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        • 가압열충격을 받는 원자로압력용기의 구조건전성 평가

          김종욱(Jong-Wook Kim), 김지호(Ji-Ho Kim), 김태완(Tae-Wan Kim), 김종인(Jong-In Kim), 정명조(Myung-Jo Jhung) 대한기계학회 2006 대한기계학회 춘추학술대회 Vol.2006 No.11

          A reactor pressure vessel is a very important structure which maintains the function at high temperature and under high pressure. Thus, it is designed and manufactured according to strict code requirements in order to assure the structural integrity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel during the pressurized thermal shock by applying the deterministic fracture mechanics. The deterministic fracture mechanics analysis was performed using the three-dimensional finite element models. The crack configurations, the crack aspect ratio and the cladding properties were considered in the parametric study. Also, maximum allowable transition temperatures are investigated.

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          현대 철학의 경향과 원효의 불교 사상

          김종욱(Jong Wook Kim) 동국대학교 불교문화연구원 2012 佛敎學報 Vol.0 No.63

          본고에서는 서양철학과 한국불교 사이에 공통적으로 나타나는 유사한 사유구조를 현대철학에 담긴 ‘관계성'의 통찰에서 그 단서를 찾아본다. 니체 이전 서양의 고대 중세 근대 철학은 그 중심이 이데아, 신, 자아 중 어디에 있든 모두 실체 철학을 기반으로 하여 동일성을 추구해온 과정이라고 볼 수 있다. 그러나 니체 이후 현대철학은 불변의 본체보다는 변화의 과정을 ‘관계성'의 맥락에서 탐구하며, 과거에 실체로 여기던 것을 사건으로 간주하고, 동일성보다는 차이라는 개념에 더욱 주목한다. 이런 경향은 결국 ‘관계성 속에서 고유성 찾기'로 귀결되는데, 이런 경향은 원효에서는 연기성 속에서 성자신해(性自神解)적 본성 찾기로, 지눌에서는 연기(緣起)와 성기(性起)의 조화 혹은 화엄과 선의 결합으로, 만해에서는 법계연기 속에서 자유와 평등의 추구 등으로 나타난다. 다시 말해 원효가 연기적 관계성을 대사와 결정성으로 이해하고 이를 심성론화하여 인간의 본성을 일심의 성자신해에서 찾은 이래, 연기적 관계에 바탕하여 인간 본래의 고유성을 찾고자 하는 시도는 지눌에게선 법계연기와 성기의 조화를 통해 본래면목으로서 자성을 찾는 것으로, 만해에게선 법계연기 속에서 자유와 평등의 조화로 이어져왔다. 이처럼 원효의 일심론과 지눌의 선사상과 만해의 자유평등사상으로 이어지는 한국불교의 전개 양상은 불교식으로 표현하면 ‘화엄과선의 조화'이고, 현대철학적으로 표현하면 ‘관계성 속에서 고유성 찾기'라고 볼 수 있다. Ancient, mediaeval and early-modern Western philosophy can be regarded as a process of seeking identity based on the philosophical concept of ``substance``, no matter whether that identity is centered on ``the idea``, ``God``, or ``the self``. However, after Nietzsche, modern philosophy began to recognize and investigate ``interrelatedness`` as a process of change rather than as a property of permanent substance. Modern philosophy regarded substance as an ``event`` and paid more attention to the concept of difference than to identity. Eventually this trend boiled down to ``seeking authenticity in inter-relatedness``. In Buddhism, this trend appeared early-on in the ancient philosophy of great Korean Master Wonhyo (元曉, 617-686 CE), in his theory of an intuitive understanding of ‘self-nature' (性自神解) attained through seeking ‘original nature' (本性). In the mediaeval writings of Master Bojo Ji-nul (普照知訥, 1158-1210), this trend re-appeared in his harmonization of the concepts of Dependent Arising (緣起) and Nature Arising (性起), within his reconciliation of Seon (禪, Zen, Meditational) and Hwaeom (華嚴, Huayan, Flower-Garland) philosophies. In the early-modern thought of Master Manhae Han Yong-un (萬海韓龍雲, 1879-1944), seeking freedom and equality in ‘Dependent Arising' from the ‘Dharma-realm' (法 界緣起) is explained in terms of inter-relatedness; with ‘Dharma-realm' defined as the dharmadhatu as the environmental cause of all phenomena, everything being dependent on everything else, therefore ``one is in all and all in one``. In other words, Wonhyo`s One Mind theory, Ji-nul`s Seon thought and Maehae`s concept of freedom and equality form the main features of Korean Buddhism. The development of Korean Buddhism can be defined as the ``harmonization of Seon (禪) and Hwaeom (華嚴)'. Philosophically speaking in modern times, we define that it is based upon seeking authenticity in inter-relatedness. This means that the traditional development of Korean Buddhism has considerably accommodated this key trend of modern philosophy. Accordingly, further research on Korean Buddhist philosophy will contribute to solving the fundamental problems of modern Korean society by demonstrating individual authenticity through the preservation of regional characteristics amidst the complex, diversified networksystem of comtemporary society.

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          근대 내셔널리즘의 대두와 화엄적 민족주의의 형성

          김종욱(Kim, Jong Wook) 한국불교연구원 2011 佛敎硏究 Vol.35 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          " The Western modernization is a continuous process of the rationalization by the Scientific Revolution, the democratization by the Civil Revolution, and the industrialization by the Industrial Revolution. The nationalism is an ideological device to achieve the internal integration and the external expansion of the nation-state in this process. Three types of nationalism are the etatism, civic, and ethnic nationalism. When the East-Asian countries explored ways toward modernization by opening up of nation, they were to receive the nationalism in their own ways and utilize the Hua-yen thoughts of harmonization as the reception tools. The rationalism as the spirit of Western modernization connected with the industrialism and imperialism, and so the tradition to respect the individual's rights in the Enlightment and democracy was encroached by the imperialism for the benefit of governmental power. The rational individualism in the Civil Revolution, which started with the respect of the individual's rights, was converted to the totalitarianism for the internal integration and the external expansion of the nation-state. For that reason the civic and ethnic nationalism was absorbed into the etatism and totalitarian nationalism. The harmonization of the part and the whole, no hindrance of event and event, and dharma-dhātu pratītyasamutpāda in Hua-yen Buddhism were applied to the etatism, civic, and ethnic nationalism. Takakusu Junjiro in Japan interpreted these Hua-yen thoughts as the subordination of the individual to the whole, and utilized them as the totalitarian nationalism and the imperial militarism. On the contrary Manhae Han Yongun in Korea understood those Hua-yen thoughts as the free and equal manifestation of individual properties and the harmonization of the part and the whole on the ground of it, and advocated the democratic nationalism and universal pacifism. Therefore the only alternative of the sustainable nationalism to coexist the localism and the globalism, is not the closed Hua-yen nationalism in Takakusu Junjiro but the open Hua-yen nationalism to be based on the freedom and equality in Manhae Han Yongun. 서구의 근대화는 과학혁명에 의한 합리화, 시민혁명에 의한 민주화, 산업혁명에 의한 산업화 등으로 이루어진 일련의 과정이다. 이 과정에서 국민국가가 내부적 통합과 외부적 팽창을 수행하기 위해 동원한 이념적 장치가 내셔널리즘이라고 할 수 있는데, 내셔널리즘에는 국민주의 국가주의 민족주의가 모두 함축되어 있다. 따라서 동아시아의 각국이 개국을 통한 근대화의 길을 모색할 수밖에 없게 되었을 때, 그들에게는 어떤 식으로든 내셔널리즘과 대면하여 그것을 그들 나름대로 수용해야만 하는 운명이 놓여 있었고, 동아시아 삼국 중 특히 일본과 조선의 경우에는 내셔널리즘을 수용하는 틀로 화엄불교의 원융사상을 활용하였다. 그런데 서구 근대화의 기본 정신인 합리주의가 산업주의와 제국주의로 연결됨으로써, 계몽주의에서 민주주의로 이어지던 개인의 권리 존중의 전통은 국가와 제국의 권력을 위한 전체주의에 의해 잠식되어갔다. 아울러 애당초 시민으로서 개인의 권리 존중에서 출발한 시민혁명의 합리적 개인주의 전통이 국민국가의 성립을 전후하여 내적 통합과 외적 팽창을 위해 전체주의적 기조로 전환됨에 따라, 국민주의 내셔널리즘과 민족주의 내셔널리즘은 모두 국가주의 내셔널리즘에 흡수되어 윤색되어갔다. 한편 동아시아에선 일즉다(一卽多) 다즉일(多卽一) 사사무애(事事無碍) 법계연기(法界緣起)의 화엄사상이 개체와 전체의 원융 관계를 함축한다는 점에서 민주주의와 민족주의와 국가주의 모두에 적용될 수 있었다. 이런 화엄의 정수가 일본의 다카쿠스 준지로에게서는 개체가 전체에 종속된다는 뜻으로 해석되어 전체주의적 국가주의와 제국주의적 군국주의에 이용되었지만, 만해 한용운에게서는 개체 고유성의 자유롭고 평등한 발휘에 입각한 전체와의 조화라는 뜻으로 이해되어 민주주의적 민족주의와 세계 보편의 평화주의를 낳게 되었다. 그러므로 다카쿠스 준지로의 국수적인 폐쇄형 화엄 민족주의가 아니라, 만해의 자유와 평등에 기반한 개방형 화엄 민족주의야말로 민족주의와 세계주의가 조화된 유일하게 ‘지속가능한 민족주의'의 대안이 된다고 할 수 있다.

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          초등 체육수업의 교수행동 분석

          김종욱(Jong Wook Kim), 양갑렬(Gab Ryoul Yang) 한국체육교육학회 2000 한국체육교육학회지 Vol.5 No.1

          The purpose of this research was to analyze the teaching behavior in physical education classes of elementary school. To achieve the purpose of this study, the research method used in this study was the qualitative case study. Participants of this study were consisted of six elementary school teachers(3 males and 3 female) in Kyunggi Province, Korea. In order to collect the data needed for the study, qualitative research data collection methods were used. The analyze of collected data was used the methods of transcription, encoding, categorization, subject formation. The validity and the reliability of this study were verified by triangulation, member checking, peer debriefing, thick description, prolonged observation and collection, research`s reflection detailed statements etc.. And make effort to enhance the research`s morality. The major results of the analyses on this study are as follows. First, participants were not well understand the physical education curriculum and reluctant to do it. Three hours per week allocated for physical education have not been abided and often replied by other subjects. Partiapants stated that the physical education curriculum was uninteresting and difficult to conduct due to, physical education classes frequently run by playing favorite games freely such as soccer, pitch-and-duck game, foot baseball etc.. With respect to this, several issues were, present, including the improvement of the physical education curriculum, implementation of the system of the physical education charged teacher, employment of the secondary school teachers, development of athletic programs, increase of athletic aids. Second, most of the teaching plans was poorly developed. The guided book for teacher was mainly used as teaching materials. The teaching plan for a next time lesson was never developed. The achievement level was set in consideration of individual differences, but corrective guidance was not provided. Third, the permissive and strict teaching atmospheres were mixed up. Finish exercises and exercises for reinforcing physical strength were not done. For interest raising or motivation, the methods of association of famous players or sports scales, of recollection of past experiences were used. Examples was mostly shown by teachers themselves, lest in the event of some difficulty, a student of good performance was used. Control and punishment including point out their small group`s name, isolation, anger, lying down on four limbs and collective disciplinary punishment were taken. Fourth, the evaluation was perform through the practical examination(90%) and the written(10%), and more emphasis was placed on children`s enthusiasm than their skills. The evaluation was carried out from time to time at the end of each semester or teaching unit, with no supplementary evaluation-based instructions provided. The reflection of physical education classes was little performed except for the teacher`s own conscience.

        • 결합 정재파형 선형 초음파모터의 설계 및 제작

          김종욱(Jong-Wook Kim), 박충효(Choong-Hyo Park), 정성수(Seong-Su Jeong), 정현호(Hyon-Ho Chong), 박태곤(Tae-Gone Park) 대한전기학회 2010 대한전기학회 학술대회 논문집 Vol.2010 No.7

          In this study, a coupled standing wave-type ultrasonic motor is proposed and analyzed. A prototype of the motor was fabricated by using a v shaped SUS stator which consist of two ceramic pieces attached on upper surfaces. Principle of the motor is to apply alternative voltages which have 90 phase difference to attached ceramics, and then elliptical displacement is generated at tip of stator. As a result, the slider was driven by frictional force and the revolving direction of tip is same to slider direction. To obtain analysis result, FEM(finite element method) was used by ATILA 1.4.5. Design Variables is chosen as the size of the stator and ceramics. The arm, leg and angle of fabricated motor is 6 [㎜], 7 [㎜] and 75°, 95° respectively. A deformation amplitude of about 0.16 [㎛] can be obtained by applying a 70 [V] voltage. Likewise, maximum speed of the motor represent 0.08 [㎧] at 70 [V] voltage.

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