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We decribe about the graphic simulation system which supports the determination of efficient multi-robot motions during cooperation. For the construction of the simulation software for multi-robot motions, two problems are presented. First problem is that all the robot motions must be determinded using both the desired object motions and the holonomic constraints with the object. To find the robot motions combined with the various object motion path, the robot motions are derived from the desired object path instead of a master robot path. Therefore robot motions can be easily modifiable with the various object motions. This type of motion determination is different from that of the master-slaves method using the master robot motions. The other is that the developments of robot application softwares need a heavy cost when the participated robots or the tasks given to the robots are changed. Based on object-oriented programming paradigm, we present useful software objects describing robot application programming environment. The object-oriented programming paradigm increases the software reusability, reliability, and extensibility, and also provides the structual concepts to cope with the various demands of robot application programming.
This study was perfomed to investigate the prosthodontic and periodontal status of the abutment teeth in distally extending bridges(DEBs) (78 cases) and removable partial dentures(RPDs) (43 cases) for 122 patients (55 males and 57 females) visiting department of Periodontology, Seoul National University Hospital. The average wearing periods were 67.8 months for DEBs and 66.4 months for RPDs. 38.4% of the patients in DEBs and 35.9% in RPDs complainted of chewing discomfort and 22.6% and 24.4% were not chewing on the prosthodontically - treated sides, respectively. In DEBs, when the restoration for 2nd molar supported by 1st molar & 2nd premolar was grouped to type 1, 1st molar supported by 1st & 2nd premolars was type 2, and 1st & 2nd molars supported by 1st & 2nd premolars was type 3, there was a significant differences only in the tooth mobility score among clinical parameters (type 2>type 1>type 3). In RPDs, when bilateral free-end case was grouped to type 1, and unilateral case was type 2, there was a significant difference in the Gingival index (type 1>type 2). In DEBs, 62.8% of restoration were overcontoured, 72% had interproximal space closures, 30.5% overextended pontics and 86.6% overhanging margins. In RPDs, 24.4% of the restorations were overcontoured, 45.5% had interproxinal space closures and 58.3% overhanging margins. From these results of this study, periodontal problems caused by prosthodontic defects were considered to be contributing factors in chewing discomfort.