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        • 信用狀去來에 있어서 運送書類의 受理要件에 관한 硏究: 海上船荷證券을 중심으로

          Yong Bok Kim(金容福) 건국대학교 경제경영연구소 1995 商經硏究 Vol.20 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          This study is primarily concerned with one aspect of international commerce, namely payment. The object of the documentary credit is to simplify such payment by making use of the financial expertise and the creditworthiness of one more banks. One should never forget that the term ‘documentary credit' is not magic charm. Documentary credit was created for normal trade. It offers protection against recalcitrant contracting parties, but is powerless when faced with fraud of certain form of force majeure. If a seller presents forged documents, the documentary credit cannot protect the buyer, any more than it can protect the sellers in an event such as the bankruptcy of both the remitting bank and the buyers. In both cases the documentary credit will ineffectual, but although both cases are quite conceivable in theory, they rarely happen in practice. In this paper I shall discuss the completion of the documentary credit. The completion stage commences when the beneficiary tenders his documents at the bank. By presenting the documents to the bank the beneficiary sets in motion the machinery which will lead to settlement of the credit. This machinery of the documentary credit can be compared with that of a cigarette machine. When a coin is inserted in cigarette machine it judges the coin by its diameter, thickness and weight, not by its value. A similar situation exists in the case of documentary credit. If a beneficiary produces forged documents which are in accordance with the terms laid down by the credit, he will receive payment, if the beneficiary has dispatched the specified goods in the proper manner but in compiling his documents has failed to take into account all the conditions laid down by the documentary credit, it may take that these documents will not he honoured under that credit. If, however, the beneficiary tender documents which are in accordance with the terms laid down by the credit, the conditional right which he had up to that moment is converted to an unconditional claim, since he will have satisfied the conditions bearing upon his conditional right. There is no room for documents which are almost the same or which will do just well. This widely quoted judgement by Lord Summer clearly indicates what requirements the documents must meet when they are tendered ; they must be precisely, these document specified in the credit. If bills of lading are tendered under a documentary credit the bank will carry out a twofold examination. Firstly, it will check whether the document in question meets the requirements imposed on a bill of lading by law, and if the result of the examination is positive it will check whether the document satisfies the requirements concerning the bill of lasding laid down in U.C.P. and in the relevant credit.

        • 위성동역학 시뮬레이터용 T-방식을 이용한 반작용휠 속도 측정 및 펄스 생성

          김용복(Yong-bok Kim), 오시환(Si-Hwan Oh), 이선호(Seon-Ho Lee), 용기력(Ki-Lyok Yong), 이승우(Seung-Wu Rhee) 한국항공우주연구원 2007 항공우주기술 Vol.6 No.1

          일정한 샘플링 시간 T마다 발생되는 반작용 휠 타코 펄스의 개수를 세어 구동기의 회전속도를 측정하는 M 방식은 구현이 간단하고 측정 시간이 일정하다는 장점이 있으나, 저속에서 속도 측정의 해상도가 나빠진다는 단점이 있다. 그에 반해, 펄스와 펄스 사이의 시간간격을 측정하는 T방식은 저속에서 정밀한 속도를 측정할 수 있으며 측정에 따른 시간 지연이 적다는 장점이 있다. 그러나 이 방법 역시 실제 구현 시 나눗셈이 필요하고 속도 측정 시간이 속도에 따라 가변되는 문제점이 있다. 현재 산업계에서는 전동기의 속도를 측정하기 위하여 M방식과 T방식을 조합한 M/T방식이 널리 사용되고 있지만, 현재 위성 분야에서는 M방식과 T방식중 하나만을 사용하고 있는 실정이다. 그럼으로, 저궤도 위성에서 핵심 구동장치로 사용되는 반작용 휠의 속도를 측정하기 위해서, 기존의 M 방식의 속도 측정방식에 저속에서의 속도 정확도 향상을 위하여 T 방식도 이용해서 속도 측정을 하려 한다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 측정 요구조건을 만족할 수 있도록 지상 시험 장비인 위성동역학 시뮬레이터에서 반작용 휠의 모사를 위한 보드 설계를 제시하려 한다. The M-Method that measures the speed of actuator with counting the number of Reaction wheel Tacho Pulse has the many advantages such that a realization is simple and measuring time is uniform, but it also has the disadvantage that measuring speed becomes worse as the wheel speed goes lower. On the contrary, the T-Method that measures the time duration between the pulses is more accurate at lower-speed and its time delay is smaller than M-Method ,but its realization is more difficult than M-Method because measuring time is varying with wheel speed variation. Thought M/T Method mixing M-Method with T-Method is widely used in order to measure the speed in the motor industrial area, one of two methods has been used in the spacecraft design area. Therefore, we try to apply both methods together to measuring the speed of Reaction Wheel, the core actuator for low earth orbit satellite. This paper provides the Reaction Wheel simulation board located in the Spacecraft Dynamic Simulator, ground support test set.

        • 信用狀去來의 實際와 法理論

          Kim Yong Bok(金容福) 건국대학교 경제경영연구소 1992 商經硏究 Vol.17 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          This study is primarily concerned with an aspect of international commerce, namely payment. When the buyer and seller have made contact and have reached agreement on a specific transaction, they will have to arrange how payment is to be made The object of the documentary credit is to simplify such payment by making used of the financial expertise and the creditworthiness of one or more banks. It differs from other methods of payment in that it offers both buyer abd seller an means if security. The buyer derives his security from the documents he stipulates, the seller has the security that the presentation of perfect documents will them should be subject to the Uniform Customs, Documentary credit rests on a twofold foundation : Ⅰ. the Uniform Customs embodied in the agreement, Ⅱ. customary practice. In this paper I propose to discuss the relationships which arise between the various parties concerned with the documentary credit The following parties are involved : 1. the applicant for the credit(also the buyer) : be followed by payment With only an occasional exception, every documentary credit which is isssued is subject to the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credit', drawn up by the International chamber of Commerce. This state of affairs is founded not on statutory provisions, but on the fact the banks and banker's associations in the participating countries have undertaken to ensure that the documentary credits issued by 2. the beneficiary (also the sellers) ; 3. the issuing bank. In chapter Ⅰ, I deal with the legal character of the credit. In chapter Ⅱ, I discuss the principle for the credit transaction. In chapter Ⅲ, the bank's obligations towards the applicant for the credit is disscussed. In chapter Ⅳ, the relationship between the bank and the beneficiary is discussed.

        • 개헌논의와 권력구조 개혁의 방향: 의회강화와 지방분권화

          김용복 ( Yong Bok Kim ) 경남대학교 극동문제연구소 2012 동북아연구 Vol.17 No.-

          한국사회의 균열구조는 다원화되었고, 복합적이다, 지역균열, 계급균열, 이념균열, 세대균열, 수도원-지방균열, 다문화사회 등 다차원적인 사회균열구조와 이에 기반한 다당제적인 정당정치의 구도가 형성되어 있다. 그래서 다원적이고 이질적인 사회에 적합하며 잘 작동될 수 있는 합의제 민주주의가 필요하다. 이를 위해서 의회내각제로의 개헌도 고려할 수 있지만, 대통령제에 대한 선호와 제도적 지속성 등이 순수한 의원내각제로의 개헌을 어렵게 하고 있다. 따라서 대통령제의 정서와 제도적 장점을 유지하면서, 권력을 의회에 분산시킬 수 있는 준대통령제로의 개선이 바람직하다고 생각된다. 게다가 수도권 집중으로 인한 지방의 소외는 갈수록 심각해지고 있다. 권력을 지방으로 이전시키는 지방복권도 매우 중요한 개선의 방향이다. 다원화되고 복잡해지는 한국사회의 통합을 위해서는 권력이 지방분권과 의회분산이 필요하며, 이를 실현하기 위해 현실적이고 구체적인 권력구조 개혁이 필요하다고 할 것이다. 권력구조를 좀 더 의회와 지방으로 분산시켜서, 다원화된 사회를 의회와 정부, 그리고 지방에 반영될 수 있는 구조로 개선하지는 논의는 "지방분권형 준대통령제"로 집약된다. This article is focused on analyzing the problem of Korean politics from the point of view of power structure. The current government system degraded to the imperial presidency, which causes too many problem of too strong political and regional confrontation, political corruptions etc. So many Korean people require a comprehensive reform of the government system toward the decentralized presidential system, usually called the semi-presidential system. The presidential system is accordance with the majoritarian democracy and two party system. However the power-sharing presidential system is accordance with the consociational democracy, multi-party system, and localization of the power. So semi-presidential system will greatly contribute to resolve the problem stemming from the omnipotent power concentration, raise the legislature`s power and ease the confrontation between the ruling party and the opposition party. The semi-presidentialism seems to be more suitable than the current presidentialism in Korea.

        • KCI등재

          지방정치와 정당의 역할 : 연구의 범위와 쟁점

          김용복(Kim Yong Bok) 한국지역사회학회 2009 지역사회연구 Vol.17 No.4

          The local self-governing has an aspect of citizen-direct participation and local political aspect of an authoritarian allocation function for social values. An autonomous local politics is essential for development and establishment of democracy in Korea. The local politics includes various aspects such as central-local government relations, local government-assembly relations, local election, and citizen-direct participation. The party participation has merits and demerits on the development of local autonomy. For example, The 5.31 local election in 2006 was just like the proxy war of central political parties. The public nomination system of political party in this local election was expanded into the local assembly election of the base local government. which caused many negative effects. Many scholars insisted the party exclusion in local election. Instead, this study claims that the roles of party are very important for the development of the local politics, so the democratization of the political parties is essential to the local self-government development.

        • 經濟發展과 工業資源

          Kim Yong bok(金容福) 건국대학교 경제경영연구소 1985 商經硏究 Vol.10 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          The purpose of this study is to analyze the theoritical aspects of supply and demand for industrial resorces and to find the method for recuring a stable supply of industrial in Korea. In case of Korea the stable condition of supply of industrial raw material has attributed to high rate of economic growth during the period 1962~1972. But the rate of economic growth has been showed between during 1973 and 1983 due to “The 1st and 2nd oil Crisis”. It appears that there is a high correlation between the economic growth and the stable resource supply condition. We can find method of securing resources that can contribute to the maintainence of a stable resource supply condition and in turn to ablibiate the disruptive influence caussed by resource nationalism. The main poit of the mathods may be summarized as follows: ˚To adopt gradually resource development import system ˚To reinforce recources foreign relation ˚To enlarge specialists and techniques for resources ˚restructuringindustring industrial organization and economizing the use of domestic natural resources. ˚development of alternative uses of natural resources. ˚To promote of the import of developed foreign resources by economic cooperation These methods of securing resources as outlined in this study will meet the minimum requirement of stablizing the supply of natural recoures in Korea.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          금융자유화와 일본의 금융개혁

          김용복(Kim Yong-Bok) 21세기정치학회 2003 21세기 정치학회보 Vol.13 No.2

          일본경제의 고도성장을 이끌었던 일본형 금융시스템이 금융자유화의 진전과 거품경제의 붕괴를 통해서 그 취약성이 드러나고, 급기야 금융위기로 진전되어 일본경제의 발목을 잡고 있다. 1980년대이후 본격적으로 주어진 금융자유화 압력은 일본형 금융시스템의 유지를 어렵게 만들었다. 그렇지만 금융산업의 보호라는 산업정책적 고려에 의해 금융개혁은 지체되었고, 거품경제의 붕괴로 인하여 대량의 부실채권이 발생함으로써 금융의 취약성은 부각되었다. 첫째, 1980년대이후 금융자유화는 기존의 금융기득권세력에 의해 반응적인 입장에서, 점진적이고 통제되어 추진되었다. 이는 기존 금융시스템의 점진적 보완을 의미하는 것이었다. 둘째, 통제된 금융자유화는 이후 금융위기의 심화로 인하여 정책결정자들의 선호변경을 낳았으며 정치가의 개입은 불가피하였다. 이에 따라 1996년 금융빅뱅과 1998년 금융시스템법의 성립으로 금융자유화는 급진전되었다. 그러나 경기침체에 따른 불량채권의 처리지연은 경기회복을 더디게 하고 있다. 셋째, 일본의 금융불안 및 금융위기는 금융자유화가 진전되지 못하였기 때문이라거나, 금융자유화때문이라고 보는 것은 적절하지 않다. 기업의 금융구조변화에 따른 은행들의 투자행위가 투기화되면서 이를 규율할 수 있는 메카니즘이 형성되지 못한데에 그 원인이 있다. Japanese Financial system which contributed to Japanese miracle has been confronted with the financial liberalization pressure, and increased its vulnerability after the collapse of Bubble economy. In the 1980s domestic and international pressures led to a gradual reform in Japanese financial system. Especially the United States was applying heavy pressure on Japan to open its financial market. Financial liberalization in Japan was dependent on bureaucrat initiative during 1980s. However the politician began to intervene the financial liberalization policy after the financial crisis of 1997 and the financial reforms including the financial Big Bang and the resolution of bad-loan was implemented radically. Consequently liberalization in Japan was a more protracted process. Theses characteristics of financial liberalization and the bad-loan problem led to the 1997 financial crisis.

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