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경제위기에 대한 경고에도 불구하고, 지속적으로 성장을 이루는 중국 자본주의체제의 특징은 무엇인가? 본 연구는 조절이론을 적용하여 중국 특색 자본주의의 역사·제도·축적의 정치경제학적 특수성을 분석하고, 더 나아가 중국 자본주의의 위기극복과 지속성장의 원인을 파악한다. 본 연구는 축적체제와 조절양식이라는 조절이론의 분석틀을 통해 포드주의와 포스트포드주의의 성장체제를 설명하고, 이를 토대로 중국의 자본주의를 시대별로 구분하여 분석하였다. 연구진은 중국의 자본주의체제가 1990년대와 2000년대는 수출주도의 축적체제, 2010년대는 금융주도의 축적체제라고 주장한다. 중국 자본주의체제의 조절양식은 포드주의적인 독점적 조절양식과 포스트포드주의적인 경쟁적 조절양식이 혼합되어 나타났으며, 시기별로 조절양식이 혼합된 정도는 다르게 나타났다. 서구에서 나타난 패턴과는 정 반대로, 중국의 자본주의체제는 세월이 흐를수록 포스트포드주의적인 경쟁적 조절양식에서 포드주의적인 독점적 조절양식의 제도적 형태로 변화하였다. 연구진은 중국특색의 자본주의체제는 신자유주의체제에서 정부통제가 강화되는 형태로 “진화”했음을 발견하였다. Despite repeated warnings of an economic crisis, China's capitalist system continues to grow. This study applies the control theory of accumulation system and regulation theory to locate and analyze the political and economic characteristics of Fordism and Post-Fordism that explain Chinese capitalism"s persistence. Chinese capitalism is usually described as an export-led accumulation system, during the 1990s and early 2000s, and a financial-led accumulation system beginning in the 2010s. Throughout, the regulation mode has been a mixture of Fordist monopolism and post-Fordist competitiveness, with the balance varying by time period. However, we determined that, contrary to the West's progression from monopolism to competitiveness, China has moved from a post-Fordist competitive model to a monopolistic one. We argue that this ‘evolution from neoliberalism to increasing government control helps explain the economy's paradoxical growth but raises concerns about its sustainability, leading to our proposed reforms.
This paper analyzes the time-shift technique in Joseph Conrad`s Lord Jim. Conrad`s manipulation of time in this novel is based on his aspiration for how `to make you see,` which he believes is completed through the harmony form and substance in his works. So Conrad applies this technique which was used earlier by some writers such as Laurence Sterne to his Lord Jim to show its theme more effectively. In Lord Jim, the story consists of two parts; first, Jim jumps from a ship called the Patna and is deprived of his navigation certificate. Secondly, he wins the people`s respect in Patusan in which his past related to the Patna remains hidden, but he faces his death by taking responsibility for the death of the chief`s son in the island. These events in Lord Jim are not described in chronological order; that is, some events are depicted with the time-shift technique using flashback, association, or fragmentary memory to accelerate the speed of stories as well as to offer the actuality of the events. With this structure, the themes of Jim`s story have something to do with his heroic actions and failures. Jim wants to be a hero and after failures he struggles to redeem himself only to fail. In particular, Jim`s jump from the Patna is emphasized through the time-shift and it shows there is something incomprehensible in his action. Therefore, Conrad reveals in Lord Jim that Jim is one of us who not only are imperfect but also have the weaknesses inside that can unexpectedly emerge in an instant.
Doris Lessing's The Memoirs of a Survivor (1974) has raised controversy related to the genre of the book. It has been argued whether this book is an autobiography, a fantasy, or science fiction. The book is set in the future during a world crisis, when an anonymous narrator lives in an abandoned house in a city. Here, despite the setting and events, this paper reads this book as Lessing's autobiography. It is obvious that Emily's childhood is a re-creation of Lessing's own childhood with one thing and another. As the destructive aspect of parent-daughter relationships is a recurring theme in Lessing's autobiographical and fictional texts, The Memoirs of a Survivor seems to be another confession of Lessing, who seeks for reconciliation and harmony towards her father. As Lessing puts it in Walking in the Shade, there has lingered “a hiatus, a lack, a blur and it was to do with my parents” (16) and the implied author in The Memoirs of a Survivor tries to fill “a hiatus, a lack, a blur” with an opening in the wall. Therefore, this paper shows that in journeying into her most painful childhood memories, Lessing attempts to recover her lost and unsaid past, providing the power of the narrative for the implied author. (Konkuk University)
This paper examines Doris Lessing`s "To Room Nineteen" (1963) and The Summer Before the Dark (1973) in light of Edward Relph`s theory of place and placelessness (or non-place). In Place and Placelessness Relph as a humanistic geographer emphasizes the correlation between a room and an individual`s identity; with insideness of the room, the individual can develop confidence in life, while with its outsideness he or she is vulnerable to isolation, loss, and despair. The term ``placelessness`` which was coined by Relph is used to explain not only that the room has no meaning to the dwellers, but also that the dwellers do not have any feelings of affection towards it. So, whether they have an intimate or meaningful relationship with the room plays a vital role in their experience. The stories of Susan Rowlings and Kate Brown who are both from middle class families near London in the 1960s show that they are closely related to their own room, which is desperately sought as a means of avoiding or overcoming the repression and unfair treatment of the family. It is taken for granted that they are useless or "unreasonable" after they have used all their energy in raising their children, and that their husbands have affairs after the wives` long-term faithfulness and devotion. Every family member forgets they, despite their intelligence, had to sacrifice their successful careers after marriage, which makes Susan and Kate depressed and thereby search for their own room. However, in the end they choose a totally different life from one another; one kills herself in Room 19 of a hotel, and the other decides to return home and continue her life after traveling room to room. Susan has no feeling about the room and feels enclosed, threatened, unsafe and stressed rather than safe and at ease. She is separated or alienated from the room, family, children and husband (outsideness). Kate, conversely, immerses herself deeply in each room where she stays and has experiences as a manager, a lover and a godmother, which makes her feel comfortable in the rooms (insideness). Therefore, it is shown that life can be changeable according to the individual`s approach towards their room. The individual has to try and be open-minded towards the room, and understand and embrace it and then, above all, focus on human intentions, experiences and actions related to the room in everyday life. This suggests the more profound an individual`s feelings are when inside the room, the stronger they will identify with that room.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of dental anxiety with oral health behavior and dental caries experience among adolescents. Methods: The subjects were 469 teenagers (238 middle school students and 231 high school students) in 15 different schools located in 7 regions of Bucheon in Gyeonggi Province, Daejeon, and others. A survey and interviews were conducted to evaluate subjects' oral health behavior and dental anxiety. Dental anxiety was additionally assessed by Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale. The caries experience of subjects was examined. Results: There were no regional differences in dental anxiety. Girls felt more dental anxiety than boys did. Adolescents who did not receive treatment even when they needed it felt more dental anxiety than those who did receive treatment. There were also statistically significant differences in dental anxiety according to the type of treatment received. Adolescents who received extraction treatment or underwent oral surgery experienced more dental anxiety than those who received orthodontic or aesthetic treatment. Those who had a toothache or who experienced gingival bleeding felt more dental anxiety than those who did not have those conditions. Subjects with poor perceived oral health also had more dental anxiety. The number of decayed teeth and filled teeth was significantly correlated with dental anxiety. Conclusions: In adolescents, dental anxiety is related to their oral health behavior, the type of conditions they present with, the treatment received, and dental caries experience. Therefore, the kind of systematic programs that could relieve adolescents of dental anxiety should be prepared.
This essay explores the complex voices of colonialism, anti-colonialism and post-colonialism of the narrative in Doris Lessing's Going Home and The African Laughter. The narrator who is referred to as Doris is positioned as a privileged outsider because she affiliates herself to England and at the same time she has grown up in South Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). This creates tension between Lessing's narrator who gives voice to black Zimbabweans and the western female protagonist as the authoritative subject in describing her travelogue to her ‘home' in 1956 and to Zimbabwe in 1982, 1988, 1991, and 1992. Contrary to conservative travel writing, the narrator deconstructs the consistency, stability and chronological order of the western traveller's exploration of Africa by using various voices and para-textual materials. Refusing the commanding and controlling perspectives and focusing on the tough realities of colonial and post-colonial life, the narrator displays inequalities that prevail throughout African culture. But her main aim seems to visit her parents' farm, from which she is separated due to her position as the Prohibited Immigrant. She attempts to travel to the home five times, even though she knows the farm does not exist anymore. This reveals her desire to feel the blessing and privilege of the Empire in the very place that the African society is declining. By portraying the corrupted black Africans and the home that falls into ruin by the African nationalism, her travelogue shows that the narrator reproduces the very colonial ideologies that she simultaneously criticizes. So, this essay purports that these colonial and post-colonial experiences cast Lessing a perpetual outsider and a marginal writer, which thereby could influence all of her works.
This paper introduces the Man Booker Prize, formerly known as the Booker-McConnell Prize and commonly known as the Booker Prize, which is awarded each year for the best English language novel, published in the UK. This prize gives authors fame, which directly increases their book sales and popularizes their publications. In particular, the film adaptations of the Booker Prize winning novels attract more readers, which naturally forms a new literary canon. As a commercial literary fiction, this paper examines Yann Martel`s Life of Pi. In the story, on the way to Canada with his family who runs a zoo in Pondicherry India, the protagonist, a 15-year-old boy named Pi, is ship-wrecked and survives alone. Surprisingly, he shares a rescue boat with a tiger for 227 days until he is rescued on a Mexican beach. With the adaptation of this creative story, Ang Lee won the best director for Academy Awards. Based on its artistic and commercial success, this paper deals with two points; Pi`s salvation through his religious experience which makes him endure all the sufferings, and his role as a postmodern subject who creates a second story when necessary. The second device is used to avoid facing his inner animality. Lastly, in reading Life of Pi this paper suggests that in the Booker Prize the legacy of imperialism is deeply implicated because the winners use the methods of imperialism and the English language.
This paper commences with the doubt about Marlow`s reliability in telling Jim`s story to the listener and reader in Joseph Conrad`s Lord Jim. Marlow describes Jim who in the first part of the novel abandons the Patna which is in a critical condition and carrying about 800 passengers; in the last part, he exerts himself to regain his fame in Patusan but he decides to accept his death for his own cause. Marlow tries to understand Jim using several minor narrators who support Marlow`s opinion and judgement. However, I argue how much the reader and listener can trust Marlow and minor narrators, and therefore we should distinguish the author and narrator from the implied author, who has sensibility that accounts for the narrative. With the suggestion that the structure of the novel has something to do with Marlow`s intention to control all the narratives, I disclose the concealed contradictions in the narratives. From chapter 1 to 3, the omniscient writer draws the reader`s attention to how insufficient Jim is to meet the needs as the first mate by showing his failures. From chapter 5 to 35, Marlow has authority over Jim by observing and intervening in Jim`s affairs and alludes to his weakness. From chapter 36 to 45, the privileged man appears as Marlow`s mouthpiece to represent the way of Jim`s death. Though Conrad uses the three different narrators, I suggest it is Marlow`s strategy to lead us to see the theme of ``the journey into the deep truth of human heart``. So, as a double of Conrad, Marlow just shows his concern of ``the state of a man`s soul` rather than the white man in a colonial milieu. It is likely to read Jim`s story as a production of Britain`s imperialism in that Marlow sends Jim to Patusan in order to occupy and construct a new colony after ousting other colonists. This is why Marlow calls Jim one of us. Using multiple voices, Conrad`s narrative strategy functions to blur the historically specific conditions that allow for the construction of a figure such as Jim. Through the voice of the implied author we should catch, Lord Jim can be read as the tale which is concerned with the relationship between colonizer and colonized.
Men's everyday life in the 21st century was all already designed. Those who deal with information professionally have succeeded and recognized so far in the era of knowledge workers. However, it needs the ability that realizes the trend of the 21st century and opportunities, creates artistic and emotional beauty, makes a great story, and creates something new by combining an idea that seems to have no relations. We normally think making motional values rich is a waste. However, sharing what people like and feeling the happiness during the process is the most important value, experience, and memory. In the process of finding out problems that many people share with one another in the society and solve them, there is a basic essential of design. As people think the root of problems originated from the society, everyone can understand the plan or the process so that they can share the meaning with the same point of view of designers. During the process, a point of view or spirit that men can share is created and impression made by sharing it is right the basic and essential of designs. This study aims to analyze the brand styling, marketing, and brand styling process that is able to stimulate and consumers' emotion and desires.