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      • 양측 전정절제(前庭切除) 가묘(家猫)의 경안구반사(頸眼球反射)

        박병림,박철순,Park, Byung-Rim,Park, Chul-Soon 대한생리학회 1988 대한생리학회지 Vol.22 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The effect of cervical proprioceptors on the control of eye movement and body posture was examined in unanesthetized labyrinthine intact and bilateral labyrinthectomized cats. Cervico-ocular reflex(COR) was elicited by stimulation of the cervical proprioceptors by means of sinusoidal rotation of head or body in the darkness. The following results were obtained: 1) In labyrinthine intact cats, sinusoidal rotation of the whole body elicited compensatory eye movement(vestibulo-ocular reflex: VOR); the direction of eye movement was opposite to the direction of head rotation. 2) Anticompensatory eye movement was observed by sinusoidal rotation of the body with head fixed in labyrinthine intact cats; the direction of eye movement was the same as the direction of head rotation. 3) Compensatory eye movement was observed by sinusoidal rotation of the head with body fixed or sinusoidal rotation of the body with head fixed in both acute and chronic bilateral labyrinthectomized cats. These results suggest that the cervical proprioceptors are important in the control of ocular movement and posture in the bilateral labyrintectomized cats, although they are questionable in labyrinthine intact cats.


        일측 전정기관 손상 흰쥐에서 전정안구반사와 내측전정신경핵의 c-Fos 단백질발현에 대한 전정기관의 전기자극 효과

        박병림,황호룡,이문영,김민선,Park Byung-Rim,Hwang Ho-Ryong,Lee Moon-Yong,Kim Min-Sun 대한약리학회 1997 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.1 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Unilateral labyrinthectorny (ULX) causes autonomic symptoms, ocular and postural asymmetries, which disappear over tune in the process of equilibrium recovery known as vestibular compensation. In the present study in order to elucidate mechanisms responsible for the effects of electrical stimulation on vestibular compensation and investigate the relationship between vestibular compensation and c-Fos expression in the medial vestibular nuclei following ULX, we measured spontaneous nystagmus, eye movement induced by sinusoidal rotation and c-Fos expression or to 72 hs after ULX in Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental animals were divided into two groups: ULX group with ULX only, and electrical stimulation (ES) group with electrical stimulation of $-2{\sim}-5V$, 1.0ms, 100 Hz to the lesioned vestibular system for 4 hs/day. Spontaneous nystagmus following ULX disappeared by 72 hs in ULX group and 36 hs in ES group. In eye movement induced by sinusoidal rotation, normal pattern of eye movement by rotation toward the lesioned side was recovered 24 hs after ULX at rotation of 0.1 Hz and 6 hs after at 0.2 Hz, 0.5 Hz in ULX group. In ES group, the eye movement recovered after 12 hs at 0.1 Hz, 6 hs at 0.2 Hz, and 4 hs at 0.5 Hz. Directional Preponderance which represents the symmetry of bilateral vestibular functions showed significantly early recovery in ES group compared with that of ULX group. Expression or c-Fos immunoreactive cells in the bilateral medial vestibular nuclei was severely asymmetrical till 36 hs in ULX group, and then it became a symmetry and disappeared after 72 hs. However, ES group showed the symmetry of c-Fos expression after 6 hs, which was significantly early recovery in 25 group. All these findings suggest that electrical stimulation ameliorates recovery of vestibuloocular reflex following ULX by the restoration of the balance of the resting activity between bilateral medial vestibular nuclei. In addition, c-Fos expression in the medial vestibular nuclei could be used as a marker of vestibular compensation since c-Fos expression is closely related to the course of recovery following ULX.

      • 가토(家兎)에 있어서 전정반규관(前庭半規管)의 외안사근(外眼斜筋)에 관(對)한 흥분적(興奮的) 작용(作用)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)

        김재협,박병림,길원식,Kim, Jeh-Hyub,Park, Byung-Rim,Gill, Won-Sik 대한생리학회 1982 대한생리학회지 Vol.16 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The present experiment was carried out to elucidate interrelation between the vestibular canals and the extraocular oblique muscles. In urethane anesthetized rabbits, excitatory or inhibitory effect of the canal was produced by three different methods; selective electrical stimulation of the ampullary nerve, bidirectional (ampullofugal or ampullopetal) lymphatic fluid flow, and rapid freezing of the canal. Changes of isometric tension as well as electro-myographic activity of the oblique muscles were recorded in the ipsilateral and contralateral eyes, by means of a polygraphic recorder, and the following results were obtained. 1) Electrical stimulation of a unilateral vertical or horizontal nerve caused contraction of superior oblique muscle and relaxation of inferior oblique muscle in the ipsilateral eye, and contraction of inferior oblique muscle and relaxation of superior oblique muscle in the contralateral eye. 2) Ampullofugal flow in a vertical canal and ampullopetal flow in a horizontal canal caused the oblique muscle responses which were identical to those responses produced by the electrical stimulation of the same canal nerve. 3) Rapid freezing of a vertical canal elicited the oblique muscle responses which were opposite to those caused by electrical stimulation of the same canal nerve. From the above experimental results, functional interrelation between the individual vestibular canal and bilateral extraocular oblique muscles were better elucidated. When these results were compared to those reported by previous investigators (Utzumi, Suzuki et al.), some important discrepancies were found between them. We ascribed such discrepancies to experimental errors of the previous investigators, since their results reflected theoretical contradictions in terms of vestibular eye movements.

      • 흰쥐 후지근 피판에서 허혈-재순환 손상시 pERK1/2 발현에 대한 ${\alpha}-lipoic$ Acid의 효과

        송정훈,김민선,박병림,박한수,채정룡,이혜미,나영천,Song, Jeong-Hoon,Kim, Min-Sun,Park, Byung-Rim,Park, Han-Su,Chae, Jeong-Ryong,Lee, Hye-Me,Na, Young-Cheon 대한미세수술학회 2005 Archives of reconstructive microsurgery Vol.14 No.2

        Purpose: This study was to evaluate the effect of ${\alpha}-lipoic$ acid, a potent free radical scavenger, on the expression of active form of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK1/2) proteins from hindlimb muscles of rats following ischemia-reperfusion injury. Material and methods: 64 health, $280{\sim}350\;g$ weighted Sprague-Dawley male rats were used. In order to make a muscle flap, the gastrocnemius (GC) and soleus (SOL) muscles were dissected and elevated. The popliteal artery was occluded for 4hours and reperfused for 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours and 4 hours, respectively. Results: The ischemia by occlusion of the popliteal artery itself caused a minimal change in expression of phosphorylated form of proteins observed in hindlimb muscle. In contrast, after 4 hours of ischemia, immunoreactivity for pERK1/2 in the GC muscle showed dual peaks at 10 minutes and 4 hours after reperfusion. In ${\alpha}-lipoic$ acid treated group, the expression of pERK1/2 was increased significantly compared to I/R-only group. Conclusion: These results suggest that ${\alpha}-lipoic$ acid may protect I/R injury of the skeletal muscle through free radical scavening and activation of intracellular pERK1/2 expression.


        일측 전정기관 손상 흰쥐에서 동측의 내측 전정신경핵 활동성에 대한 전정기관의 전기자극 효과

        이문영,김민선,박병림,Lee Moon-Yong,Kim Min-Sun,Park Byung-Rim 대한약리학회 1997 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.1 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation on vestibular compensation following ULX in rats. Electrical stimulation (ES) with square pulse ($100{\sim}300uA$, 1.0 ms, 100 Hz) was applied to ampullary portion bilaterally for 6 and 24 hours in rats receiving ULX. After ES, animals that showed the recovery of vestibular symptoms by counting and comparing the number of spontaneous nystagmus were selected for recording resting activity of type I, II neurons in the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) of the lesioned side. And then the dynamic neuronal activities were recorded during sinusoidal rotation at a frequency of 0.1 Hz and 0.2 Hz. The number of spontaneous nystagmus was significantly different 24 hours (p<0.01, n=10), but not 6 hours after ULX+ES. As reported by others, the great reduction of resting activity only in the type I neurons ipsilateral to lesioned side was observed 6, 24 hours after ULX compared to that of intact labyrinthine animal. However, the significant elevation (p<0.01) of type I and reduction (p<0.01) of type II neuronal activity were seen 24 hours after ULX+ES. Interestingly, gain, expressed as maximum neuronal activity(spikes/sec)/maximum rotational velocity(deg/sec), was increased in type I cells and decreased in type II cells 24 hours after ULX+ES in response to sinusoidal rotation at frequencies of both 0.1 Hz and 0.2 Hz. This result suggests that accompanying the behavioral recovery, the electrical stimulation after ULX has beneficial effects on vestibular compensation, especially static symptoms (spontaneous nystagmus), by enhancing resting activity of type I neurons and reducing that of type II neurons.

      • 제뇌(除腦) 고양이의 경부(頸部) 회전자극에 대한 상완근(上腕筋)의 반응

        이동선(Lee, Dong-Sun),박병림(Park, Byung-Rim),김상수(Kim, Sang-Soo) 대한생리학회 1990 대한생리학회지 Vol.24 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The role of cervical proprioceptors in the control of body posture was studied in bilaterally labyrinth-ectomized, decerebrate cats. The animals were suspended on hip pins with the neck extended horizontally. With this placement the EMG activities of extensor and flexor muscles of the upper extremities were observed by means of sinusoidal head rotator. The rotator can induce two kinds of neck movement: The one is pitch which describes a rotatory neck motion to transverse axis of the body and mainly occurs at skull-C1 (atlantooccipital) joint and the other is roll , side-to-side relation of the neck to longitudinal axis, whose center is C1-C2 (atlanto-axial) joint. The following results were obtained. 1) Responses of EMG activity were closely dependent on the rotatory range of the neck. And the EMG activity was not changed during sustained neck torsion, eliciting a typical tonic neck reflex. 2) On pitching movement, the head-up rotation produced the excitation of bilateral triceps muscles, whereas the head-down rotation produced the inhibition. And the response of bilateral biceps muscles was the opposite to that of triceps. 3) On rolling movement, the side-up rotation of the head produced the excitation of ipsilateral triceps muscles and the inhibition of contralateral ones. And the response of biceps muscles was the opposite to that of triceps. 4) The minimum requirement of motion to evoke EMG activities in the upper extremities was 3.2˚ ~ 12.5˚. These results have shown that the cervical proprioceptors produce tonic discharge on the upper brachial muscles, regulate the EMG activities of those muscles, and are very sensitive to neck rotation. And it can be stated that the cervical proprioceptors may play an important role in the control of body posture and movement.

      • KCI등재

        협계(俠谿)에 대한 전침자극이 흰쥐의 내측 전정신경핵 자발활동성에 미치는 효과

        김재효 ( Jae Hyo Kim ),박병림 ( Byung Rim Park ),손인철 ( In Chul Sohn ) 대한경락경혈학회 2008 Korean Journal of Acupuncture Vol.25 No.3

        Objectives: It is known that the vestibular imbalance Leads to vestibular symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, vertigo and postural disturbance. Since the non-labyrinthine inputs from the Limbs and viscera converge on the vestibular nucleus neurons receiving signal from peripheral vestibular endorgan, acupuncture to the periphery may influence the activities of vestibular nuclear neurons and produce a therapeutic effect on the vestibulacr symptoms. The present study was to examine a modification and characteristics of the static and dynamic activities of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons following electroacupuncture (EA) of GB43` acupoint. Methods: In 54 Sprague-Dawley adult male rats weighing 250~300g, spontaneous firing discharges and dynamic responses induced by sinusoidal whole body rotation about vertical axis at 0.2 ㎐were observed in MVN of rats during EA of GB43` acupoint, Located between the Left 4th and 5th toe, which is the territory of sural and peroneal nerves, with 0.2 ms, 40 Hz and 600±200 ㎂. Results: EA of the Left GB43` acupoint induced modifications of spontaneous firing rates in 45% of MVN neurons recorded, and the percentage of modified neurons was 44% in type I, 52% in type II and 46% in non-type neurons. The excitatory or inhibitory responses of spontaneous firing discharges were predominant in the ipsilateral MVN neurons during EA. The excitatory response was abolished after EA but the inhibitory response was prolonged after EA in the ipsilateral MVN. The neurons of MVN showing modified spontaneous firing discharges by EA showed Lower frequency (≥10 spikes/sec) of mean spontaneous firing rates than non affected ones. Conclusion: These results suggest that the neuronal activities of MVN neurons were influenced by EA of GB43` acupoint and the effects of EA may be related to the convergence of the peripheral vestibular inputs and ascending somatosensory inputs on MVN.

      • KCI등재

        거자법(巨刺法)에 의한 전침자극(電鍼刺戟)이 흰쥐의 formalin 유도(誘導) 통증(痛症)에 미치는 영향(影響)

        박상균,김재효,김민선,박병림,손인철,김경식,Park, Sang-Kyun,Kim, Jae-Hyo,Kim, Min-Sun,Park, Byung-Rim,Sohn, In-Chul,Kim, Kyung-Sik 대한침구의학회 2000 대한침구의학회지 Vol.17 No.2

        Acupuncture has been used for treatment of numerous diseases, especially for pain control in the oriental culture. However, the mechanism of pain control by acupuncture was not clear so far. The present study was examined that the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) applied to the acu-point of extra-segmental area on modulation of formalin induced pain in Sprague - Dawley rats. In order to apply EA to acu-points in the plantar area of right fore paws, a pair of teflon - coated stainless steel wires were implanted in HT 7 (shin-mun) and PC 7 (dae-neong) 5 days before behavioral test. A behavioral test was performed by means of video camera after injection of 5% formalin ($50{\mu}l$) into the lateral plantar region of left hind paw. EA was delivered by a constant current stimulator at 4~5 mA, 2 ms, and 10 Hz for 30 min. The electromyographic activities were recorded in the biceps femoris muscle under chloral hydrate anesthesia. Test stimuli with 1~9mA were applied to the sural nerve territory including the medial portion of the 4th toe and the lateral portion of the 5th toe. Behavioral responses including favoring, flinching and bitting were occured in the biphasic pattern, such as the lst phase (0~5 min) and the 2nd phase (20~45 min) after formalin injection. However, EA (4~5 mA, 2 ms, 10 Hz) significantly inhibited Che behavioral responses. EMG activities of flexor reflex had a latency of 100~300 ms and thresholds of test stimuli for EMG were 4~5 mA in normal rats. Injection of formalin decreased threshold of test stimuli and increased EMG activities for 2hrs after injection. However, EA significantly inhibited EMG activities of flexor reflex increased by formalin and recovered EMG evoked thresholds. These results suggest that contralateral extra-segmental EA inhibits the first and second phases of formalin induced pain but their mechanism be needed to examine additionally.


        흰쥐의 운동유발전위에 대한 전정신경핵과 연수망상핵의 역할

        이문영,이성호,김재효,박병림,김민선,Lee, Moon-Young,Lee, Sung-Ho,Kim, Jae-Hyo,Park, Byung-Rim,Kim, Min-Sun 대한약리학회 1997 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.1 No.6

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The motor evoked potentials (MEPs) have been advocated as a method of monitoring the integrity of spinal efferent pathways in various injury models of the central nervous system. However, there were many disputes about origin sites of MEPs generated by transcranial electrical stimulation. The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of major extrapyramidal motor nuclei such as lateral vestibular nucleus (VN) and medullary reticular nucleus (mRTN) on any components of the MEPs in adult Sprague-Dalwey rats. MEPs were evoked by electrical stimulation of the right sensorimotor cortex through a stainless steel screw with 0.5mm in diameter, and recorded epidurally at T9 - T10 spinal cord levels by using a pair of teflon-coated stainless steel wire electrodes with 1mm exposed tip. In order to inject lidocaine and make a lesion, insulated long dental needle with noninsulated tips were placed stareotoxically in VN and mRTN. Lidocaine of $2{\sim}3\;{\mu}l$ was injected into either VN or mRTN. The normal MEPs were composed of typical four reproducible waves; P1, P2, P3, P4. The first wave (P1) was shown at a mean latency of 1.2 ms, corresponding to a conduction velocity of 67.5 m/sec. The latencies of MEPs were shortened and the amplitudes were increased as stimulus intensity was increased. The amplitudes of P1 and P2 were more decreased among 4 waves of MEPs after lidocaine microinjection into mRTN. Especially, the amplitude of P1 was decreased by 50% after lidocaine microinjection into bilateral mRTN. On the other hand, lidocaine microinjection into VN reduced the amplitudes of P3 and P4 than other MEP waves. However, the latencies of MEPs were not changed by lidocaine microinjection into either VN or mRTN. These results suggest that the vestibular and reticular nuclei contribute to partially different role in generation of MEPs elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation.

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