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Objectives : The purpose of this study is to prove the effect and mechanism of Gamikyejakjimogawusul-tang(GKHA) herbal acupuncture on induced rheumatoid arthritis model of DBA/1 mice. Methods : We check effect of GKHA extract on the AST, ALT, Creatinine, BUN of serum and cell viability of GK extract in RAW 264.7 cells to test the stability of this study. In vitro, we measure total phenol contents, total flavonoid contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ABTS cation radical scavenging activity of Gamikyejakjimogawusul-tang, effect of GK extract on ROS(Reactive Ooxygen Species) production to estimate a anti-oxidant capacity, and we also measure effect of GK extract on NO (Nitric Oxid), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, MCP-1, GM-CSF production in RAW 264.7 cells to estimate a anti-inflammatory efficacy. In vivo, we compare a rheumatoid arthritis manifestation between control and experimental group and estimate a AI. Then we check effect of GKHA on the level of WBC, neutrophil, lympocyte, monocyte in the blood to see the effect of immune cells in blood. In addition we measure effect of GKHA on the level of hs-CRP, IgM, IgG, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, MCP-1, GM-CSF in serum. We observe effects of GKHA on imaging of cartilage degeneration using micro CT-arthrography in paw hind. And we calculate effects of GKHA that reduced BV ratio, BS/BV ratio using 3D Micro-CT. Lastly we observe effects of GKHA histopathologic examination analysis. Results : 1. The toxicity on liver and kidney was disregardable and the cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells was also disregardable. < In vitro > 1. Total phenol contents and total flavonoid contents in GK extract were in high level. 2. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and ABTS cation radical scavenging activity were increased according to concentration of GK extract 3. ROS production was significantly decreased in GK extract (at 10, 100 ㎍/ml). 4. NO, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1 production were significantly decreased in GK extract(at 10, 100 ㎍/ml). IL-17, GM-CSF production were significantly decreased in GK extract(at 1, 10, 100 ㎍/ml). IL-1β, IL-21 production were also decreased but there was no statistical significance. 5. 25x observation after H&E and M-T staining, infiltration of immune cells and subsidence of the cartilage and damage to the synovial cells were decreased. Conclusions : This study showed that GKHA extract had anti-oxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory efficacy. GKHA extract also had inhibiting effect on the process of rheumatoid arthritis and can protect joint and cartilage. So we expect that GKHA extract can be a meaningful treatment to rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the inflammatory-control effects of Cheonghyeol-antidote complex(Lonicera japonica Thunberg, Forsythia viridissima Lindley, and Taraxacum platycarpum H. Dahlstedt complex, CHA) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell and mouse inflammation models. Method : For in vitro and in vivo experiment, Indicators such as cell viability, mRNA expression level(iNOS, IL-6, IL-1β, COX-2, TNF-a), Inflammatory factor production(NO, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-a), and protein phosphorylation level(ERK, JNK, p38) were analyzed. For in vivo experiment, Indicators such as mRNA expression level(iNOS, IL-6, IL-1β, COX-2, TNF-a), Inflammatory factor production(IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-a), protein phosphorylation level(ERK, JNK, p38) and immune cell(white blood cell, lymphocyte) were analyzed. Results : 1. In vitro experiment In cell viability of CHA, CHA showed cell viability below 90% at concentrations of 400 μg / ml or more. In mRNA expression level, IL-6 and IL-1β showed a significant decrease at all concentrations except 25 μg / ml concentration, and iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-a showed a significant decrease at all concentrations of CHA compared to the control group. In inflammatory factor production, NO and TNF-a showed a significant decrease at all concentrations except 25 μg / ml concentration of CHA, and IL-1β showed a significant decrease at 100, 200 μg / ml concentration of CHA compared to the control group. IL-6 showed a significant decrease at all concentration of CHA compared to the control group. In protein phosphorylation level, ERK and p38 showed a significant decrease at all concentrations except 25 μg / ml concentration of CHA and JNK showed a significant decrease at all concentrations of CHA compared to control group. 2. In vivo experiment In mRNA expression level, iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-a showed a significant decrease in all administration groups of CHA compared to the control group. In Inflammatory factor production, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-a showed a significant decrease in all the administration groups of CHA. In protein phosphorylation level, ERK, JNK, and p38 showed a significant decrease in all the administration groups of CHA. In the immune cells, leukocytes and lymphocytes showed a significant decrease in all the administration groups of CHA. Conclusions : This study shows that CHA has antioxidant and inflammatory-control effects on LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. It is hoped that further research will be conducted on the individual mechanisms of Lonicera japonica Thunberg, Forsythia viridissima Lindley, and Taraxacum platycarpum H. Dahlstedt.
결과적으로 본 연구에서 서로 다른 두 집단(RTG, ATG)의 비교시 저항성 트레이닝 집단(RTG)보다 유산소 트레이닝 집단(ATG)에서 산화질소(NO) 농도가 더 높게 나타났으며, 이는 지속적인 유산소 형태의 트레이닝이 간헐적인 저항성 형태의 트레이닝 보다 더 많은 산화질소(NO)가 생성 된다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 또한 심박수(HR)와 혈압(BP), 평균동맵압(MAP)의 감소에도 저항성 트레이닝(RT)보다는 유산소 트레이닝(AT)이 효과적이라는 것을 알 수 있었다. 그러나 유산소 트레이닝(AT)에 비해 저항성 트레이닝(RT)에서 유의하진 않았지만 산화질소(NO) 농도가 증가된 것은 주목할 만한 결과이다. 이러한 결과로 볼 때, 단기간일 지라도 혈관이완 및 자율신경계 도움을 줄 수 있는 것은 유산소 트레이닝(AT) 임을 알 수 있었고 이는 일반적으로 운동을 선택할 시(근력과 근비대를 제외한 운동) 도움을 줄 수 있다고 사료된다. 또한 추후 연구에서는 12주 이상의 장기간의 트레이닝을 통해 저항성 트레이닝(RT)이 혈관이완의 직접적인 척도인 산화질소(NO) 농도에 관한 연구가 필요시 된다. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training on nitric oxide (NO) levels, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) in college students. 5 subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental groups; an aerobic training group (ATG) and a resistance training group (RTG). In aerobic training, based on measured maximum oxygen consumption rate, 70% exercise intensity was applied and conducted for 60 min. In resistance training, 70% of 1-RM was performed for 90 min. Blood sampling was conducted 3 times during resting state, post-exercise, and after 30 minutes of recovery. The results are as followed. For the post training values of VO2max, % body fat and MAP, there were significant differences in the ATG compared to pre training (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in the RTG between pre and post training. NO increased post training , during rest and at the end of exercise compared to pre training in the ATG (p<0.05). Also, the HR decreased in post training at the end of exercise (p<0.05), however, there were no significant differences in SBP and DBP between pre and post training in the ATG. The HR, SBP and DBP did not change at all in post training compared to pre training in the RTG. In conclusion, an increase in the production of Nitric Oxide (NO) concentration and VO2max, decrease of body fat% and physiological variables (HR, BP, MAP) were shown to be more effective in aerobic training (AT) than resistance training (RT).
Background: Lung functions in asthmatics may depend on various factors: reversible airway obstruction, irreversible airway obstruction associated with airway remodeling, more rapid decline in lung functions than non-asthmatics, and medication effect on decline in lung functions. This study aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in lung functions in adult asthmatics. Methods: Fifty-one adult asthmatics were included in the study. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Lung functions were obtained at baseline, and visits 1, 2, 3 and 4, with intervals of 10∼15 months. Asthmatics were classified into those with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)≥80% predicted (normal lung function) and those with FEV1<80% (decreased lung function) in reference to baseline lung functions. Results: Annual decline rates of FEV1 were ?12.4±10.1 mL/yr in all asthmatics, ?25.9±12.6 mL/yr in asthmatics with normal lung functions, and 14.7±13.8 mL/yr in asthmatics with decreased lung functions. FEV1 did not significantly change at visits 1, 2, 3 and 4 compared to the baseline value in all asthmatics and asthmatics with normal or decreased lung functions. FEV1 values at visits 1, 2, 3, and 4 decreased only in 8.3%∼ 18.2% of asthmatics with normal lung functions and normalized only in 16.7%∼30% of asthmatics with decreased lung functions. Conclusion: In adult asthmatics treated with medications, irreversible airway obstruction may not occur in those with normal lung functions, while reduced functions may not normalize in those with decreased lung functions, in whom airway remodeling may have occurred early in the disease state. (Korean J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;32: 34-42)
김영일 ( Young Il Kim ), 지수영 ( Su Young Chi ), 반희정 ( Hee Jung Ban ), 주진영 ( Jin Yung Ju ), 권용수 ( Yong Soo Kwon ), 오인재 ( In Jae Oh ), 김규식 ( Kyu Sik Kim ), 김유일 ( Yu Il Kim ), 김영철 ( Young Chul Kim ), 임성철 ( Sung Chul ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2008 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.65 No.5
객혈의 원인은 다양하고, 원인을 찾기 위해 침습적인 검사를 포함하여 여러 검사를 필요로 하는 경우가 있다. 인위성 객혈은 환자가 의도적으로 객혈을 만들어 내는 매우 드문 임상증상으로 간과되기 쉽다. 객혈 원인을 찾기 위한 여러 검사에서 특별한 이상소견이 없을 경우에는 인위성 객혈을 감별 진단해야 한다. 특히 본 증례와 같이 반복적인 객혈 호소와 극단적이고 이상한 임상 양상이나 보기 드문 행동을 하는 경우에는 인위성 객혈을 의심해 보아야 한다. Factitious hemoptysis is the bleeding type of Munchausen`s syndrome, and this describes a group of patients who intentionally produce symptoms. Because factitious hemoptysis is a very rare manifestation of hemoptysis, it generally passes unnoticed. We report here on a case of factitious hemoptysis in a 15-year-old boy who presented with hemoptysis. During his three hospitalizations, we conducted many diagnostic procedures, including chest CT, laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy and bronchial arteriography, yet we failed to find the definitive cause of the patient`s hemoptysis. He kept on complaining of repetitive hemoptysis and seizure-like activity. His father discovered that he had collected his blood into the specimen cup via an intravenous line. After we removed the intravenous line, he did not show blood to us again. We suggest that factitious hemoptysis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemoptysis of an unclear bleeding focus, and especially when the patient has a bizarre hospital course or unusual behavior. We also include a review of the relevant literature. (Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;65:396-399)
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the Asthma-suppressive and Immuno-regulatory effect of AF-HA(Aristolochiae Fructus Herbal-acupuncture) at Joksamni(St36) in OVA(ovalbumin)-induced asthma mouse model. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA(ovalbumin) for 12 weeks(once a week). The mice in the OVA-AF-HA group were treated with AF-HA at St36 for the later 8 weeks(3times/week). The mice in the OVA-Needle-Prick group were treated with single prick with an injection needle at St36 for the later 8 weeks(3times/week). Results: 1. The lung weight and the total cells in lung of the mice treated with AF-HA at St36 decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA-control group. 2. Total Leukocytes and eosinophils in BALF of the mice group treated with AF-HA at St36 decreased remarkably compared with those of the OVA-control group. 3. The collagen accumulation in lung of OVA-AF-HA group decreased significantly compared with that of the OVA-control group. 4. The concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, IgE in BALF, and IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 in serum of the mice group treated with AF-HA at St36 decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA-control group. 5. The numbers of Gr-1+/CD11b+ and CD11b+ cells in lung of the mice group treated with AF-HA at St36 decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA-control group. 6. The numbers of CCR3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD3e+/CD69+ cells in lung of the mice group treated with AF-HA at St36 decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA-control group. 7. The mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 in lung of the mice group treated with AF-HA at St36 decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA-control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Aristolochiae Fructus Herbal-acupuncture at Joksamni(St36) may be an effictive therapeutic method to treat asthma.
Background: Severity of allergic reactions to bee venoms may depend on the degree of previous sting reactions. Tests for venom-specific IgE antibodies are frequently positive in patients with allergic sting reactions. Objective: We studied the clinical significance of preceding reactions and serum-specific IgE antibodies in patients with bee sting anaphylaxis. Method: Nine patients with bee sting anaphylaxis were included. Details in the current anaphylaxis and previous reactions were retrospectively obtained. Venom-specific IgE antibodies were measured by using ImmunoCAP in 6 patients. Result: Seven (78%) of 9 patients had preceding reactions. Details in the reactions were available in 5 patients who were stung by the same bee or family as the current stings. Four (80%) patients of these 5 patients had experienced only large local reactions or systemic cutaneous reactions from the preceding stings. With regard to specific IgE antibodies, 2 (33%) of the 6 patients were negative for the same venoms as in the preceding stings. Conclusion: Bee venom-induced anaphylaxis can occur although preceding reactions are local or mild systemic ones. Tests for venom-specific IgE antibodies can be negative patients with bee sting anaphylaxis. (Korean J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;30:202-208)