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Der koreanische Dichter Hyon-seung Kim bekennt sich zu einem erheblichen Einfluß Rilkes auf seine Weltanschauung, insbesondere wegen Rilkes ernsthafter Haltung gegenu¨ber Leben und Kunst. In diesem Zusammenhang steht Kim unter dem starken Einfluß von Rilkes fru¨hen Werken wie Das Stunden-Buch und Das Buch der Bilder. Diese Werke behandeln wichtige Themen, die auch bei Kim ihren Niederschlag finden, das heißt Gott, Einsamkeit und Dichtung. Die Haltung des lyrischen Ichs bei Kim ist der Geba¨rde des lyrischen Ichs in Das Stunden-Buch sehr a¨hnlich. Der russische Mo¨nch in Rilkes Werk spricht aufs Knie fallend vor Gott Gebete, malt Ikonen und schreibt daru¨ber hinaus Verse. Diese fromme Haltung pra¨gt auch die des lyrischen Ich bei Kim. Ferner besteht große A¨hnlichkeit zwischen beiden Dichtern darin, dass die beiden in ihrer fru¨hen Zeit durch Gebet, also aus der Sehnsucht nach Gott, Verse schaffen. Man kann niemals bei Kim von der Einsamkeit im Herbst als literarischer Kulisse sprechen, ohne sich as Rilkes 「Herbsttag」zu erinnem. Trotzdem konnte Kim abda¨mmend gegen Rilkes Einfluß seine eigene Welt dadurch bewahren, dass er an der ihm eigentu¨mlichen Einsamkeit festha¨lt. Sein literarischer Verdienst findet sich dort, wo er mit Hilfe der Dinge und Ausdru¨cke solider Art seine existentielle Einsamkeit zu einem reinen poetischen Thema hat reifen lassen. Kims fester Glaube an die reine Einsamkeit entsprang seit Mitte der 1960er Jahre aus dem Mißtrauen gegen die christliche Gottheit und die fro¨mmelnden Christen. Unter diesen Umsta¨nden hatte er keinen anderen Weg, als nur auf das selbsta¨ndige Ich angewiesen zu sein. Zugleich hat er, wie seine Gedichte 「Absolute Einsamkeit」 und 「Solide Einsamkeit」zeigen, seine Einsamkeit positiv verarbeitet und ihr so einen Sin gegebenletzten Endes zu einer Ewigkeit, anders als Rilke, der auf jeden Fall seine Einsamkeit nur als Vorraussetzung fu¨r das Dichten betrachtet hat. Gerade hier hebt sich die originelle Seite der Einsamkeit von Kim gegen Rilke ab. In Hinsicht der sprachlichen Behandlung grenzen Kims Gedichte der absoluten Einsamkeit an Rilkes Dinggedichte in Neue Gedichte . Dieses Resultat ergibt sich daher, dass Kim seine dichterische Sprache wie ein Steinmetz meißelt, so dass er seine bloße Idee mit den soliden Ausdru¨cken bekleidet. Und dass Kim auf der Suche nach poetisch solider Gestaltung immer wieder auf sprachliche Pra¨chtigkeit und gefu¨hlvolles Pathos verzichtet hat, also dass er nach der "Poetischen Nu¨chternheit" gestrebt hat, bringt ihn noch mehr in die Na¨ch von Rilkes Dinggedichten. Aber Kim kehrte endgu¨ltig zu dem christlichen zuru¨ck, nachdem er Bluthochdruck erlitten hatte. Nach diesem Zwischenfall bereute er, dass er bisher - Gott aus dem Blick verlierend - zu dichterisch geneigt war. Natu¨rlich kann man auch in der literarischen Phase, wo er nur die absolute Einsamkeit verfolgt hatte, eine grundlegende Haltung mit Pra¨gung durch das christliche Ethos finden, Dies bedeutet, dass zu ihm die Einsamkeit eine Art Religion war. Also war seine Einsamkeit ein Prozess des christlichen Selbsterwachens. Wenn man die Tatsache in Betracht zieht, dass fu¨r ihn der Prozess der Einsamkeit eine Forsetzung des Dichtens war, so scheint seine Einamkeit ihr eigenes literarisches Dasein gefu¨hrt, moderne menschliche Bedingungen untersucht, und dadurch fu¨hlten sie sich menschlich gesteigert.
In North Korea, the cinema is method to teach the masses. Especially, Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il thought that the cinema was produced in a breeze. Because the cinema moved the majority of the masses to sympathize with the emotions. In 1970s, the Kim administration was stabilized therefore Kim Jong-Il made many concrete policies about the cinema. That is to say, the North Korean cinema was formalized by Kim Jong-Il`s instruction during that time. In 1973, Kim Jong-Il published 『On the Art of Cinema』, The book was a 332-page treatise on how to act, film, direct, edit and score a movie. Aimed at North Koreans, the book had its share of stupefying ideas but also some legitimate tenets and some beliefs that might be shared by a film critic. By constitution, North korea`s all movies was influenced by the book hence understanding the book was important. It made comprehending North Korean cinema possible. In 1970s, the juche ideology was organized well and constitutional law was made public at least. So Kim Jong-Il started effort for acquiring a position of successor earnestly. He developed the concept of the `Revolutionary View of the Leader` into a more theoretical and systemized form by presenting the `Theory of the Immortal(Socio)-Political Body`. It says the Suryong. Moreover he completed Kim Il Sungism. According to the book, Kim Jong-Il claimed that all movies in North Korea was produced by juche ideology inclusive of Suryong-non and Kim Il Sungism. Then the movies on the basis of the book had a few keynotes. There were the same subjects repeatedly, standardization, narration, excessive expressions. These problems brought on deterioration in quality of North Korean cinema.
본 논문은 소설가 김광주의 회고를 통해 1930년대의 상해 한인사회에 대해 살펴보았다. 김광주는 1929년 상해로 이주한 이래 중일전쟁이 일어난 1937년 피신까지 약 10년 동안 상해 한인사회의 다양한 인물들을 만나고 항일운동과 함께 문화 활동을 펼쳤다. 이를 통해 1930년대 상해에서의 김광주는 영화계의 젊은 신진 감독을 비롯해 연극계의 다양한 문화예술가들과 교유하였음을 알 수 있다. ``일제의 지배가 싫은 젊은 세대``인 자유로운 문화예술가들과의 교류와 ``보헤미안극사`` 활동을 통해 그는 시, 꽁트, 연극, 영화 등에서 다양한 체험을 하게 되었다. 물론 그 바탕에는 1930년대 상해 한인 민족운동을 이끌고 있던 김구·안창호·김두봉 등 지도자들 후원이 컸다. 더욱이 남화연맹에서 활동한 아나키스트들과의 교류는 그의 항일 민족정서와 함께 자유정신을 키우는데 큰 영향을 끼쳤다. 특히 해방이후 상해체험을 회상하는 그의 작품의 대부분이 나라를 위해 싸우다 죽거나 방랑생활을 하다 귀국하지 못한 동지들에 대한 그리움이 한 축을 이루고 있다는 점에서, 상해체험이 그의 작품 활동에 미친 영향은 매우 컸다. This paper discussed the Korean community in China Shanghai in the 1930s by the novelist Kim Gwang-ju`s recalls. Kim Gwang-ju is a refuge for about 10 years until the 1937 war took place while since moved to Shanghai in 1929 to meet the various figures of the Korean community in Shanghai unfolded cultural activities with the anti-Japanese movement. Even though his shanghai settlement and time of refuge records are seem to inaccurate, but it is a relatively considered as a objective and analytic memoir of his experience. Through this we can know that Kim Gwang-ju associated with the young director of movies, including the various cultural artists of theatrical world in 1930s Shanghai. Through the interchange with "the young generation of unconstrained cultural artists who do not want the Japanese domination" and the activity of "Bohemian Theater Company", he had various experience in poem, conte, play and movie. Of course, theses are based on the great support of leaders such as Kim-Gu, Ahn-Changho and Kim Du-bong who led the Korean Independent Movement in Shanghai. Furthermore, the interchange with anarchists who were active in the ``Namhwa-Federation`` has had a big impact to raise his nationalistic emotion and the spirit of freedom. From the perspective of the Korean modern national movement, the research of Kim Gwang-ju`s life first, additional research materials for his family, especially elder brother Kim Dong-joo is very necessary. Kim Dong-joo is a secret help sponsor of activities of the Anti-Japanese independence fighters in Manchuria, as well as a important person who connected with an agents of a Provisional Government. His life was believed to be the future of course, also we need to study in depth the role and position of the personal hospital. Secondly, it is necessary to examine the local shelter, etc. Activity of Kim Gwang-ju activities in Shanghai. In other words, while Kim Gwang-ju live a long time is needed for local excavations and historical research, such as the Activity where many literary works written by the school and toughness. This is expected to find signs of shanghai, including Kim Gwang-ju Korean culture, artists in the 1930s who exchanges with him.
This article attempts to explore some autobiographical elements in the three novels written by Richard E. Kim: The Martyred (1964), The Innocent (1968), and Lost Names (1970). A diaspora writer, Kim finds his subject matter in the major historical events of Korea. In his first internationally acclaimed novel, Kim draws much on some incidents in his own personal and family history; its protagonist the Reverend Shin, for example, is modelled on his maternal grandfather, the Reverend Hak Bong Lee, who were not only persecuted but also executed by the North Korean Communists. Kim's active involvement with the Korean Army as a liaison officer during the Korean War, as well as the military coup detat led by General Park in 1961, provide material for his second novel. In the third novel, Kim borrows the characters, incidents and settings not only from his family history but Korean history as well. His own childhood experiences under the Japanese colonial occupation and the strong nationalist sentiments of his father, play a pivotal role in the third and last novel. At his best, however, Kim explores universal themes that are far beyond geographical as well as temporal limitations.
In the beginning of the Korean modern literature since 1910's, Kim Eok played a crucial role as a translator for foreign literature and theory. During the acceptance of foreign literature, Kim realized the importance of translation and he is considered an intellectual who, as opposed to other contemporary translators, performed a bulk of translations from various countries. He was in the lead of balancing content and form, reforming he literary circles of translation in which there was abundance of arbitrary interpretations and content-concentrated translations. However, Kim Eok's translated works have been devalued by reason of erroneous and liberal translation of original works and inapt understanding. Researchers generally examine original and translated texts in tandem, after which they point out problems of the translations and attribute them to the translators' lack of capacity. The study of this paper presupposes that in-depth understanding of translated texts can be carried out only when the theory and practice of translation go in parallel. It argues that the negative evaluation for Kim's translations can be reconsidered through the study of theory. Kim argued for 'creative liberal translation,' and this paper investigates the formation and characteristics of this standpoint. This paper particularly looks into how symbolism, which Kim embraced, influenced Kim's view on translation. The acceptance of symbolism and the theory of translation are discussed in regard to the theory of translation maintained by Bejamin, a German literary critic who lived around the same time, in his book The Task of the Translator. The paper also examines Kim Eok's theory of translation in the sense that the act of translating foreign languages expands and deepens a mother tongue, which provides an opportunity to form and develop the self-identity. Kim's viewpoint on translation, which searches for the nature of poems, found modern poetic language for the Korean poetry, which was possible due to his exploration into language that represents this nature. Translating the western poems in the initial stage of modern literature implies admission and conveyance of heterogeneous culture, beyond simple written text, and creation of new culture. Kim Eok's translated works shows the creativity of cultural translation that is generated at the intersection of internal and external cultures. The literary world after 1920's, via translations, could realize the identity of modern literature by means of dialogue with others, i.e. dialogue between tradition and the West. Furthermore, it could have a foundation in creation of new culture. Along these lines of modern literature, Kim Eok's theory of translation presented ‘creative liberal translation' and ‘creative translation' as the task and direction for those who do the translation, including himself. It was an aspect of cultural action that Kim's theory evidently showed through translation.
This study is to examine 'Modernity' shown in Kim Gyu-dong's poetics in the 1950s and to clarify its direction. Especially, starting from similarities between Kim Gyu-dong's poetics and Kim Gi-rim's early poetics, this paper considers how his desire worked for the world literature in his poetics. Kim Gyu-dong's poetics is very similar to Kim Gi-rim's early poetics composed in the middle and late 1930s, in that his poetics established directivity in terms of the Western modern literature, but there are some differences found between them. Thus, this paper attempted to consider how the differences composed his poetics, while ultimately investigating the planning of literary coteries of 'Hubangi (the second half of the year)' in the 1950s, who agonized over the Korean literature in the magnetic field of the world literature. In Kim Gyu-dong's poetics in the 1950s, the literature of 'Modern Times' and 'Modern Times' introduced the Western modern styles and modes, while the premodern literature became prominent with the poetic styles and modes oriental, lyrical and melodious. His poetics was ver similar to Kim Gi-rim's early poetics in such an aspect, but there was a large difference left between them that his poetics didn't introduce the enjoyment of literature, which Kim Gi-rim recognized, and its possibility of literature as well. Moreover, since it didn't introduce the possibility of embracing literature, Kim Gyu-dong's poetics could advance into the world literature as literature for a few intellectuals, rather than as the Korean literature in a specific historical context called the South Korean society right after the Korean War. Nevertheless, as the contemporary Korean literature he introduced within the world literature could not reject the specific historical context as well, it came to be confronted with limitations. In other words, he desired the Korean literature to be within the world literature, but due to such a desire, the characteristics of the Korean literature ended up being ignored in a specific circumstance like Korea in the 1950s. That is, the reason why his 'Modernity' went blank can be explained with the results of his inferior complex for the world literature unlike Kim Gi-rim's 'Modern Times' and his overwhelming desire to situate the Korean literature within the world literature. Furthermore, such a case as Kim Gyu-dong's shows one of the aspects of imagination for the Korean literature within the world literature, which modernists might have had right after the Korean War.
Kyun Jin Kim is one of very important modem theologians in Korea. He was president of Korean society of systematic theology and is now president of Korean society for Karl Barth's theology. He has served more than 30 years as professor of systematic theology at Yonsei university. He has made a big impact on Korean theology. I. Kyun Jin Kim' theological characteristics 1. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a theology of the kingdom of God. Although soul salvation plays a big role in Kim' theology, the kingdom of God is the core of his theology. He has written his doctrine of systematic theology in the light of the kingdom of God. It is the purpose of his theology to establish the kingdom of God on the earth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim' theology is a messianic theology. According to Kim, it is important to know that Christ was the messiah. Kim denies that the concept messiah is interpreted only spiritually. He can be a political messiah, although he doesn't want to rule the world with coercive power. He is the messiah who saves not only our souls, but also the world and the earth. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a holistic theology. He is not interested in a biased theology. He loves holistic theological view. According to Kim, Korean Min Jung theology lacks this holistic view, although it shows us very important field to establish the kingdom of God. Ⅱ. Kyun Jin Kim's theological contributions 1. Kyun Jin Kim's first theological contribution to Korean theology is his five books of systematic theology. He accomplished his doctrine of systematic theology. His five books of systematic theology can be valued in Korean like Church Dogmatics of Karl Barth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is very academic. His theology is a very high level theology which can compete with european theologies. It is important to know that european theologians should learn from his theology. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's third theological contribution is his translation of many books of J. Moltmann. He translated into Korean the crucified God, Trinity and Kingdom of God, the Way of Jesus Christ, Sprit of life, the coming God etc. 4. Kyun Jin Kim's forth theological contribution is his contribution to the theology of life. He develops a very high level theology of life in Korea.
Kim Su-yeon (1405-1455), who is from Naju, South Jeolla Province, made a contribution of Northern settlement during the reign of King Sejong. Kim Tak, a great-grandfather of Kim Su-yeon, retired to the countryside, in Naju due to the establishment of the new Joseon dynasty. There he began the Sijungtakpa branch of the Gimhae Kim clan. While Kim Su-yeon worked as a military officer in the early part of the reign of King Sejong, he took the alseongsi examination in military science in September 1434 (16th year of the Sejong era). He excelled in military arts and in the classics, finishing in first place, showing his dual capacity in literature and war. The scarlet certification, or hongpae (issued by royal edict to such qualifiers at the time), is still maintained by his descendants today. This material is extremely rare and carries immense significance. It also works as an aid in understanding the Gyeongguk Daejeon (Great Book of State Service), the tasks of old bureaucrats and royal seals and so forth. Immediately after passing, Kim was selected to be Choi Yun-deok's official of the army. In January of 1435 (17th year of Sejong's reign), 2,700 Jurchen cavalry soldiers invaded Yeoyeon fortress. Kim successfully defended the castle, subsequently led a squad of crack troops and successfully pursuing enemy forces without being caught in any ambushes. In 1438, while working under Kim Jong-seo in the 6 jin (outposts) area, Kim Su-yeon ruled over the Gyeong-heung area. In 1443, High General Kim Su-yeon won acclaim for meritorious deeds in the Battle of Bocheong Riverbanks (Bocheong-po) at Jongseong. In August 1455 (first year of Sejo), while in charge of frontier areas as a commanding general, Kim met his fate. As an adept student and capable officer, Kim Su-yeon readily passed the national examinations, going on to work in the North and Northeast, at the Sagun-Yukjin area(literally, “four counties, six outposts”). Kim, working with Choi Yun-deok and Kim Jong-seo, was instrumental in implementing King Sejong's plan for the settlement of the North. Further studies of their work and that of other officers and generals bureaucrats are hoped to yield yet more concrete details on the implementation of the Northern Settlement Campaign.
1. Introduction A discussion on Korean film aesthetics has to be made centering on the identity of Korean film. The reason is that to discuss Korean film aesthetics is to find out the difference between Korean film aesthetics and foreign one and, furthermore, to create the originality of Korean film for the differentiation. To discuss the films of a country is to examine the spiritual and cultural value systems which the films have kept throughout the film history of the country. For the past seventy years or so, Korean film had a hard time, which prevented it from establishing its spiritual and cultural value systems. Examining the historical background of Korean film, we can find it was originated from foreign culture which was imported with other genres of modem culture from the West. Unlike other genres such as literature, music, fine arts and the theatre, the cinema was not produced soon after being imported. So, the history of Korean film-making is shorter than that of presentation. In the early days of modernizing our culture, we accepted and transplanted modem culture to ours through the imitation of foreign culture. As for the cinema, the spiritual and cultural transplantation was made only through the appreciation of foreign films. Korean film-making started poorly due to lack of capital, but was in active cooperation with other contiguous genres of culture. For a kino-drama(a screen-and-stage play), the cinema was a supporter of the theater. In the silent picture days, it depended on literature, in that traditional stories of ancient times provided the cinema with its peculiar forms and affluent contents. Many of the works of Nah, Woon-kyu, a pillar of the Korean film circle in the early days, were related to literary works. After that, Korean film accomplished a great development in terms of technology, but the simplicity of dramatic plot led to the poor content. As poorly circumstanced for the perfect accomplishment of the beauty of form, we needed to strengthen the content, but, our realities were not good enough. The audience were indifferent to the beauty of form of a film. They were swayed by its story. As goods, a film was an object of entertainment, and a means to public relations or propaganda. Controlled by capital and the masses, the cinema is inevitably restricted by social circumstances and the level of the masses. In spite of all, however, we have to realize that the cinema is a genre of culture and arts. In short, Korean film has to show the cultural and spiritual identities of Korean people in consideration of all problems related to capital and technology in our realities. For that reason, a discussion on Korean film aesthetics has to start from the questions which films were manufactured and which films will have to be manufactured. 2. The Beginning of Korean Film Aesthetics In the early days, most of the Korean silent pictures were adapted from classical Korean novels or third-rate Japanese novels. Surprisingly, however, film reviews pointed that our classical novels were not fully understood in those days. Then Korean film personalities did not have a good understanding of the manners and customes of the Choson Dynasty Period and the Old Choson Period which they dealt with(a review of Story of Shim-cheong, Maeil Newspaper, Apr. 3, 1925). On the contrary, The Long Regretful Dream, adapted from a Japanese novel, was commented better than poor Korean films(Maeil Newspaper, Mar. 21, 1926). The two works, mentioned above, were made by the same Korean director. Nevertheless, the reviews of them show one with a Korean theme is poorer than the other with a Japanese theme. It is quite meaningful; In the beginning stage of film-making, Korean film personalities neglected our spiritual and cultural identities. Such an attitude is shown in Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang, the starting point of Korean realistic film. As a whole, Arirang is a noteworthy work, in that it depicts the realities of then Korean rural communities. However, excessive exaggeration and unrealistic description break the dramatic harmony. Another problem is that the love scene is not in a Korean style, so distorts the emotion of Korean people(Choson Daily Newspaper, Oct. 1, 1926). After some years, Nah, Woon-kyu wrote that he had tried to express our people's emotion(Samcheonri, Jul. 1930, "Arirang, Society and I"). But he reversed his previous insistence to confess that he 'mimicked a foreign film' in another writing(Choson Film, "When Making Arirang", Nov. 1936). Finally, Nah, Woon-kyu has made a conclusion of Arirang; He says that he feels ashamed of imitating the form and content of foreign films in order to attract the audience's attention although he wanted to express 'the emotion of Korean people'. On the contrary, Lee, Kyu-hwan's The Ferryboat With No Ferryman, a Korean localistic film, was favorably commented by critics that it showed 'a model of Korean populace'(Dong-ah Daily Newspaper, Sep. 15, 1932). It was also criticized for only having conflicts, not struggles(Maeil Newspaper, Sep. 15, 1932). As examined above, Na, Woon-kyu's and Lee, Kyu-hwan's films were evaluated to show relatively well the spirit of Korean film in those days. During the period of Japanese imperialism, most of Korean films were adapted from classical Korean novels and third-rate Japanese novels. In this circumstance, the two directors attempted to establish a true view of Korean film to represent Korean people's feelings. It was the starting point of Korean film aesthetics. The problem is to deduce a film from a printed material, the secondary one, not to examine closely into its form which includes its content by watching the film itself. Let's take Arirang, which is said to try employing the montage technique first in the Korean film history, as an example. It shows the realism of Korean film puts story higher than image. The reason is that montage is a characteristic of anti-realistic films. Accordingly, we can guess that Lee, Kyu-hwan's The Ferryboat With No Ferryman and Choi, In-kyu's A School Fee, which follow the realism shown by Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang, were categorized into literary realism where the content attains superiority over the form. The Korean realistic films are divided into two trends. One of them is KAPF film which urges on 'the films as arms' and whose first work was Wandering (1928) by Kim, Yoo-young. However, as losing amateurism and popularism, it had not been mentioned until popular film appeared in the 1980's. Characterized by popular arts, the films cannot discuss the general theory of film aesthetics which targets a small number of specific groups or film mania. 3. The Tradition of Korean Film Since the birth of Korean film, Korean film aesthetics has been based on realism. As mentioned above, the realism of Korean film pursued the realism of literature, rather than being influenced by foreign realistic films. Above all, Korean film followed critical realism which was discussed actively in literature. So, the spirit of realism in Korean film was controlled by a critical point of view that deals with Korean people's deplorable life and the disadvantaged classes during the period of Japanese imperialism. This point is quite different from the current of foreign film at the same period. German expressionistic film, which depicts the realities from a subjective view-point getting out of naturalism or realism, French experimental film, which emphasizes the visualization of a film giving priority to form over content, and Soviet montage film, which emphasizes content but put more importance on form, developed foreign film while struggling for mastery in film aesthetics. Influenced by critical realism, we established the tradition of Korean realistic film from Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang through Lee, Kyu-hwan's The Ferryboat With No Ferryman and KAPF-style tendency film in the 1930's, Choi, In-kyu's A School Fee in the 1940's and Han, Hyong-mo's Free Madam in the 1950's to Yoo, Hyon-mok's A Aimless Bullet in the 1960's. Such a critical attitude of Korean film has been consistently urged and continued up to the 1990's getting through the 1970's and the 1980's. The tradition of Korean film is critical realism led by Nah, Woon-kyu―Lee, Kyu-hwan―Choi, In-kyu before the Liberation and Yoo, Hyon-mok―Lee, Man-hee―Lee, Jang-ho, Ha, Kil-jong, Kim, Ho-seon―Bae, Chang-ho―Park, Kwang-soo, Chang, Seon-woo after the Liberation. New directors in the 1990's are participating in this line. Kim, Ki-young's expressionistic realism and Kim, Soo-yong's modem-style realism were not recognized properly. Although Yoo, Hyon-mok made noteworthy expressionistic or modem-style films, and Kim, Ki-young and Kim, Soo-yong also made noteworthy critical realistic films, Korean film critical circles neglected them. Here, we need to change our prejudice of regarding critical realism as the only spirit of Korean film and the only attitude for Korean film-making. It is urgent to change our thought to re-establish the tradition of Korean film. First, we have to re-evaluate various works by the leading directors in the 1960's. We have to find that the various identities of the times were represented by such films getting out of critical realism as Shin, Sang-ok's historical drama, The Guest and My Mother(1961), A Red Muffler(1964), and A Thirteen-Year-Old Boy(1974), Hong, Seong-ki's A Star In My Mind(1958), and When Youth Goes Into the Night(1964), Yoo, Hyon-mok's A Spring Dream(1965), The Visitors Coming By the Last Car(1967) and A Door(1977), Kim, Ki-young's A Housemaid(1960) and Hyonhaetan Knows Everything(1961), Kim, Soo-yong's A Dried Corvina Fish (1963), A Fog(1967) and A Night Trip(1977), and Lee, Man-hee's Dial 112 (1962), The Marine Corps That Did not Return(1963) and A Return Trip(1967). We will be able to find out the tradition of Korean film when we investigate with a new critical way of thinking how Korean film perceived and accepted modem images and changes in tradition and modem everyday life, and represented Korean people's feelings for various materials. Now, I suggest that we should re-establish the lineage of Korean film classified into Kim, Soo-yong's modem realism, Yoo, Hyon-mok's critical realism and Kim, Ki-young's expressionistic realism. Such a systemization will be effective in establishing the various branches and trends of Korean film, and understanding its spiritual and cultural identities. It is also useful to get rid of all confusions to systemize Korean film aesthetics. 4. A Study on Korean Film Aesthetics The cinema keeps a closer relationship with the masses than any other arts dealing with the human problems. In any society where men live, there always exist conflicts and oppositions. Realism is preferred in order to settle them. Therefore, it is inevitable that realistic films are loved as social conflicts come up to the surface. The opposed situation is possible, too. The conflict shown in Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang is a story of long times ago. Also, the obstacle which Yoo, Hyon-mok's A Aimless Bullet and Lee, Man-hee's Seven Women Captives could not overcome have been removed. The new age of the 1990's, when Chang, Seon-woo's Send Me To You gains public favor and Im, Sang-soo's Girls' Night Out becomes the talk of all, is closing. With the 21st century coming soon, Korean film aesthetics is confused and exposed to the random invasion of foreign culture. Deplorably, Korean film is poisoned seriously by foreign culture and does nothing but managing to retain its life in film-making itself. It may be meaningless to examine Korean film aesthetics in this circumstance, but we need to grope for the rebirth of Korean film aesthetics by finding again out our spiritual and cultural identities in preparation for film culture of the 21st century. Wagner's theory of arts is still true; The form of total arts does not change, however its style does. The problem of Korean film aesthetics is that changes in the style of films have been influenced by the acceptance of foreign culture, rather than the development of the intrinsic legacy in our tradition. The tradition of Korean culture must be found in mask dance which dealt with common people's joys and sorrows of life, not in aristocratic culture. 'Taedongkut', which was regularly performed with the consciousness of a community, was both a ritual for a good harvest and the peace of a village, and the lower classes' resistance against the ruling classes. Its content was the resistance to the realities and expression was in satiric symbolism. However, the modernization of culture drove out the essence of our traditional drama and developed the dramatic form with only story borrowed. In Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang, the consciousness of resistance is our tradition and the montage technique is a symbolic satire. After Arirang, the base of Korean film aesthetics is generalized into realism which the content conforms to the form. In traditional Korean arts, however, the content is inconsistent with the form. It is influenced by Confucianism, and caused from the modesty and submissiveness of Korean people. Although getting the feel of their deplorable realities with skin desperately and directly, they are satisfied with expressing them in an indirect way. Therefore, it is most suitable for Korean people's emotion that the realistic content is represented in an expressionistic style. But, our reality is the direct opposition. Accepting modern culture, our consciousness started to be westernized. As a result, we pursued the amusing quality, rather than the essential goal of our traditional drama. Moreover, the materialistic function of camera naturally led us to prefer to realistic expression and the critical circles followed blindly the western theories of realistic film to square content and form. At this very point, Korean film aesthetics began to go astray. In case of the films, which cannot accept the consciousness of a community directly unlike performing arts, however, long take, a realistic technique of camera, may be considered. Long take is a way to lead the audience to watch a film actively and the active attitude for film appreciation can enhance the consciousness of a community. So far, I have examined the origins of the Koreans' spiritual and cultural identities, and pointed out the essential problems of Korean film aesthetics. The tradition of Korean film aesthetics, which started from Nah, Woon-kyu's Arirang, led to literary realism, which put superiority on the critical realistic content urged by KAPF film, resisting the conflicts of the times. In the meanwhile, in Yoo, Hyon-mok's A Aimless Bullet, filmic realism putting superiority on the form was introduced from neo-realism. Critical realism continued by Lee, Man-hee, Lee, Jang-ho, Ha, Kil-jong, Kim, Ho-seon, Bae, Chang-ho, Park, Kwang-soo, Chin, Yoo-young, Yeo, Kyun-dong and Kim, Hong-joon has been widened to Kim, Soo-yong's modern realism and Kim, Ki-young's expressionistic realism by Park, Cheol-soo, Chung, Ji-young, Chang, Kil-soo, Chang, Seon-woo, Kwak, Ji-kyun, Shin, Seung-soo, Lee, Myong-se, Park, Jong-won, Kim, Yoo-jin, Kang, Woo-seok and Hong, Sang-soo. In this turmoil, Yim, Kwon-taek has been the mainstay which firmly supports the Korean films. Besides, there are such important films which show Korean images to represent the emotion of Korean people as Bae, Yong-kyun's Why has Bodhi-Dharma Left for the East?, Paek, Il-seong's In a Handful of Time and Lee, Kwang-mo's Spring in My Hometown. We also must not overlook Lee, Jang-ho's The Man with Three Coffins which quite clearly reveals one aspect of our identity through the ideological conflicts in the continuously flowing stream of the traditional spirit. 5. Conclusion Getting through the 1990's, the ideology has clearly changed. The Cold War has closed a long time ago and the ideological conflict between the South Korea and the North Korea is getting soften more and more. Also, the problem of filmic expression conflicting keenly with ideology seeks for changes intrinsic formal aesthetics, getting out of the content-superior age when a film was evaluated only with subject matters and themes. Such a change has to start from the accumulation of the inherent spirit and philosophy in our tradition. The problem is that changes are made by imported culture rather than the legacy intrinsic to our tradition. Reflecting the biased inclination of Korean film to critical realism, I would like to come to the front other streams of Korean film. The language, action, color, fashion and design, which have to keep our emotion, have already been westernized. As the policy for film promotion is bent on making films, our cultural spirit is controlled by capital to become like a losing child of unknown nationality. For this circumstance, we do not know where we can find out Korean spirit and culture however strongly we may try to emphasize them in the films. I strongly insist that it should be problematic to discuss on Korean film aesthetics only with the content and form of the present Korean films. It is desirable to examine ourselves in the past films, which are less contaminated by foreign culture, to re-find to discuss on our film aesthetics. Until that time, we cannot grope for an alternative measure to establish the identity of Korean film aesthetics.
The Theory of Dotong(道統) has reigned The understanding of Confucian history in Choseon Dynasty. Therefore, the existing studies of Kim Going-pil(金宏弼), an Confucian scholar in 15thcentury, has been strongly affected by the Theory of Dotong. This misunderstanding about Kim Going-pil was due to lack of critical apparatus. Recently there are some new researches interpreting the life of Kim Going-pil and his acadmic achivements in different way from the Theory of Dotong. This article is to summary existing studies and seek the way to overcome the Theory of Dotong for understanding Kim Going-pil. The existing studies about Kim Going-pil has called his thought as Moral Philosophy(道學) and called him as the progenitor of Moral Philosophy. However this view has caused the problem of subjectivity. Since the concept of Moral Philosophy had been existed before Kim Going-pil, and it can be interpreted in various ways. Therefore, this article would suggest that his thought should be interpreted in historical context of Moral Philosophy. 『SoHak(小學)』 is one of the most important subject to explain Kim Going-pil`s Moral Philosophy. The point is the difference between his 『SoHak』 and the 『SoHak』 before his study. 『SoHak』 had been emphasized as textbook for KwaGeo(科擧) and for children`s education. In opposition, Kim Going-pil`s 『SoHak』 had no relationship with KwaG대 and he studied 『SoHak』 for his lifetime. 『SoHak』 had so large part of Kim Going-pil`s study that most researches on him leaned toward 『SoHak』. In the result of those biased studies, Kim Going-pil has been seen that he only focused on moral training(修己) instead of governing(治人). But, this article insist of the view that 『SoHak』 and 『DaeHak(大學)』 were connected in his Moral Philosophy organizationally would be appropriate. Kim Going-pil`s personal relations are also useful way to understand his academic and political position in history of Chosun Dynasty. The relationship between Kim Going-pil and Kim Jong-jik(金宗直), his master, is very important part to understand Kim Going-pil. Most researches about them has focused on the differences rather than common ground between them. And the researches have insisted that those differences created conflict. But recent studies has revealed that the conflict between Kim Jong-jik and Kim Going-pil made progress in The Theory of Chulcheo(出處) which is core concept of Neo-Confucianism. Meanwhile, Jo Kwang-jo(趙光祖) has been regarded the only disciple of Kim Going-pil. Besides him, however, there were a few more literary men who had to be noticed. The researches on Kim Going-pil`s literary men are very insufficient. This paper would review advanced researches on Kim Going-pil`s life and studies, and suggest that follow-up studies find out the new meaning of Kim Going-pil in Confucian history of Chosun-Dynasty. 사에 대한 인식은 더욱 그러하며, 15세기 후반기에 활동한 金宏弼에 대한 인식 역시 마찬가지이다. 최근에 김굉필에 대한 역사학계의 연구가 진행되면서 도통론의 영향을 벗어날 수 있는 기초가 마련되었다. 그러나 그 연구의 양은 그리 많지 않다. 자료의 한계라는 근본적인 제약 때문이다. 이글에서는 김굉필에 대한 역사학계의 연구 성과를 정리하면서 그 제약을 넘어설 수 있는 방법을 모색하고자 했다. 김굉필을 연구한 거의 모든 글은 그의 학문을 道學이라고 부르며, 그가 도학을 처음으로 정립한 인물이라고 한다. 그러면서 도학 역시 성리학이라는 범주 속에 포함되며, 김굉필 이전에도 도학이라는 개념이 사용되었다는 사실도 인정한다. 이 문제를 해결하기 위해 이제까지는 주로 도학의 개념을 어떻게 정의할 것인가에 초점을 맞추어왔다. 그러나 먼저 도학의 개념을 규정하고, 이 개념에 맞추어 김굉필의 학문·사상을 이해하는 방법은 한계가 있다. 도학의 개념 규정이 주관적일 수 있는 위험이 항상 있기 때문이다. 이 보다는 15세기에 도학이라는 개념이 다양한 의미로 사용되었다는 사실, 그리고 그 개념이 역사적 변화를 겪었다는 사실을 살피는 것이 우선이다. 그리고 그 변화 속에서 김굉필의 도학을 살피는 것이 바람직해 보인다. 김굉필의 도학에 관한 설명에서 가장 중요하게 취급되는 내용이 『小學』공부이다. 그러나 『小學』을 중시한 것은 이미 성리학 도입 초기부터이다. 따라서 김굉필의 『소학』공부가 그 이전과 어떤 차이가 있는지를 밝혀야 한다. 기왕의 연구를 통해 김굉필 이전의 『소학』은 어린 아이들이 읽어야 하는 책으로, 혹은 과거 시험을 준비하기 위해 읽어야 하는 책으로 강조되었음이 밝혀졌다. 이에 반해 김굉필의 『소학』공부는 과거공부와는 아무런 관련이 없었고, 또 평생의 공부였다는 사실도 밝혀졌다. 그러나 김굉필의 『소학』공부가 그 이전과 다른 점이 이 정도에 그치지는 않는 것 같다. 그 차이를 밝혀나가는 것은 앞으로의 과제이다. 김굉필의 도학에서 『소학』공부가 차지하는 비중이 워낙 커다보니 대부분의 연구는 그 방면에만 관심을 집중하였다. 그 결과 김굉필은 성리학 공부의 두 가지 측면인 修己와 治人 가운데 수기에만 관심을 둔 것처럼 보였다. 그러나 최근 김굉필의 도학에서 『소학』과 『대학』이 유기적으로 연결되어 있다는 연구가 이루어져 그의 학문에 대한 새로운 이해를 기대할 수 있게 되었다. 김굉필에 대한 연구에서 빠지지 않고 거론되는 사실이 그의 스승인 金宗直과의 관계인데, 대부분의 연구는 그 두 사람의 공통점보다는 차이점에 주목한다. 그리하여 학문적 차이나 정치적 견해의 차이 때문에 결국 두 사람이 갈등을 겪게 되었다고 이해한다. 최근의 연구는 이 두 사람의 갈등 속에서 出處論이 정착되어가는 모습을 발견하고 있다. 출처론은 성리학의 이념체계 속에서 핵심적인 내용이다. 그러나 이제까지 이 이념에 대해 주목한 연구는 거의 없다. 성리학 도입 이후 출처론이 어떻게 받아들여졌고, 출처론의 전개 과정 속에서 김굉필의 출처론이 어떤 의미를 갖는지 살피는 것은 앞으로의 과제이다. 김굉필이 조선시대의 유학사에서 차지하는 위치를 설명하기 위해서는 그의 門人에게도 관심을 기울일 필요가 있다. 기왕의 연구는 그의 문인 가운데 趙光祖에게만 관심을 집중하였다. 그 외에 거론되는 문인으로는 김안국 정도를 들 수 있을 뿐이다. 그러나 실제 김굉필의 문인 가운데는 이들 이외에도 중요하게 취급되어야 할 인물들이 있었다. 그들에 대한 연구 역시 앞으로의 과제로 남아있다. 김굉필의 문인과 관련된 또 하나의 문제는 그의 문인으로 거론되는 인물들 가운데 師弟관계를 확인하기 힘든 인물이 있다는 점이다. 특히 김굉필 연구에서 중요한 자료로 취급되는 <寒氷戒>와 관련이 있는 潘佑亨이라는 문인은 자세한 검토가 필요한 인물이다.