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김은경(Eun Kyung Kim), 김세영(Se Young Kim), 정면숙(Myun Sook Jung), 장금성(Keum Seong Jang), 김진현(Jinhyun Kim), 김종경(Jong Kyung Kim), 김영미(Young Mee Kim), 박은준(Eun Jun Park), 김기경(Ki Kyong Kim), 이해정(Hae Jung Lee) 한국간호행정학회 2011 간호행정학회지 Vol.17 No.2
The purpose of this study was to explore the current status of education for nursing management in Korea. Methods: A descriptive study was done using a questionnaire developed by the investigators. The data were collected by survey from 96 out of 129 nursing schools, between December 2010 and February 2011. Results: For 22.9% of nursing schools, there was no faculty for nursing management. The credits and subjects included in nursing management varied among the nursing schools. Lectures in subjects related to nursing management were given not only by nursing management faculty but also by faculty with other majors. There were more faculty and credits for nursing management courses in 4-year nursing schools than in 3-year schools. Conclusion: To improve the quality of education in nursing management, there is a need to standardized courses and provide nursing faculty who have majored in nursing management.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to evaluate factors and variables related to the emotional labor of hospital nurses. Method: The study included variables obtained from 66 recently published studies, doctoral dissertations, and master's theses. Results: The related variables were categorized into five factor groups: internal character factor, nursing care related factor, environmental factor, emotional response, and job response. For the defensive variable, job related response (effect size [ES]=-.17), environment (ES=-.14), internal character (ES=-.08), nursing care (ES=-.06), and emotional response (ES=-.06) showed significant effect size among the five categorized variable groups. For the risk variable, internal character (ES=.44), emotional response (ES= .46), environment (ES=.27), job related response (ES=.27), and nursing care (ES=.19) showed significant effect size among the five categorized variable groups. Conclusion: The results of this study identified defensive and risk variables related to emotional labor of hospital nurses. Self-efficacy, social support, leaders' care, and communication are important factors for managing emotional labor of hospital nurses.
Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the adaptation experience of male nurses working in general wards. Methods: Experiential data was collected from 16 general ward nurses through in-depth interviews. Participants were selected from male nurses working in the general wards with over one year of clinical experience at a tertiary university hospital. The main question was “Can you describe your adaptation experience in the general ward as a nurse?” All interviews were recorded and transcribed, then analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Results: Four categories were derived from the analysis: ‘difficulties from task adaptation by characteristics', ‘limited nursing situation and circumstance as a male nurse', ‘efforts to adapt at general nursing unit", and ‘self-worth, and worry about something as a male nurse'. Conclusion: Male nurses had a difficulty adapting to work in wards due to lack of multi-tasking skills, as well as some social prejudice or negative views on male nurses. Establishing reasonable guidelines for male nurses in practice, promoting their responsibilities to patients, developing mentoring programs, and reassessing the policy of assigning male nurses to general wards are recommended to help in better adaptation.
Various exercise modes are used in the fields including fitness program and cardiac rehabilitation programs. An exercise training intensity is prescribed as a percentage of an individual`s maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). The appropriate identification of anaerobic threshold (AT) may be important for safe and effective exercise prescription. Therefore, we investigated whether there was a difference in AT when older individuals used different exercise modes. Ten subjects completed a maximal exercise testing on both cycle ergometer and treadmill. were much higher than those of cycle ergometer.<br/> <br/> There was no significant difference in HRmax, HRAT and VEmax, VEAT across exercise<br/> Thus, these results have important implications for older adults who use AT for exercise prescription. Exercise modes must be considered to prescribe exercise intensity because there was a difference among exercise machines.
Purpose: This study investigated the degree of acculturation stress among North Korean Defectors and the coping method that they used to deal with it. Methods: Ninety-nine participants of this study were North Korean Defectors in Seoul and Daejeon. The tools of survey for this study were acculturation stress and stress-coping. Results: The score for acculturation stress among North Korean Defectors was 2.97±0.47 which was a moderate level of stress. The score of problem-solving coping was 3.10±0.47 and emotional coping got 2.85±0.52. On acculturation stress, there were higher scores among people who were old-aged, married, low educational levels, dissatisfied with job, low monthly income, and living alone. On problem-solving coping, there were higher score among people who have jobs. Regarding emotional coping, there were higher score in people who have jobs, dissatisfaction with job, and living alone. The higher the problem-solving coping skill, the less the acculturation stress. Conclusion: Reducing of acculturation stress and increasing adaptation mechanism of North Korean Defectors are very important due to the results of this study. Therefore, adaptation programs like psycho-social counseling should be created for North Korean Defectors.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review articles and theses on Korean nursing students" stress, identifying overall research trends regarding such stress and suggesting strategies for stress management and nursing education system. Methods: The subjects for this study were 31 articles selected from three databases according to specific inclusion criteria. Results: Twenty-seven articles described survey research and four articles reported on experiments. Twenty-two studies related to stress from clinical practice among nursing students. Thirty-one articles reported on 40 regions and 44 colleges. Seventeen types of tools were used to measure nursing students" stress. The reported reliability of tools ranged from .76 to .96, and the mean score for nursing students" stress fell between 1.98 and 3.95. Conclusion: The findings from this review article indicate that nursing students exhibit different levels of stress as a result of school. Thus, they must learn to cope with stress to support their physical and psychological health. Moreover, finding ways to help student nurses handle job-related stress will require research related to the overall school, the curriculum, learning, and the life of nursing students, as well as stress intervention.
Purpose: This study was done to describe nurses' experience of incivility in hospitals and to consider nurses' work environment. Methods: Data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi" phenomenological analysis methodology. Participants were seven experienced clinical nurses working on a general ward (2 nurses), or in an intensive care unit (2 nurses), emergency room (2 nurses), or operating room (1 nurse). Results: The incivility that nurses experienced was categorized as follows: ‘being afflicted as a weak person', ‘being treated as less than a professional', ‘being overwhelmed by shock and anger', ‘experiencing an untenable situation', ‘struggling to survive', and ‘pursuing professional growth'. Conclusion: Behavior guidelines should be developed to reduce incivility, and incivility cases should be continuously monitored by the nursing department. Also, to handle incivility problems in clinical nursing areas, a reporting and counseling system and education programs are needed.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to classify nursing management competencies and develop behavioral indicators for nurse managers in hospitals. Also, levels of importance and performance based on developed criteria were to be identified and compared. Methods: Using expert survey we classified nursing management competencies and behavioral indicators with data from 34 nurse managers and professors. Subsequently, data from a survey of 216 nurse managers in 7 cities was used to analyze the importance-performance comparison of the classified nursing management competencies and behavioral indicators. Results: Forty-two nursing management competencies were identified together with 181 behavioral indicators. The mean score for importance of nursing management competency was higher than the mean score for performance. According to the importance-performance analysis, 5 of the 42 nursing management competencies require further development: vision-building, analysis, change management, human resource development, and self-management competency. Conclusion: The classification of nursing management competencies and behavioral indicators for nurse managers in hospitals provides basic data for the development and evaluation of programs designed to increase the competency of nurse managers in hospitals.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement tool for a positive nursing organizational culture and to verify its reliability and validity. Methods: A conceptual framework and construct factors were extracted through an extensive literature review and in-depth interviews with nurses. The final version of the preliminary tool for the main survey was confirmed by experts through a content validity test and a preliminary survey of 40 nurses. Subsequently, the final tool was developed using a validity and reliability test containing 43 preliminary items. The final version of the tool was used with 327 hospital nurses in the testing phase for the main survey to assess validity and reliability. Results: From the factor analysis, 4 factors and 26 items were selected. The factors were positive leadership of the nursing unit manager, pursuit of common values, formation of organizational relationships based on trust, and a fair management system. The entire determination coefficient was 67.7%. These factors were verified through convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity testing. The internal consistency reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's α = .95). Conclusion: Both the validity and reliability of the scale were confirmed demonstrating its utility for measuring positive nursing organizational culture. It is expected to be used for education, research, and practical performance policies regarding the nursing organizational culture.
Previous studies have shown that resistive exercise training such as isometric handgrip exercise or weight lifting decreases arterial blood pressure. However, the mechanisms responsible for reduction in arterial blood pressure have not been investigated. One mechanism that may lower arterial blood pressure is a neural mechanism termed the muscle metaboreflex that is activated when oxygen delivery to active skeletal muscle falls below a critical level. The muscle metaboreflex, a component of exercise pressor reflex, increases the sympathetic activity to heart and vasculature and then increases arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and ventilation during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the muscle metaboreflex on hemodynamics following fatiguing rhythmic handgrip exercise and circulatory arrest in 10 male collegiate body builders and 10 age-matched controls. All subjects performed 3 min rhythmic handgrip exercise at the exercise intensity of 60% maximal voluntary contraction and 2 min of postexercise circulatory occlusion while heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured followed by the calculation of cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and total vascular conductance (TVC). From resting baseline values, the changes in SBP, DBP, and MAP in body builders during PEI were significantly smaller compared to contol group (SBP: ? 31.2 ㎜Hg vs. ? 36.2 ㎜Hg; DBP: ? 9.9 ㎜Hg vs. ? 18.2 ㎜Hg; MAP: ? 17.0 ㎜Hg vs. ? 24.2 ㎜Hg, respectively). However, there was no difference in CO between two groups (? 2.2 l/min vs. ? 2.2 l/min) and TVC tended to be higher in body builders compared to control group (? 9.0 ml/min/㎜Hg vs. ? 3.9 ml/min/㎜Hg). This study suggest that chronic resistance training may improve the muscle metaboreflex. The mechanism in which the pressor response mediated by the muscle metaboreflex with resistance training is attenuated is due to peripheral vasodilation.