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      • 1930년대 김광주의 상해 체험과 아나키즘 인식

        김명섭 ( Myung Seob Kim ) 단국사학회 2016 史學志 Vol.52 No.-

        본 논문은 소설가 김광주의 회고를 통해 1930년대의 상해 한인사회에 대해 살펴보았다. 김광주는 1929년 상해로 이주한 이래 중일전쟁이 일어난 1937년 피신까지 약 10년 동안 상해 한인사회의 다양한 인물들을 만나고 항일운동과 함께 문화 활동을 펼쳤다. 이를 통해 1930년대 상해에서의 김광주는 영화계의 젊은 신진 감독을 비롯해 연극계의 다양한 문화예술가들과 교유하였음을 알 수 있다. ``일제의 지배가 싫은 젊은 세대``인 자유로운 문화예술가들과의 교류와 ``보헤미안극사`` 활동을 통해 그는 시, 꽁트, 연극, 영화 등에서 다양한 체험을 하게 되었다. 물론 그 바탕에는 1930년대 상해 한인 민족운동을 이끌고 있던 김구·안창호·김두봉 등 지도자들 후원이 컸다. 더욱이 남화연맹에서 활동한 아나키스트들과의 교류는 그의 항일 민족정서와 함께 자유정신을 키우는데 큰 영향을 끼쳤다. 특히 해방이후 상해체험을 회상하는 그의 작품의 대부분이 나라를 위해 싸우다 죽거나 방랑생활을 하다 귀국하지 못한 동지들에 대한 그리움이 한 축을 이루고 있다는 점에서, 상해체험이 그의 작품 활동에 미친 영향은 매우 컸다. This paper discussed the Korean community in China Shanghai in the 1930s by the novelist Kim Gwang-ju`s recalls. Kim Gwang-ju is a refuge for about 10 years until the 1937 war took place while since moved to Shanghai in 1929 to meet the various figures of the Korean community in Shanghai unfolded cultural activities with the anti-Japanese movement. Even though his shanghai settlement and time of refuge records are seem to inaccurate, but it is a relatively considered as a objective and analytic memoir of his experience. Through this we can know that Kim Gwang-ju associated with the young director of movies, including the various cultural artists of theatrical world in 1930s Shanghai. Through the interchange with "the young generation of unconstrained cultural artists who do not want the Japanese domination" and the activity of "Bohemian Theater Company", he had various experience in poem, conte, play and movie. Of course, theses are based on the great support of leaders such as Kim-Gu, Ahn-Changho and Kim Du-bong who led the Korean Independent Movement in Shanghai. Furthermore, the interchange with anarchists who were active in the ``Namhwa-Federation`` has had a big impact to raise his nationalistic emotion and the spirit of freedom. From the perspective of the Korean modern national movement, the research of Kim Gwang-ju`s life first, additional research materials for his family, especially elder brother Kim Dong-joo is very necessary. Kim Dong-joo is a secret help sponsor of activities of the Anti-Japanese independence fighters in Manchuria, as well as a important person who connected with an agents of a Provisional Government. His life was believed to be the future of course, also we need to study in depth the role and position of the personal hospital. Secondly, it is necessary to examine the local shelter, etc. Activity of Kim Gwang-ju activities in Shanghai. In other words, while Kim Gwang-ju live a long time is needed for local excavations and historical research, such as the Activity where many literary works written by the school and toughness. This is expected to find signs of shanghai, including Kim Gwang-ju Korean culture, artists in the 1930s who exchanges with him.

      • KCI등재

        김규동 시론에 나타난 현실 인식과 동시성의 욕망

        김민선(Kim Min-sun) 한국비평문학회 2010 批評文學 Vol.- No.38

        This study is to examine 'Modernity' shown in Kim Gyu-dong's poetics in the 1950s and to clarify its direction. Especially, starting from similarities between Kim Gyu-dong's poetics and Kim Gi-rim's early poetics, this paper considers how his desire worked for the world literature in his poetics. Kim Gyu-dong's poetics is very similar to Kim Gi-rim's early poetics composed in the middle and late 1930s, in that his poetics established directivity in terms of the Western modern literature, but there are some differences found between them. Thus, this paper attempted to consider how the differences composed his poetics, while ultimately investigating the planning of literary coteries of 'Hubangi (the second half of the year)' in the 1950s, who agonized over the Korean literature in the magnetic field of the world literature. In Kim Gyu-dong's poetics in the 1950s, the literature of 'Modern Times' and 'Modern Times' introduced the Western modern styles and modes, while the premodern literature became prominent with the poetic styles and modes oriental, lyrical and melodious. His poetics was ver similar to Kim Gi-rim's early poetics in such an aspect, but there was a large difference left between them that his poetics didn't introduce the enjoyment of literature, which Kim Gi-rim recognized, and its possibility of literature as well. Moreover, since it didn't introduce the possibility of embracing literature, Kim Gyu-dong's poetics could advance into the world literature as literature for a few intellectuals, rather than as the Korean literature in a specific historical context called the South Korean society right after the Korean War. Nevertheless, as the contemporary Korean literature he introduced within the world literature could not reject the specific historical context as well, it came to be confronted with limitations. In other words, he desired the Korean literature to be within the world literature, but due to such a desire, the characteristics of the Korean literature ended up being ignored in a specific circumstance like Korea in the 1950s. That is, the reason why his 'Modernity' went blank can be explained with the results of his inferior complex for the world literature unlike Kim Gi-rim's 'Modern Times' and his overwhelming desire to situate the Korean literature within the world literature. Furthermore, such a case as Kim Gyu-dong's shows one of the aspects of imagination for the Korean literature within the world literature, which modernists might have had right after the Korean War.

      • KCI등재

        月經과 暴巫, 두 키워드로 본 ‘모략가' 김유신

        김태식(Kim, Tae-shik) 백산학회 2004 白山學報 Vol.- No.70

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Kim Yu-shin(596-673.A.D.) has been the main target of criticism since the late 19th century among many Korean common people, and even historians, in respect with the way he suceeded to be related by marriage with Kim Chunchu, who was a man of influenceable as grandson of a dethroned king. Kim Yu-shin enticed Kim Chunchu to have sexual relationship with one of his two sisters, Bohee and Munhee. Kim Yu-shin's original plan was to make the coulple of Kim Chunchu and Bohee, the older of two. But Kim Yu-shin had to replace Bohee with Munhee. So what happened to Bohee? One of the two aims in my these is this. Historical documents relating to it says (1) Bohee had an illness, (2) she was faced with an accident. Any document says what kind of an illness or accident she had. But I found the illness or accident was her monthky period by comparative study of the related documents. Kim Yu-shin found it out to make the other sister Munhee Kim Chunchu's air. His maneuvering suceeded, and Munhee becamed pregnant with Kim Chunchu's baby. But Kim Yu-shin was compelled to do another maneuver, because Kim Chunchu kept on evading the wedding with pregnant Munhee. Facing with an unexpected obstacle, Kim Yu-shin sent an ultimatum to Kim Chunchu. It was a threat to burn his sister to death by reason of her pre-marriage pregnancy without permission of his or his parents. But such a threat was a shrewd trick. Anyway Kim Yu-shin was about to fulfill the ritual of burning his sister in the open air at that time Sunduk, Princess and a successor to the throne was going on a picnic out of her palace. Kim Yu-shin's trick was brilliantly successful by Sunduk's command to Kim Chunchu to go quickly and save ‘your wife' fron the fire. Then where are the trick of the burning of a woman concieved by Kim Yu-shin at the stake from? This was my second aim in the these. I proved it resulted from the ritual of Pokmu(暴巫), which literally means forcing a shaman out to the blazing sun especially in midsummer. Such a Pokmu was often fulfilled to pray for rain to Heaven in pre-modern Eastern Asia. Eastern Asian people believed that Heaven drops rain on pity of the suffering shaman. Kim Yu-shin extraordinarilly filled his purpose by advantage of the ritural of Pokmu.

      • KCI등재

        1886년 일본망명자 김옥균 유폐의 전말과 그 원인

        김성혜(Kim, Sung-hyae) 고려대학교 아세아문제연구소 2015 亞細亞硏究 Vol.58 No.3

        갑신정변에 실패한 김옥균 등이 일본으로 망명한 이후, 조선정부는 이들을 역적으로 간주하고 김옥균의 본국 송환을 위해 노력해 나갔다. 이러한 조선정부와 달리, 일본정부는 국사범을 보호해 일본의 인도적 행동을 드러내고 조선과의 협상카드로 김옥균을 이용하고자 했다. 따라서 번번이 일본국내법과 만국공법, 그리고 조일간 범죄인인도조약의 부재를 이유로 조선정부의 김옥균 송환 요구를 거절했다. 그렇지만 일본정부의 김옥균 비호 방침은 오사카사건 관련자들의 김옥균에 대한 회유 모색이 발각되고 조선정부가 장은규와 지운영을 파견해 김옥균을 암살하려 하면서 변화되었다. 이로 인해 김옥균의 일본체류가 일본국내 치안을 불안하게 만들고 외교 분쟁의 빌미를 제공한다는 사실이 표면화 되었기 때문이었다. 그러자 일본정부는 김옥균문제를 해결할 방안을 강구했는데, 공교롭게도 이때 스스로를 지키고자 한 김옥균의 행동이 일본정부를 더욱 자극했다. 일본정부는 1885년까지 망명 국사범의 보호라는 명분과 대조선 정책에서의 활용이라는 실리를 모두 얻고자 김옥균의 일본체류를 묵인했다. 그렇지만 점차 조?청 양국의 반복적인 송환 요구와 일본내 반정부세력과의 연계, 암살자들의 도일 등으로 김옥균을 내치외교의 걸림돌로 판단하게 되었다. 결국 일본정부는 김옥균의 공식적인 신변보호 요청을 계기로 추방을 결정해 오가사라와에 유폐시켰다고 하겠다. The Korean government had constantly promoted the repatriation of political asylum in Japan like Kim Ok-kyun(金玉均) who led a failed coup and fled to Japan. At that time, the Korean government recognized Kim was a threat to the regime and made the feelings of the people disturb. However, the Japanese government opposed the Korean government for they permitted Kim's residence in Japan. By the way, the Japanese government's policy had changed because of the discovery of the Osaka plot(大阪事件) with Kim Ok-kyun and an assassin dispatched by the Korean government. The Japanese government had to prevent a coup by the opposition with Kim Ok-kyun or the assassins would kill Kim in Japan. Therefore, the Japanese government had decided on Kim's deportation from Japan because of the obstacles in diplomacy and sedition. Then Kim had consulted his personal problems with an Englishman belonging to the judiciary of Japan and moved to a hostel of France concession in Yokohama, leaving Tokyo. Kim then sued Ji un-yeong(池運永) in court. In addition, Kim asked for personal protection and asylum in Russia from the Speyer of Russian consul in Japan. However, Kim Ok-kyun's formal request for personal protection antagonized the Japanese government and made his expulsion one of force. As a result, Kim Ok-kyun was confined to Ogasawara(小笠原) Island.

      • 간단한 인증키 동의 프로토콜인 Kim-Kim-Hwang 방법의 안전성 고찰

        김윤정;김영신;황준 서울여자대학교 컴퓨터과학연구소 2004 정보기술논문지 Vol.2 No.-

        The Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange scheme can produce a common session key between the two communicators, but its problem is that it makes a man-in-the middle attack possible. To solve problems like these, several protocols have been put forward, and the Simple Authenticated Key Agreement (SAKA) Protocol is among them. Seo-Sweeney suggested a SAKA protocol initially and the protocol has weakness that a malicious 3rd party can masquerade a valid user. Tseng suggested another protocol that advances this problem but this protocol can still be attacked when the messages in key verification phase are identical. Ku-Wang suggested a new protocol that advances this problem. Kim-Kim-Hwang also suggested a new SAKA protocol and confirmed that their protocol has same safeness and better performance compared to the other SAKA protocols. In this paper, we reanalyze the safeness of SAKA protocols and find out that Kim-Kim-Hwang protocol has not only better performance but also better safeness. Diffie-Hellman의 키 인증 기법에 대한 제 3자 공격 (man-in-the middle attack)에 강한 간단한 인증키 동의 프로토콜인 SAKA (Simple Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol)가 제안된 바 있다. SAKA는 초기에 Seo-Sweeney에 의해 제안되었으며 이 방법은 침입자가 중간에 메시지를 가로채서 정당한 사용자임을 가장할 수 있는 단점이 있다. Tseng은 이 단점을 개선한 방안을 제안하였는데 이것도 키 확인 메시지 두 개의 값이 같을 경우 공격을 받을 수 있음이 밝혀졌다. Ku-Wang은 Tseng 방법의 문제점을 개선한 알고리즘을 제안하였다 그리고 Kim-Kim-Hwang은 새로운 SAKA 알고리즘을 제안하고 이것이 기존 SAKA 프로토콜들과 안전성은 동일하면서도 성능이 개선된 것임을 밝힌바 있다. 본 논문에서는 안전성 분석의 재고찰을 통하여, Kim-Kim-Hwang의 방법이 기존 SAKA 프로토콜들보다 성능면에서뿐만 아니라, 안전성 면에서도 우수함을 밝힌다.

      • KCI등재

        견고한 고독의 세계 : Eine vergleichende Studie u¨ber Rilke und Hyon-seung Kim 릴케와 김현승

        김재혁 한국독어독문학회 2002 獨逸文學 Vol.84 No.-

        Der koreanische Dichter Hyon-seung Kim bekennt sich zu einem erheblichen Einfluß Rilkes auf seine Weltanschauung, insbesondere wegen Rilkes ernsthafter Haltung gegenu¨ber Leben und Kunst. In diesem Zusammenhang steht Kim unter dem starken Einfluß von Rilkes fru¨hen Werken wie Das Stunden-Buch und Das Buch der Bilder. Diese Werke behandeln wichtige Themen, die auch bei Kim ihren Niederschlag finden, das heißt Gott, Einsamkeit und Dichtung. Die Haltung des lyrischen Ichs bei Kim ist der Geba¨rde des lyrischen Ichs in Das Stunden-Buch sehr a¨hnlich. Der russische Mo¨nch in Rilkes Werk spricht aufs Knie fallend vor Gott Gebete, malt Ikonen und schreibt daru¨ber hinaus Verse. Diese fromme Haltung pra¨gt auch die des lyrischen Ich bei Kim. Ferner besteht große A¨hnlichkeit zwischen beiden Dichtern darin, dass die beiden in ihrer fru¨hen Zeit durch Gebet, also aus der Sehnsucht nach Gott, Verse schaffen. Man kann niemals bei Kim von der Einsamkeit im Herbst als literarischer Kulisse sprechen, ohne sich as Rilkes 「Herbsttag」zu erinnem. Trotzdem konnte Kim abda¨mmend gegen Rilkes Einfluß seine eigene Welt dadurch bewahren, dass er an der ihm eigentu¨mlichen Einsamkeit festha¨lt. Sein literarischer Verdienst findet sich dort, wo er mit Hilfe der Dinge und Ausdru¨cke solider Art seine existentielle Einsamkeit zu einem reinen poetischen Thema hat reifen lassen. Kims fester Glaube an die reine Einsamkeit entsprang seit Mitte der 1960er Jahre aus dem Mißtrauen gegen die christliche Gottheit und die fro¨mmelnden Christen. Unter diesen Umsta¨nden hatte er keinen anderen Weg, als nur auf das selbsta¨ndige Ich angewiesen zu sein. Zugleich hat er, wie seine Gedichte 「Absolute Einsamkeit」 und 「Solide Einsamkeit」zeigen, seine Einsamkeit positiv verarbeitet und ihr so einen Sin gegebenletzten Endes zu einer Ewigkeit, anders als Rilke, der auf jeden Fall seine Einsamkeit nur als Vorraussetzung fu¨r das Dichten betrachtet hat. Gerade hier hebt sich die originelle Seite der Einsamkeit von Kim gegen Rilke ab. In Hinsicht der sprachlichen Behandlung grenzen Kims Gedichte der absoluten Einsamkeit an Rilkes Dinggedichte in Neue Gedichte . Dieses Resultat ergibt sich daher, dass Kim seine dichterische Sprache wie ein Steinmetz meißelt, so dass er seine bloße Idee mit den soliden Ausdru¨cken bekleidet. Und dass Kim auf der Suche nach poetisch solider Gestaltung immer wieder auf sprachliche Pra¨chtigkeit und gefu¨hlvolles Pathos verzichtet hat, also dass er nach der "Poetischen Nu¨chternheit" gestrebt hat, bringt ihn noch mehr in die Na¨ch von Rilkes Dinggedichten. Aber Kim kehrte endgu¨ltig zu dem christlichen zuru¨ck, nachdem er Bluthochdruck erlitten hatte. Nach diesem Zwischenfall bereute er, dass er bisher - Gott aus dem Blick verlierend - zu dichterisch geneigt war. Natu¨rlich kann man auch in der literarischen Phase, wo er nur die absolute Einsamkeit verfolgt hatte, eine grundlegende Haltung mit Pra¨gung durch das christliche Ethos finden, Dies bedeutet, dass zu ihm die Einsamkeit eine Art Religion war. Also war seine Einsamkeit ein Prozess des christlichen Selbsterwachens. Wenn man die Tatsache in Betracht zieht, dass fu¨r ihn der Prozess der Einsamkeit eine Forsetzung des Dichtens war, so scheint seine Einamkeit ihr eigenes literarisches Dasein gefu¨hrt, moderne menschliche Bedingungen untersucht, und dadurch fu¨hlten sie sich menschlich gesteigert.

      • KCI등재후보

        김균진의 신학과 신학적 공헌

        김명용 연세대학교 신과대학 2009 신학논단 Vol.56 No.-

        Kyun Jin Kim is one of very important modem theologians in Korea. He was president of Korean society of systematic theology and is now president of Korean society for Karl Barth's theology. He has served more than 30 years as professor of systematic theology at Yonsei university. He has made a big impact on Korean theology. I. Kyun Jin Kim' theological characteristics 1. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a theology of the kingdom of God. Although soul salvation plays a big role in Kim' theology, the kingdom of God is the core of his theology. He has written his doctrine of systematic theology in the light of the kingdom of God. It is the purpose of his theology to establish the kingdom of God on the earth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim' theology is a messianic theology. According to Kim, it is important to know that Christ was the messiah. Kim denies that the concept messiah is interpreted only spiritually. He can be a political messiah, although he doesn't want to rule the world with coercive power. He is the messiah who saves not only our souls, but also the world and the earth. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a holistic theology. He is not interested in a biased theology. He loves holistic theological view. According to Kim, Korean Min Jung theology lacks this holistic view, although it shows us very important field to establish the kingdom of God. Ⅱ. Kyun Jin Kim's theological contributions 1. Kyun Jin Kim's first theological contribution to Korean theology is his five books of systematic theology. He accomplished his doctrine of systematic theology. His five books of systematic theology can be valued in Korean like Church Dogmatics of Karl Barth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is very academic. His theology is a very high level theology which can compete with european theologies. It is important to know that european theologians should learn from his theology. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's third theological contribution is his translation of many books of J. Moltmann. He translated into Korean the crucified God, Trinity and Kingdom of God, the Way of Jesus Christ, Sprit of life, the coming God etc. 4. Kyun Jin Kim's forth theological contribution is his contribution to the theology of life. He develops a very high level theology of life in Korea.

      • 김정일의 『영화예술론』과 북한영화 - 1973년부터 1980년까지 제작된 북한영화를 중심으로 -

        김윤지 ( Youn Jee Kim ) 한양대학교 대학원 논문집(영화학과) 2006 시네마 Vol.2 No.-

        In North Korea, the cinema is method to teach the masses. Especially, Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il thought that the cinema was produced in a breeze. Because the cinema moved the majority of the masses to sympathize with the emotions. In 1970s, the Kim administration was stabilized therefore Kim Jong-Il made many concrete policies about the cinema. That is to say, the North Korean cinema was formalized by Kim Jong-Il`s instruction during that time. In 1973, Kim Jong-Il published 『On the Art of Cinema』, The book was a 332-page treatise on how to act, film, direct, edit and score a movie. Aimed at North Koreans, the book had its share of stupefying ideas but also some legitimate tenets and some beliefs that might be shared by a film critic. By constitution, North korea`s all movies was influenced by the book hence understanding the book was important. It made comprehending North Korean cinema possible. In 1970s, the juche ideology was organized well and constitutional law was made public at least. So Kim Jong-Il started effort for acquiring a position of successor earnestly. He developed the concept of the `Revolutionary View of the Leader` into a more theoretical and systemized form by presenting the `Theory of the Immortal(Socio)-Political Body`. It says the Suryong. Moreover he completed Kim Il Sungism. According to the book, Kim Jong-Il claimed that all movies in North Korea was produced by juche ideology inclusive of Suryong-non and Kim Il Sungism. Then the movies on the basis of the book had a few keynotes. There were the same subjects repeatedly, standardization, narration, excessive expressions. These problems brought on deterioration in quality of North Korean cinema.

      • KCI등재

        무용 상해 및 재발 예방을 위한 Kim's Body conditioning Program

        김양근(Yang Keun Kim) 한국무용과학회 2009 한국무용과학회지 Vol.18 No.-

        본 연구의 목적은 상해 경험이 있는 무용수가 Kim's body conditioning program 후 무용동작 수행 시 무용수의 신체 움직임 느낌을 통해 프로그램의 효과를 규명하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 목적에 따라 연구대상자들은 2007년 ADF(America Dance Festival)에 참석한 무용수들 중 Kim's body conditioning program 수업에 참석한 60명 중 6주간 수업에 결석하지 않은 31명을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하였다. 연구 대상자들의 평균 연령은 22.06(±1.590)이며, 무용경력은 3년 미만이 54.8%로, 3년 이상이 38.7%이다. 조사 설문 내용은 무용전문가 3명과 의학전문가 1명, 설문조사 전문가 1명 등 5명으로 구성되어 설문조사 문항을 위해 협의, 의논하여 문항들을 선택하였으며, 자료 분석 방법으로는 기술통계의 빈도분석과 X2 분석 방법이 사용되었으며, 분석결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 전체적인 움직임에 대해 Kim's body conditioning program 수행 후 무용동작 수행 시 보다 편안함을 느낄 수 있으며, 원활하게 움직일 수 있다는 것으로 응답하였다. 둘째, 무용의 기본 동작에 대해 기본 브러쉬(brush) 동작, 그랑 바뜨망(grands battements) 동작, 데벨로뻬 (develope) 동작, 쁠리에 (plie) 동작, 아라베스크(arabesque) 동작에서 움직임 수행 시 편안함을 느꼈으며, 관련된 근육들에 움직임에서 원활하게 움직일 수 있었다고 응답하였다. 셋째, 무용수들의 Kim's body conditioning program 평가에서 이 프로그램은 전체적인 근력 및 하지의 유연성을 강화할 수 있다고 응답하였으며, 무용 동작 수행 시 움직임에 도움을 줄 수 있는 것으로 무용수들에게 도움이 된다고 응답하였다. 또한 이 프로그램이 무용수들뿐만 아니라 비전공자들에게도 필요한 프로그램이 될 수 있다고 응답하였다. 그러나 무용 표현 기술적인 측면에서는 높은 동의를 얻지 못했다. 이와 같은 결론을 통해 Kim's body conditioning program이 상해를 가진 무용수들에게 재활의 프로그램 중 하나로 제시될 수 있다. The purpose of this study was investigating about previously injured dancers' execution of movements and comfortableness after Kim's body conditioning program. 31 participants joined the six weeks of ADF of the year 2007 after undergoing Kim's body conditioning program. Contents of research were examined by three dance expertise, one medical doctor, and one research expertise. Frequency of descriptive statistics and X2 were used to analyze the collected data. The results were as follows. First, the 31 participants answered they were comfortable executing their movements and greater control over their muscle movements after Kim" body conditioning program. Second, they responded that they could comfortably execute their basic movements then previous to participating in Kim's body conditioning program and move their muscles more readily. Third, after undergoing Kim's body conditioning program, the participants answered Kim's body conditioning program can improve muscular power, become more flexibleness and help execution of movements. In addition, Kim's body conditioning program can help people who are not dance major. Kim's body conditioning program, however, cannot improve executing difficult dance movements. In conclusion, Kim's body conditioning program could be a rehabilitation program for previously injured dancers.

      • 한국영화미학에 대한 논의

        김수남 청주대학교 예술문화연구소 1998 淸藝論叢 Vol.15 No.-

        1. Introduction A discussion on Korean film aesthetics has to be made centering on the identity of Korean film. The reason is that to discuss Korean film aesthetics is to find out the difference between Korean film aesthetics and foreign one and, furthermore, to create the originality of Korean film for the differentiation. To discuss the films of a country is to examine the spiritual and cultural value systems which the films have kept throughout the film history of the country. For the past seventy years or so, Korean film had a hard time, which prevented it from establishing its spiritual and cultural value systems. Examining the historical background of Korean film, we can find it was originated from foreign culture which was imported with other genres of modem culture from the West. Unlike other genres such as literature, music, fine arts and the theatre, the cinema was not produced soon after being imported. So, the history of Korean film-making is shorter than that of presentation. In the early days of modernizing our culture, we accepted and transplanted modem culture to ours through the imitation of foreign culture. As for the cinema, the spiritual and cultural transplantation was made only through the appreciation of foreign films. Korean film-making started poorly due to lack of capital, but was in active cooperation with other contiguous genres of culture. For a kino-drama(a screen-and-stage play), the cinema was a supporter of the theater. In the silent picture days, it depended on literature, in that traditional stories of ancient times provided the cinema with its peculiar forms and affluent contents. Many of the works of Nah, Woon-kyu, a pillar of the Korean film circle in the early days, were related to literary works. After that, Korean film accomplished a great development in terms of technology, but the simplicity of dramatic plot led to the poor content. As poorly circumstanced for the perfect accomplishment of the beauty of form, we needed to strengthen the content, but, our realities were not good enough. The audience were indifferent to the beauty of form of a film. They were swayed by its story. As goods, a film was an object of entertainment, and a means to public relations or propaganda. Controlled by capital and the masses, the cinema is inevitably restricted by social circumstances and the level of the masses. In spite of all, however, we have to realize that the cinema is a genre of culture and arts. In short, Korean film has to show the cultural and spiritual identities of Korean people in consideration of all problems related to capital and technology in our realities. For that reason, a discussion on Korean film aesthetics has to start from the questions which films were manufactured and which films will have to be manufactured. 2. The Beginning of Korean Film Aesthetics In the early days, most of the Korean silent pictures were adapted from classical Korean novels or third-rate Japanese novels. Surprisingly, however, film reviews pointed that our classical novels were not fully understood in those days. Then Korean film personalities did not have a good understanding of the manners and customes of the Choson Dynasty Period and the Old Choson Period which they dealt with(a review of Story of Shim-cheong, Maeil Newspaper, Apr. 3, 1925). On the contrary, The Long Regretful Dream, adapted from a Japanese novel, was commented better than poor Korean films(Maeil Newspaper, Mar. 21, 1926). The two works, mentioned above, were made by the same Korean director. Nevertheless, the reviews of them show one with a Korean theme is poorer than the other with a Japanese theme. It is quite meaningful; In the beginning stage of film-making, Korean film personalities neglected our spiritual and cultural identities. Such an attitude is shown in Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang, the starting point of Korean realistic film. As a whole, Arirang is a noteworthy work, in that it depicts the realities of then Korean rural communities. However, excessive exaggeration and unrealistic description break the dramatic harmony. Another problem is that the love scene is not in a Korean style, so distorts the emotion of Korean people(Choson Daily Newspaper, Oct. 1, 1926). After some years, Nah, Woon-kyu wrote that he had tried to express our people's emotion(Samcheonri, Jul. 1930, "Arirang, Society and I"). But he reversed his previous insistence to confess that he 'mimicked a foreign film' in another writing(Choson Film, "When Making Arirang", Nov. 1936). Finally, Nah, Woon-kyu has made a conclusion of Arirang; He says that he feels ashamed of imitating the form and content of foreign films in order to attract the audience's attention although he wanted to express 'the emotion of Korean people'. On the contrary, Lee, Kyu-hwan's The Ferryboat With No Ferryman, a Korean localistic film, was favorably commented by critics that it showed 'a model of Korean populace'(Dong-ah Daily Newspaper, Sep. 15, 1932). It was also criticized for only having conflicts, not struggles(Maeil Newspaper, Sep. 15, 1932). As examined above, Na, Woon-kyu's and Lee, Kyu-hwan's films were evaluated to show relatively well the spirit of Korean film in those days. During the period of Japanese imperialism, most of Korean films were adapted from classical Korean novels and third-rate Japanese novels. In this circumstance, the two directors attempted to establish a true view of Korean film to represent Korean people's feelings. It was the starting point of Korean film aesthetics. The problem is to deduce a film from a printed material, the secondary one, not to examine closely into its form which includes its content by watching the film itself. Let's take Arirang, which is said to try employing the montage technique first in the Korean film history, as an example. It shows the realism of Korean film puts story higher than image. The reason is that montage is a characteristic of anti-realistic films. Accordingly, we can guess that Lee, Kyu-hwan's The Ferryboat With No Ferryman and Choi, In-kyu's A School Fee, which follow the realism shown by Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang, were categorized into literary realism where the content attains superiority over the form. The Korean realistic films are divided into two trends. One of them is KAPF film which urges on 'the films as arms' and whose first work was Wandering (1928) by Kim, Yoo-young. However, as losing amateurism and popularism, it had not been mentioned until popular film appeared in the 1980's. Characterized by popular arts, the films cannot discuss the general theory of film aesthetics which targets a small number of specific groups or film mania. 3. The Tradition of Korean Film Since the birth of Korean film, Korean film aesthetics has been based on realism. As mentioned above, the realism of Korean film pursued the realism of literature, rather than being influenced by foreign realistic films. Above all, Korean film followed critical realism which was discussed actively in literature. So, the spirit of realism in Korean film was controlled by a critical point of view that deals with Korean people's deplorable life and the disadvantaged classes during the period of Japanese imperialism. This point is quite different from the current of foreign film at the same period. German expressionistic film, which depicts the realities from a subjective view-point getting out of naturalism or realism, French experimental film, which emphasizes the visualization of a film giving priority to form over content, and Soviet montage film, which emphasizes content but put more importance on form, developed foreign film while struggling for mastery in film aesthetics. Influenced by critical realism, we established the tradition of Korean realistic film from Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang through Lee, Kyu-hwan's The Ferryboat With No Ferryman and KAPF-style tendency film in the 1930's, Choi, In-kyu's A School Fee in the 1940's and Han, Hyong-mo's Free Madam in the 1950's to Yoo, Hyon-mok's A Aimless Bullet in the 1960's. Such a critical attitude of Korean film has been consistently urged and continued up to the 1990's getting through the 1970's and the 1980's. The tradition of Korean film is critical realism led by Nah, Woon-kyu―Lee, Kyu-hwan―Choi, In-kyu before the Liberation and Yoo, Hyon-mok―Lee, Man-hee―Lee, Jang-ho, Ha, Kil-jong, Kim, Ho-seon―Bae, Chang-ho―Park, Kwang-soo, Chang, Seon-woo after the Liberation. New directors in the 1990's are participating in this line. Kim, Ki-young's expressionistic realism and Kim, Soo-yong's modem-style realism were not recognized properly. Although Yoo, Hyon-mok made noteworthy expressionistic or modem-style films, and Kim, Ki-young and Kim, Soo-yong also made noteworthy critical realistic films, Korean film critical circles neglected them. Here, we need to change our prejudice of regarding critical realism as the only spirit of Korean film and the only attitude for Korean film-making. It is urgent to change our thought to re-establish the tradition of Korean film. First, we have to re-evaluate various works by the leading directors in the 1960's. We have to find that the various identities of the times were represented by such films getting out of critical realism as Shin, Sang-ok's historical drama, The Guest and My Mother(1961), A Red Muffler(1964), and A Thirteen-Year-Old Boy(1974), Hong, Seong-ki's A Star In My Mind(1958), and When Youth Goes Into the Night(1964), Yoo, Hyon-mok's A Spring Dream(1965), The Visitors Coming By the Last Car(1967) and A Door(1977), Kim, Ki-young's A Housemaid(1960) and Hyonhaetan Knows Everything(1961), Kim, Soo-yong's A Dried Corvina Fish (1963), A Fog(1967) and A Night Trip(1977), and Lee, Man-hee's Dial 112 (1962), The Marine Corps That Did not Return(1963) and A Return Trip(1967). We will be able to find out the tradition of Korean film when we investigate with a new critical way of thinking how Korean film perceived and accepted modem images and changes in tradition and modem everyday life, and represented Korean people's feelings for various materials. Now, I suggest that we should re-establish the lineage of Korean film classified into Kim, Soo-yong's modem realism, Yoo, Hyon-mok's critical realism and Kim, Ki-young's expressionistic realism. Such a systemization will be effective in establishing the various branches and trends of Korean film, and understanding its spiritual and cultural identities. It is also useful to get rid of all confusions to systemize Korean film aesthetics. 4. A Study on Korean Film Aesthetics The cinema keeps a closer relationship with the masses than any other arts dealing with the human problems. In any society where men live, there always exist conflicts and oppositions. Realism is preferred in order to settle them. Therefore, it is inevitable that realistic films are loved as social conflicts come up to the surface. The opposed situation is possible, too. The conflict shown in Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang is a story of long times ago. Also, the obstacle which Yoo, Hyon-mok's A Aimless Bullet and Lee, Man-hee's Seven Women Captives could not overcome have been removed. The new age of the 1990's, when Chang, Seon-woo's Send Me To You gains public favor and Im, Sang-soo's Girls' Night Out becomes the talk of all, is closing. With the 21st century coming soon, Korean film aesthetics is confused and exposed to the random invasion of foreign culture. Deplorably, Korean film is poisoned seriously by foreign culture and does nothing but managing to retain its life in film-making itself. It may be meaningless to examine Korean film aesthetics in this circumstance, but we need to grope for the rebirth of Korean film aesthetics by finding again out our spiritual and cultural identities in preparation for film culture of the 21st century. Wagner's theory of arts is still true; The form of total arts does not change, however its style does. The problem of Korean film aesthetics is that changes in the style of films have been influenced by the acceptance of foreign culture, rather than the development of the intrinsic legacy in our tradition. The tradition of Korean culture must be found in mask dance which dealt with common people's joys and sorrows of life, not in aristocratic culture. 'Taedongkut', which was regularly performed with the consciousness of a community, was both a ritual for a good harvest and the peace of a village, and the lower classes' resistance against the ruling classes. Its content was the resistance to the realities and expression was in satiric symbolism. However, the modernization of culture drove out the essence of our traditional drama and developed the dramatic form with only story borrowed. In Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang, the consciousness of resistance is our tradition and the montage technique is a symbolic satire. After Arirang, the base of Korean film aesthetics is generalized into realism which the content conforms to the form. In traditional Korean arts, however, the content is inconsistent with the form. It is influenced by Confucianism, and caused from the modesty and submissiveness of Korean people. Although getting the feel of their deplorable realities with skin desperately and directly, they are satisfied with expressing them in an indirect way. Therefore, it is most suitable for Korean people's emotion that the realistic content is represented in an expressionistic style. But, our reality is the direct opposition. Accepting modern culture, our consciousness started to be westernized. As a result, we pursued the amusing quality, rather than the essential goal of our traditional drama. Moreover, the materialistic function of camera naturally led us to prefer to realistic expression and the critical circles followed blindly the western theories of realistic film to square content and form. At this very point, Korean film aesthetics began to go astray. In case of the films, which cannot accept the consciousness of a community directly unlike performing arts, however, long take, a realistic technique of camera, may be considered. Long take is a way to lead the audience to watch a film actively and the active attitude for film appreciation can enhance the consciousness of a community. So far, I have examined the origins of the Koreans' spiritual and cultural identities, and pointed out the essential problems of Korean film aesthetics. The tradition of Korean film aesthetics, which started from Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang, led to literary realism, which put superiority on the critical realistic content urged by KAPF film, resisting the conflicts of the times. In the meanwhile, in Yoo, Hyon-mok's A Aimless Bullet, filmic realism putting superiority on the form was introduced from neo-realism. Critical realism continued by Lee, Man-hee, Lee, Jang-ho, Ha, Kil-jong, Kim, Ho-seon, Bae, Chang-ho, Park, Kwang-soo, Chin, Yoo-young, Yeo, Kyun-dong and Kim, Hong-joon has been widened to Kim, Soo-yong's modern realism and Kim, Ki-young's expressionistic realism by Park, Cheol-soo, Chung, Ji-young, Chang, Kil-soo, Chang, Seon-woo, Kwak, Ji-kyun, Shin, Seung-soo, Lee, Myong-se, Park, Jong-won, Kim, Yoo-jin, Kang, Woo-seok and Hong, Sang-soo. In this turmoil, Yim, Kwon-taek has been the mainstay which firmly supports the Korean films. Besides, there are such important films which show Korean images to represent the emotion of Korean people as Bae, Yong-kyun's Why has Bodhi-Dharma Left for the East?, Paek, Il-seong's In a Handful of Time and Lee, Kwang-mo's Spring in My Hometown. We also must not overlook Lee, Jang-ho's The Man with Three Coffins which quite clearly reveals one aspect of our identity through the ideological conflicts in the continuously flowing stream of the traditional spirit. 5. Conclusion Getting through the 1990's, the ideology has clearly changed. The Cold War has closed a long time ago and the ideological conflict between the South Korea and the North Korea is getting soften more and more. Also, the problem of filmic expression conflicting keenly with ideology seeks for changes intrinsic formal aesthetics, getting out of the content-superior age when a film was evaluated only with subject matters and themes. Such a change has to start from the accumulation of the inherent spirit and philosophy in our tradition. The problem is that changes are made by imported culture rather than the legacy intrinsic to our tradition. Reflecting the biased inclination of Korean film to critical realism, I would like to come to the front other streams of Korean film. The language, action, color, fashion and design, which have to keep our emotion, have already been westernized. As the policy for film promotion is bent on making films, our cultural spirit is controlled by capital to become like a losing child of unknown nationality. For this circumstance, we do not know where we can find out Korean spirit and culture however strongly we may try to emphasize them in the films. I strongly insist that it should be problematic to discuss on Korean film aesthetics only with the content and form of the present Korean films. It is desirable to examine ourselves in the past films, which are less contaminated by foreign culture, to re-find to discuss on our film aesthetics. Until that time, we cannot grope for an alternative measure to establish the identity of Korean film aesthetics.

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