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본 논문에서는 연방통신위원회 (Federal Communication Commission; FCC) 에서 제안한 CR (Cognitive Radio) 사용자가 주사용자 (primary user) 와 공존할 수 있는 간섭온도의 개념에 대해 살펴보고, 스펙트럼 센싱 (sensing) 후 주사용자의 신호와 간섭 및 잡음 신호의 구분가능성 여부에 따라 이상적인 간섭온도 모델과 일반적인 간섭온도 모델로 구분하여 각각의 모델에 대한 CR 사용자의 대역폭, 송신전력 및 용량을 산출할 수 있는 구체적인 간섭온도 모델 및 간섭온도 다중접속 기술에 대해서 살펴본다. 특히, T. Clancy가 제안한 간섭온도 다중접속 기술에서 공존을 위해 주사용자에게 간섭을 미치지 않게 CR 사용자에게 할당하는 방안만을 고려하였지만, 본 논문에서는 CR 사용자의 성능가지도 고려하는 공존방안을 제시하였다. 또한, 간섭온도 모델링을 통해 CR 사용자의 허용할 수 있는 최대송신전력을 도출하였으며, 도출된 대역폭과 송신전력 이용 시 주사용자 및 CR 사용자의 QoS를 만족하여 서로 공존할 수 있는 방안을 제시하였다. In this paper, we examine the scheme that the CR (Cognitive Radio) user can coexist with primary user with obeying the concept of interference temperature proposed by FCC. Regarding to the capability of classifying the signals of primary user after the spectrum sensing, the interference temperature model can be discriminated by the ideal and generalized ones. And then, about each model, it can optimize the bandwidth and transmit power with satisfying predetermined capacity of CR user. Especially, it has been considered to allocate to CR user not to interfere to primary users for proper coexistence in conventional interference temperature multiple access technique, proposed by T. Clancy, but this paper proposes the scheme that considering QoS of not only primary users, but also CR user. The hill-climbing algorithm is employed to produce the bandwidth and transmit power subject to satisfying the required capacity.
Objective : The cause and clinical outcome of cerebral hemorrhage in patients on maintenance hemodialysis have been poorly studied in korea. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the clincal features and the outcome of cerebral hemorrhage in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Method : We analyzed clincal features and the outcome of cerebral hemorrhage in 14 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Hematomas were reviewed and evaluated for location, size, and intraventricular extension by the one of the authors without any prior informations. The axial slice of CT film that the hematoma was appeared in maximal dimension was chosen for evaluations. Result : Hypertension was found in 71.4%(10 cases) and motality rate was 78.5%(11 cases). Basal ganglia hemorrhage was found in 50%(7 cases), subcortex in 28.5%(4 cases), pons in 14.2%(2 cases). Size of hematoma in patients on maintenance hemodialysis was significantly larger than that of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage patients(p=0.0061). The 4 cases of basal ganglia hemorrhage without intraventricular hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage were good mental state at the onset of stroke because of small mass effect relative to the size of hematoma. The duration of hemodialysis treatment prior to strokes ranged from 1 to 107 months. Strokes developed within 6 hours of the previous hemodialysis are 5 cases. Average serum albumin concentration was 3.4g/dl. The use of heparin is less responsible for the development of cerebral hemorrhage in patients on maintenance hemodialysis Conclusion : Cerebral hemorrhage in patients on maintenance hemodialysis is more severe in terms of hematoma size and clinical outcome. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of cerebral hemorrhage in patients on maintenance hemodialysis should be more aggressive.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general features of allergic patients in northwestern Chungcheongnamdo who visited Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital. The subjects in this study were 1692 suspected allergic patients. After their allergic symptoms were checked and a MAST-CLA test was conducted, the following results were obtained: 1. The mean age of the subjects was 23.1 years old. The male patients represented 56.2% and the female patients accounted for 43.8%. 1387 (82.0%) patients of those investigated suffered from allergic disease. 2. Among the 1387 patients, 1022 (73.7%) patients showed an increased total IgE level. The positive rate of those who were in their 40s (87.0%) was the highest, but their age made no difference to their positive rate of total IgE. 3. Concerning the positive rate for allergen specific antibody by age, those who were in their teens (73.5%) topped the list and similar in all age group except in their 40s. By gender, the positive rate of the male and female were 56.3% and 43.9% respectively. Regarding the positive rates by allergic disease, those who suffered from allergic rhinitis (60.4%) were most vulnerable, followed by the patients with allergic dermatitis (47.4%), with bronchial asthma (47.2%) and with urticaria (39.4%). 4. As for seasonal positive rates, they were most susceptible in April (77.2%) and May (71.1%). We discovered a significant difference according to seasons; Spring (60.1%), Winter (45.4%) and Summer (39.2%). 5. In case of Korean inhalent panel, the most dominant allergen-specific antibodies were “Cockroach mix” (31.1%), followed by “D. pteronyssius” (23.8%) and “Dog” (14.3%). In the event of food panel, the most popular allergen-specific antibodies were “D. farinae” (25.0%), followed by “D. pteronyssinus” (19.8%) and “Hose dust” (12.0%). 6. The residential type made no difference to the positive rates of “House dust”, “Cockroach mix” and “Dog” as major antigen but compared with others, positive rates for “Tick” were somewhat higher in apartment buildings.
This study was performed to find out the measurement criteria of slip resistance from analysis of human gait and slips. Many kinds of slip resistance testers were developed based on mechanical friction testers. But, there are, as yet, no unambiguous slip resistance measurement methodologies and generally accepted safety criteria or safety thresholds for estimating slipping hazard exposures, Also, there are variety of measuring conditions between those testers, The measurement criteria should be tested within the range of human slipping conditions observed in biomechanical studies, It`s results should clearly consider whether the devices reflect the human slipping conditions. In this study a dragsled type friction tester, which was constructed in accordance with ISO 15133 basically, was used. Test conditions were set in order to determine the range of measurement criteria. It is shown that drag velocity should be more than 1 m/s, acceleration be more than 10 m/s2, contact time be less than 0.1sec, and contact pressure be within 350~400kPa.
이 연구는 프로축구 팬의 비디오판독(VAR)에 대한 인식과 관람몰입, 관람만족 및 재관람의도와의 관계를 규명하고자 하였으며, 이를 토대로 효율적인 비디오판독 제도의 운영을 도모하고, 프로축구의 발전과 활성화를 위한 기초자료를 제공하는 데 연구의 목적이 있다. 이 연구를 위하여 K리그1 경기 관람경험이 있는 팬들을 대상으로 하여 총 331부의 설문지를 최종 분석 자료로 활용하였다. 연구결과 다음과 같은 결론을 도출하였다. 첫째, 비디오판독 인식의 하위요인 중 공정성, 일관성, 신뢰성은 관람몰입에 유의한 영향을 미쳤으며, 신속성은 유의한 영향을 미치지 않았다. 둘째, 비디오판독 인식의 하위요인 중 공정성, 신뢰성은 관람만족에 유의한 영향을 미쳤으며, 신속성, 일관성은 유의한 영향을 미치지 않았다. 셋째, 비디오판독 인식의 하위요인 중 공정성, 일관성은 재관람의도에 유의한 영향을 미쳤으며, 신속성, 신뢰성은 유의한 영향을 미치지 않았다. 넷째, 관람몰입은 관람만족 및 재관람의도에 유의한 영향을 미쳤으며, 관람만족은 재관람의도에 유의한 영향을 미쳤다. 프로축구에서 비디오판독(VAR)은 신속성보다 우선적으로 공정성, 일관성, 그리고 신뢰성에 더욱 중점을 두고 판정을 내려야 할 것이다. The purpose of this study was to study the structural relationships among spectating flow, spectating satisfaction, re-spectating intention and professional football fan’s perception on VAR(Video Assistant Referee), and to provide basic data for the development and revitalization of VAR system in professional football. Total 350 subjects for this study were selected among members of the K-League"s online community site and 331 of them were used as final analysis data. The results were as follow. First, among the sub-dimensions of VAR perception(i.e., fairness, consistency, reliability, speed), fairness, consistency, and reliability had significant influences on spectating flow. Second, fairness and reliability had significant effects on spectating satisfaction. Third, fairness and consistency had significant impacts on re-spectating intention. Finally, fourth, spectating flow has a significant impact on spectating satisfaction and re-spectating intention, spectating satisfaction has a significant impact on re-spectating intention. VAR judgement in professional football game should focus more on fairness, consistency and reliability rather than making quick decisions to avoid disrupting the flow of the game. VAR is a recently introduced system, but as the system settles down, the equipment improvement and judging techniques are improved, the judgment time will be reduced, thereby minimizing disruption to the flow of the game.
The hydroforming technology has gained in importance over the last few years, because of its potential for substantial weight savings costs reduction and quality improvement such as collision property, shape fixability and rigidity of white body. However, in comparison with the traditional sheet forming process, the hydro forming is much younger and the main development efforts were made in the last 15 years. The new technology, high pressure tublar hydro forming in particular, involves many process parameters to be optimized.<br/> This paper covers a brief overview of the hydro forming simulator as well as design of die and tools. The effects of typical parameters such as internal pressure and axial compression stroke are presented. Moreover, the conditions of forming failure occurrences such as fracture and wrinkle are examinated.