooling time, initial GCS score, mean arterial pressure, resipratory rate, HCO3-, PT, CK-MB, and albumin seem to be meaningful when forming a prognosis for heat stroke patients. (J Korean Soc Traumatol 2006;19:113-120)