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A model for quantifying the effect of steam pressure on the oxide thickness growth was developed based on the experimental data available. First, empirical equations for the thickness estimation of oxide formed in 1 atm steam were made. The oxide growth kinetics turned out to be dependent on 0.4th power of oxidation time. With an assumption that the transition oxide thickness be only a function of temperature, a model for the enhancement of steam pressure on oxide growth was developed. The enhancement coefficient for steam pressure is calculated to be 0.01~0.013 bar⁻¹. The developed model generally well explains the experimental data.
Green technology is being developed up to a point that is feasible not only in an environmental sense, but also in an economical viewpoint. This paper introduces two case studies that applied CO₂ technology into nuclear industry. 1) Nuclear laundry: A laundry machine that uses liquid and supercritical CO₂ as a solvent for decontamination of contaminated working dresses in nuclear power plants was developed. The machine consists of a 16 liter reactor, a recovery system with compressors, and storage tanks. All CO₂ used in cleaning is fully recovered and reused in next cleaning, resulting in no production of secondary nuclear waste. Decontamination factor is still lower than that in the methods currently used in the plant. Nuclear laundry using CO₂ looks promising with technical improvements-surfactants and mechanical agitation. 2) CO₂ nozzle decontamination: An adjustable nozzle for controlling the size of dry ice snow was developed. Using the developed nozzle, a surface decontamination device was made. Human oils like fingerprints on glass were easy to remove. Decontamination ability was tested using a contaminated pump-housing surface. About 40 to 80% of radioactivity was removed. This device is effective in surface-decontamination of any electrical devices like detector, controllers which cannot be cleaned in aqueous solution.
The diffusion coefficient of Xe-133 was obtained from an annealing test. The specimens were made from a UO₂ single crystal powder with natural enrichment. Weight and grain size were 300mg and 23(㎛, respectively. Oxygen potentials were obtained from an oxygen sensor. Released fractions were obtained from both results of gamma scans and quantitative analysis with MCNP code, The annealing test was performed at three temperatures at once. Diffusion coefficients of Xe-133 were calculated using slope of Booth theory in each O/M ratios. Activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the diffusion coefficient were obtained. The activation energy of near stoichiomeric UO₂ is 310 kJ/mol. The measured values of near stoichiometric UO₂ are very close to other data available. Diffusion coefficients increase with hyper-stoichiometry, due to higher concentration of cation vacancies.
Emulsions were formed through putting small quantity of nickel electroplating solution into supercritical carbon dioxide, and then electroplating in the sc-CO₂ emulsions was conducted. It is an environmental-friendly technology that can solve the treatment of a large quantity of toxic plating wastewater, which is a big problem in the existing wet plating, and also can reduce secondary waste generation fundamentally. Supercritical carbon dioxide emulsions enhanced by ultrasonic horn were formed by non-ionic surfactant and nickel solution. Plating condition within emulsions was set up as 120bar and 55℃ through measurement of electrical conductivity following the pressure change. Experiments were conducted respectively against supercritical carbon dioxide emulsions electroplating and general chemical electroplating, and then their results were compared and analyzed. As the experiment result utilizing emulsions, plating surface was formed very evenly even with a small quantity of electroplating solution, and fine particles were plated compactly without any pinhole or crack due to hydrogenation, which occurs in general electroplating. Used electroplating solution can be reused through recovery process. Therefore, this technology will be able to be applied as new clean technology in electroplating.