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본 연구는 세종 계획의 코퍼스의 국어 자료를 약 2억 46만 어절 중 현대 남한에서 만들어진 국어 자료로서 문어 약 3,700만 어절, 구어 약 80만 어절을 이용하여 서울대학교 신효필 연구팀과 윤디자인그룹 박재홍 글꼴연구소 공동으로 빈도조사를 진행 하였고 윤디자인그룹 박재홍 글꼴연구소에서 분석한 자료이다. 연구 방법은 1991년 프로그래머인 귀도 반 로섬(Guido van Rossum)이 발표한 고급 프로그래밍 언어, 파이썬(Python)을 이용하여 빈도수를 조사하였다. 전체 약 4,500만 어절에서 초성의 빈도는 ᄋ, ᄀ, ᄃ, ᄉ 네 자음이 전체 19가지 초성 자음 총 빈도의 54% 이상으로, 중성의 빈도는 ᅡ, ᅵ, ᅳ 세 자음이 전체 21가지 중성 모음 총 빈도의 50% 이상으로, 종성의 빈도는 민글자, ᄂ, ᄅ, ᄋ, ᄀ, ᄆ 여섯 자음이 전체 28가지 종성 자음 총 빈도의 52% 이상으로 나타났다. 가로모임 민글자 중‘이'가 9.351%로, 가로모임 받침글자 중 ‘한'이 4.252%로, 세로모임 민글자 중 ‘고'가 12.389%로, 세로모임 받침글자 중 ‘는'이 15.511%로, 섞임모임 민글자 중 ‘의'가 42.506%로, 섞임모임 받침글자 중 ‘원'이 전체 음절의 19.898%로 가장 많이 사용되었다. 본 조사에서는 약 4,500만 어절, 3,025가지의 음절글자 종류가 채집되었다. 음절글자 빈도는 ‘이, 다, 는' 세 가지 음절글자가 전체의 9%이상을 차지하였다. 상위 822가지 음절이 전체 사용의 대부분인 99%를 차지하였다. 따라서 본 조사를 통해 총 음절 글자의 80%를 차지하는 상위 181가지를 글자디자인을 위한 대표글자로 제안할 수 있을 것이다. This study, the Korean language data of the Corpus of the 21st Century Sejong Project, was made in modern Korean, using approximately 370,000 literature words and about 800,000 words of spoken Korean. YoonDesign Group's Park Jae-hong typeface research institute collaborated with Seoul National University's Shin Hyo-pil research team in surveying and analysing frequency of the corpus. As a research method, frequency examined using Python, an advanced programming language published by Guido van Rossum in 1991. The frequency of initial consonants was found to be over 54 % of the total frequency of the 19 initial consonants out of the four consonants, ᄋ, ᄀ, ᄃ, ᄉ. The frequency of vowels was 50 % or more of the total 21 consonants in three consonants, ᅡ, ᅵ, ᅳ . The frequency of final consonants was found to be over 52 % of the total frequency of the 28 final consonants out of the six consonants, characters without final consonant, ᄂ, ᄅ, ᄋ, ᄀ, ᄆ. ‘이' was used most often with 9.351% out of the horizontally aligned characters without consonants. ‘한' was used most often with 4.252% out of horizontally aligned consonants. ‘고' was used most often with 12.389% out of vertically aligned characters without consonants. ‘는' was used most often with 15.511% out of vertically aligned consonants. ‘의' was used most often with 42.506% out of characters without consonants that are aligned vertically and horizontally. ‘원' was used most often with 19.898% out of consonants that are both horizontally and vertically aligned. 3,025 characters are found on the around 45,000,000 words on this research. The frequency of characters was found to be over 9 % of the six consonants, 이, 다, 는. The top 822 syllables represented 99 % of total use. The survey could suggest that the top 181 letters, which account for 80 % of the total syllables as the representative of the type design in Hangeul.
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The purposes of this study were to investigate the Chinese consumers' consumption and perception about Korean milk. This study surveyed 400 Chinese consumers who resided in Beijing and Shanghai metropolitan area. According to the survey, seventy five respondents had experienced Korean milk, especially fresh milk. Chinese consumers were familiar with Korean milk brands, and chose products from out of two or three brands. Chinese consumers perceived that the strengths of Korean milk were food safety and sanitation, and weaknesses were high price. However, they perceived that the high price of Korean milk was reasonable compared to Chinese milk. They expected the consumption of Korean milk would be reached to a certain level continuously. To extend the consumption of Korean milk in Chinese market, Korean milk industry has to try to increase safety and secure the price competitiveness.
Loess, a natural clay, was evaluated as an adsorbent for the decolorization of Acid Orange II, an azo and reactive dye, from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were performed at 30°C and the effect of reaction time, loess dosage, initial concentration, loess particle size, pH, agitation rate were investigated to determine the optimum operation conditions. The removal efficiencies of color were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of loess. From this study, it was found that optimal reaction time was 10 min. Color removal efficiencies of Acid Orange II were increased as higher loess dosage, initial concentration and agitation rate. However, color removal efficiencies decreased when pH is high and loess particle becomes large. Adsorption of Acid Orange II fitted to the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics more than first-order rate kinetics. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants and correlation coefficients were calculated and compared. It was concluded that the adsorption data of Acid Orange II onto loess fitted to the Freundlich model more than Langmuir model.
The development of chevron-type corrugated plates, as it is today, has started with strong demand for energy efficiency improvement since the oil shock in the 1970s. In a typical plate heat exchanger, it is almost impossible to design it with a thermal length that exactly fits given design conditions. Therefore, some over-surfacing is required in designing heat exchangers. To reduce over-surfacing, two types of heat plates were developed: high θ (chevron angle=120°) and low θ (60°) plates. They can also be used in combination. The two types of heat plates can form three types of channels: high θ channel, low θ channel, and mixed θ channel. The purpose of this study is to experimentally figure out the thermal performance characteristics of each channel with a real product which can be used in many industries and to provide their basic data on a design of plate heat exchangers.
Recently, environmental issues have remained high on the agendas of public discussion and economic research. In the case of Korea, democratic movement in the late 80`s centered people`s concerns on the environmental dispute according to landfill, correctional institution, crematory, and nuclear powerplant, etc., Moreover, the failure to provide these kinds of facilities in time have caused serious social problems associate(] with environmental protection and economic develoment. The purposes of this paper are threefolds. First, they organize foreign and domestic NIMBYS case studies which have been settled in a desirable way. The second concern is to analyze the consciousness of NIMBYS resident by making up a questionnaire. Third, they estimate the market values of urban unwanted facilities by employing CVM(Contingent Valuation Method) procedure. The results of the study have a double implication: that NIMBYS resident are reluctant to accept government mechanical compensation based on simple published land values, and that unique concensus to preserve the viability and healthfulness of our environment among three main bodies; residents, people, government is necessary in solving NIMBYS subjects in Korea. In addition, this first implication develops to emphasize the introduction of relevant measures taken to reconcile NIMBYS disagreement, which are complete openness of government policies, full support of local economic development, and perfect management of pollution protection systems for NIMBYS facilities.
The chloride ion migration coefficient of polymer modified cement mortar (PCM) used as patching repair materials to the deteriorated RC structure was tested by NT BUILD 492 method. To evaluate performance of repaired section against incoming Chloride Ion, 2D-numerical analysis model (FEM) was developed. The diffusion coefficient of chloride ion decreased in proportion to the polymer cement ratio. It became clear through the analysis of FEM model that the performance change over time after repair depend on the removal range of retrograded concrete and the time of repair application.