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조직내 대인 신뢰의 중요성에도 불구하고, 조직내 대인 신뢰를 높이기 위한 선행요인과 효과성을 다룬 연구가 미흡한 실정이다. 그러므로 조직내 대인 신뢰의 선행변수로써 고몰입 인적자원관리(신중한 선발, 교육훈련, 성과관리, 고용 안정성, 퇴직관리)의 영향을 살펴보고, 결과변수로써 근로자의 생산성 향상 행위에 미치는 효과를 살펴보았다. 그리고 조직내 대인 신뢰가 근로자의 생산성 향상 행위에 미치는 효과를 협력적 노사관계 인식이 조절하는지에 대해서 살펴보았으며, 나아가 전체 모형의 통합적인 관점에서 조절된 매개효과를 살펴보았다. 본 연구의 실증분석을 위해, 국내 기업 재직 근로자 400명을 대상으로 설문조사를 진행하였고, 회수된 설문지 중 성실히 응답한 총 341명의 자료를 대상으로 실증분석을 하였다. 가설의 검증을 위해 회귀분석과 부트스트래핑을 이용한 PROCESS macro 분석을 실시하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 첫째, 고몰입 인적자원관리는 조직내 대인 신뢰에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으며, 둘째, 조직내 대인 신뢰는 근로자의 생산성 향상 행위에 긍정적인 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 고몰입 인적자원관리와 근로자의 생산성 향상 행위의 관계를 조직내 대인 신뢰가 매개하고 있음을 밝혔다. 넷째, 협력적 노사관계 인식은 조직내 대인 신뢰와 근로자의 생산성 향상 행위의 관계를 긍정적으로 조절하는 것으로 나타났으며, 마지막으로 고몰입 인적자원관리가 조직내 대인 신뢰를 거쳐 근로자의 생산성 향상 행위에 미치는 간접효과에 대해서도 협력적 노사관계 인식은 조절된 매개효과를 가진 것으로 나타났다. 끝으로, 본 연구 결과의 이론적ㆍ실무적 시사점에 대해서 논의한다. Despite the importance of interpersonal trust in organizations, little attention has been paid to the antecedents and consequences of interpersonal trust in organizations. Thus, we suggest high commitment human resource management practices (selective recruitment, education and training, performance management, job security, and retirement management) as a antecedent of interpersonal trust in organizations, and investigate how interpersonal trust in organizations affects employees' productivity-enhancing behavior. We also examine whether the relationship between interpersonal trust in organizations and employees' productivity-enhancing behavior is moderated by the degree of perceived cooperative industrial relations, and ultimately advance a moderated mediation effect of perceived cooperative industrial relations. To test our suggested hypotheses, a total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to employees in Korean firms, but 59 of them were incomplete, leaving 341 completed samples for data analysis. Regression analysis and the PROCESS macro for SPSS were employed to test the suggested hypotheses. Our results show that first, high commitment human resource management is positively related to interpersonal trust in organizations. Second, interpersonal trust in organizations positively affects employees' productivity-enhancing behavior. Third, we find that interpersonal trust in organizations is an important intervening variable between high commitment human resource management and employees' productivity-enhancing behavior. Fourth, the relationship between interpersonal trust in organizations and the outcome variable is positively contingent on the level of perceived cooperative industrial relations. Finally, we find strong support for a moderated mediation effect on the conditional indirect effect of cooperative industrial relations. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of two different commercial Bangpungtongseong-san (BTS) extract granules (BTS-2 and BTS-3) by comparing with BTS decoction (BTS-1). The contents of characterizing components and biological activities of two different commercial BTS extract granules were compared with those of the BTS decoction. The contents of characterizing components were analyzed with HPLC. The antioxidative effects were determined by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhygrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. Also, we compared the effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The contents of five components except liquiritin and sennoside A were higher in BTS-1. The DPPH radical scavenging and SOD-like activity were higher in BTS-1. BTS-1 significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and showed stronger effects than BTS-2, BTS-3. In addition BTS-1 showed stronger inhibition effects on ROS production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes than BTS-2, BTS-3. These results indicate that BTS decoction has strong biological activities than commercial BTS extract granules. It is also consistent with the contents of characterizing components.
Objectives: Ojeok-san (OJS), an oriental herbal formula, has been used in Asian countries including Korea, China and Japan to treat the common cold and illnesses including fatigue and gastrointestinal disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effect and molecular mechanism of OJS, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Also, the effects of OJS in obese mice fed a high-fat diet on adiposity were examined. Methods: Preferentially, we analyzed the component of OJS and measured the stability of its component in OJS according to study periods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with OJS (50 to 200 μg/mL) during differentiation for 8 days. The accumulation of lipid droplets was determined by Oil Red O staining. The expressions of genes related to adipogenesis were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. For anti-obesty effect in vivo, we experimented for 8 weeks with four group (normal diet (CON), high-fat diet (HF), high-fat diet with OJS (HF+OJS) and high-fat diet with Bang-pung-tong-sung-san (HF+BTS) in comparison group HF+OJS). Results: OJS showed inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation at 3T3-L1 preadipocytes without affect cell toxicity as assessed by measuring fat accumulation and adipogenesis. In addition, OJS significantly reduced the expression levels of several adipocyte marker genes including proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α). Also OJS-administered mice showed significant inhibitory of body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weights. Conclusions: This study showed that traditional medicine OJS has an anti-obesity effect in vitro and in vivo. Thus, OJS could be developed as a supplement for reduction of body weight gain induced by an obesity.
Objectives : Daesiho-tang (DSHT) has been widely used in the treatment of cerebral infarct in traditional medicine. However, there was not report on the anti-obesity-related diseases efficacy of DSHT. In this study, we investigated the effects for the new formulation of DSHT, on the adipocyte differentiation cycle in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods : 3T3-L1 cells were treated with DSHT (50, 100, 200 ㎍/㎖) during differentiation for 6 days. Also, the inhibitory effect of DSHT against 3T3-L1 adipogenesis was evaluated in various stage of adipogenesis such as early (0-2day), intermediate (2-4day), and terminal stage (4-6day). The accumulation of lipid droplets was determined by Oil Red O staining. and, the expressions of genes related to adipogenesis were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Results : DSHT showed inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation at 3T3-L1 preadipocytes without affect cell toxicity as assessed by measuring fat accumulation and adipogenesis. In addition, DSHT significantly reduced the expression levels of several adipocyte marker genes including proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/ enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α). Also, the anti-adipogenic effect of DSHT was strongly limited in the intermediate (2-4 day), terminal stage (4-6 day) of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. In addition, the DSHT treatment down- regulated mRNA expression levels of PPAR-γ,, C/EBP-α in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusions : These results suggest that, the ability of DSHT has inhibited overall adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cells. The new formulation of DSHT may be a promising medicine for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.
Socheongryong-tang (SCRT) was one of the major traditional herbal medicines wildly used in the treatment of respiratory disease. SCRT is being commercially produced in the form of mix extracts powder and soft·dry extract by different extract methods in the Korean Herbal Pharmacopeia (KHP). In this study, the contents of marker components and biological activities of the SCRT mix extract powder were compared with those of the SCRT decoction. To analyze the marker components of SCRT, nine marker from eight herbal preparations were chosen. And the method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detector method was established for the simultaneous analysis. Method validation was accomplished by linearity, precision test, and recovery test. The contents of nine marker components in this extract was ascertained by ratio. The biological activities were examined the effect of SCRT on anti-oxidation and pro-inflammation mediated by LPS-stimulation. We confirmed that both of SCRT mix extrct powder and decoction have the similar contents on total polyphenol and flavonoid and inhibited the secretion of nitric oxide (NO), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α. These results suggest that SCRT mix extract powder and decoction have a significant correlation.
Objectives : Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HRHDT) is one of the well-known prescription herbal drugs of Korean herbal medicine, which has been widely used for the treatment of various bacterial and inflammatory diseases. This study was conducted in order to develop the tablet formulations of HRHDT and compare its efficacy with the other commercial formulations. Methods : Corresponding herbal medicines comprising of HRHDT were extracted with water for 3 hr at 95~100℃ and then vacuum dried. Subsequently, some pharmaceutical excipients such as microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, etc were used to prepare the HRHDT tablets. The contents with characterizing components of HRHDT tablet was compared with the HRHDT decoction. The contents of characterizing components were analyzed with HPLC. Furthermore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative abilities of two different commercial HRHDT granules (HJP-1 and HJP-2) and were compared with that of the formulated HRHDT tablets. The anti-oxidant properties of HRHDR were studied using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, contents of total flavonoid and polyphenol. In addition, based on this result the anti-inflammatory effects have verified by mechanism from LPS- treated Raw264.7 macrophages. Results : The results demonstrated that HRHDT tablets showed more anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects than HJP-1, HJP-2. Moreover, it showed more superior effects in terms of dose, usability and stability than the granules. Conclusion : Hence, we concluded that in order to improve the quality and efficacy of the Korean herbal medicine, it is necessary to develop appropriate methods and establish standardized techniques for the development of good formulations.
Objectives : Gamisoyosan (GMS) is a useful prescription for treating insomnia, dysmenorrhea and infertility induced by a stress. Also, GMS has been used traditionally to improve systemic circulation and biological energy production. The purpose of this study was to assess the anti-oxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects of Gamisoyosan Formulation (Soft extract, GMS-SE). Methods : The biological activities such as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were measured through cell line-based in vitro assay. We investigated the anti-oxidant properties of GMS-SE on the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, contents of total flavonoid and polyphenol. GMS-SE compared to butyl hydroxy anizole (BHA). Furthermore, based on this result the anti-inflammatory effects of GMS-SE have verified by mechanism from LPS- treated Raw264.7 macrophages. Results : The anti-oxidant activities of GMS-SE increased markedly, in a dose-dependent manner. The GMS-SE showed significant scavenging activity (GMS-SE 500 ㎍/㎖ : 32.77±1.65%, GMS-SE 1000 ㎍/㎖ : 45.06±1.04% and BHA 100 ㎍/㎖ : 39.25±2.41% for DPPH assay). and, The total phenolic compound and flavonoids contents of GMS-SE were 73.93±6.87 ㎍/㎎ and 698.75±6.78 ㎍/㎎. GMS-SE which is LPS has diminished in the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX2 and PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) from the RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, GMS-SE inhibited the activation of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs by induced LPS. Conclusion : The present results indicate that GMS-SE has an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, therefore may be beneficial in diseases which related to oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory disorders.
Objectives : Samchulkunbitang (SCKBT), an oriental herbal formula, has been used in Asian countries including Korea, China and Japan to treat the chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastroptosis. However, there was not report on the anti-obesity-related diseases efficacy of SCKBT. we investigated the antioxidant effects of Samchulkunbitang soft extract (SCKBTSE). We also investigated the anti-obesity-related diseases effect of SCKBT-SE, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic Vascular smooth muscle (VSMC, A-10). Methods : Preferentially, we analyzed the component of SCKBT-SE using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro, We investigated the anti-oxidant properties of SCKBT-SE on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, contents of total flavonoid and polyphenol. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with SCKBT-SE (100 to 500 ㎍/㎖) during differentiation for 8 days. The accumulation of lipid droplets was determined by Oil Red O staining. And, To investigate the A-10 cells anti-proliferative effect of SCKBT-SE, we performed MTT assays. Results : SCKBT-SE showed inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation at 3T3-L1 preadipocytes without affect cell toxicity. In addition, The pre-incubation of SCKBT-SE (100 ㎍/㎖) significantly inhibited proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. Conclusions : The SCKBT-SE according to the present invention has excellent antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic effects as well as an antiobesity effect, has an effect of simultaneously treating obesity, hyperlipidemia, and arteriosclerosis, and is free from side effects by containing a traditional medicine as an active ingredient, and thus can be useful as an agent for preventing or treating obesity-related diseases