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Object:The present study intended to discriminate correlates of juvenile substance abuse and to search for relationship between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency. Methods:A questionnaire survey was performed to the subjects of 1.690 students including 1,184 student adolescents from middle school to senior high school and 506 delinquent adolescents in randomly selected corrective institution for a period of 1 month. The age of subject ranged between 12 and 18 years. The collected data were analysed by SAS program using Chisquare and t-test. Results:① Delinquent adolescents (43.1%) show the higher frequency of substance abuse than student adolescents (15.1%). ② It revealed that the family member of substance abuser has the more mental problems and legal problems such as chronic disease, alcoholism, depression, suicidal attempt, committed suicide, criminal acts than the family member of non substance abuser. ③ Substance abuser were inclined to show the depressive trend, restlessness and psychosomatic symptoms, whereas nonsubstance abusers did not. ④ Substance abuser of adolescents showed the more unstable mood, impulsiveness, resistance, and committed the higher frequency of delinquent behavior than nonsubstance abuser. ⑤ In the motivation of substance abuse in this study, out of curiosity (53.8%), social purpose with one's friend (12.3%), for the peace seeking (11.4%), for the power seeking (8.5%), for the sexual purpose (4.7%) and for the transcendental experience(3.4%)and so on was in this order. Conclusions:At present time, the substance abuse of children and adolescents raise a social issue in Korea. However, there are few literatures in the area of substance abuse in adolescent population. Accordingly, it will be necessary to investigate the causes of substance abuse in adolescents, and practitioner recognize the comprehensive meaning of the substance abuse of adolescents in their environmental and developmental context as well. Additionally, effective multidisciplinary approach toward a therapeutic and a preventive strategies should be developed, because of a multifactorial causes of substance abuse.
The purpose of this study is the characteristic improvement plan of Urban Renewal System and the Housing Renewal System in Incheon city. Urban Renewal System and the housing renewal system old city maintenance is important to the redevelopment of the area. The major method of the housing redevelopment project in Incheon since the 1980s was the joint redevelopment method, which made a great contribution to improving the residential environment of the large cities and supplying housing. But this individual unit housing redevelopment project method causes many problems as the project progresses, and it has become the point in time for the redevelopment project method to make a newly paradigmatic shift. But in the redevelopment project within the wide-area district, a different law is applicable to each individual project, and it is difficult to progress the housing redevelopment project in a stable and sustained way. Accordingly, this study made clear that the Incheon a housing redevelopment project was promotedin the same context as the progress of the redevelopment project. And it has its significance in that it presented the future direction for promotion of the redevelopment project, thereby attempting to probe the desirable direction for promotion of the great-sphere unit housing redevelopment project.
본 연구의 목적은 경쟁적인 손해보험시장에서 사업 유지, M&A, 자발적 청산 및 비자발적 청산이라는 시장 퇴출(잔류) 결정을 하는 보험회사들 사이에 재무적, 경영적 및 환경적요인 차이가 존재하는 지를 분석하는 것이다. 먼저 손해보험시장 퇴출 관련 규제와 시장 환경에서 규제의 중요성에 대해서 정리하였다. 실증분석을 위해서 1999년부터 2004년까지 미국 손해보험회사 데이터(t-1)를 AM Best 데이터베이스로부터 추출하였으며 분석모형은 다항로짓모형을 사용하였다. 분석 결과 첫째, 자산 규모는 시장 잔류 결정과 유의하게 관련되어 있을 뿐만 아니라 비자발적 퇴출 형태 대신 M&A와 자발적 퇴출을 선택할 가능성이 높은 것으로 분석되었다. 나아가 수익성과 재무건전성(capital adequacy)도 퇴출 의사결정에 유의한 영향을 끼친다는 것이 밝혀졌다. 인수성과(underwriting performance)는 퇴출의사 결정에 영향을 끼치는 것으로 나타났지만 일관성은 없었다. This paper examines financial, managerial and market factors that insurance companies and regulators use to reach a decision of business continuance, merger/ acquisition, or voluntary or involuntary liquidation of the entire business (i.e., a complete exit from the market). For this, we describe exit regulation in the insurance market and the importance of it on insurer operations. We then use the A.M. Best database of the U.S. property-liability insurance industry for 1999-2004 (for t-1) and a multinomial logit regression approach to empirically estimate the impact of financial (profitability, underwriting performance, liquidity, capital adequacy and capital measurement), managerial and political environments on the market stay/exit decision making process. The results show that asset size is not only positively related to the probability of business continuance but also likely leads insurers to choose voluntary liquidation or merger instead of involuntary liquidation when they have decided to leave the market. Profitability and capital adequacy also affect market exit decisions. Underwriting performance seems to affect the decisions but not necessarily consistently across the market stay/exit choices.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetic factors of the flat service of the soft tennis by using the 2 force plates. The 4 male soft tennis backward players who have technique of the top class was participated in the subjects of the this study. The results were as following ; 1. In the case of anterior ground reaction forces, it was that a right and left foot were 47.7%, 14.3% before toss phase, 35.4%, 57.1% after toss phase, and forward swing phase 16.9%, 28.6% in respectively. In the case of posterior ground reaction forces, it was that a right and left foot were 51.1%, 10.0% before toss phase 41.5%, 50.0% after toss phase, and forward swing phase 7.4%, 40.0% in respectively. There were nothing change it for left foot. 2. In the case of lateral ground reaction forces, it was that a right and left foot were 20.8%, 37.5% before toss phase, 56.1%, 41.7% after toss phase, and forward swing phase 23.1%, 20.8% in respectively. In the case of medial ground reaction forces, it was that a right and left foot were 1.9%, 20.0% before toss phase, 75.0%, 60.0% after toss phase, and forward swing phase 23.1%, 20.0% in respectively. 3. In the case of vertical ground reaction forces, it was that a right and left foot were 86.4%, 13.6% before toss phase, 77.0%, 23.0% after toss phase, and forward swing phase 43.2%, 56.8% in respectively. Vertical ground reaction forces was larger than a horizontal and lateral ground reaction forces, and the change of the weight from rear foot to fore foot was moved rhythmically in general.
Regarding the tornado-kicks of 6 excellent and 6 non-excellent players in Taekwondo male contests, this study aims to compare and analyze the necessary time for the motion, the angles and angular velocity of joints, the tiptoe speed of a kicking (right) leg, the twist angle of a trunk and inclination angle, ground reaction force and electromyogram. Significant difference was found among preparation time period, the angles and angular velocity of joints, the tiptoe speed of a kicking (right) leg, the twist angle of a trunk and inclination angle, Also Excellent players showed the greater force than non-excellent players. At the moments of the kick, the order in which legs` muscles were employed were as follows; tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris and rectus femoris.