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HTTP/l.0과 새로운 HTTP/1.1이 함께 사용됨으로써 단일 HTTP 연결이 단일 사용자 요청을 의미하던 환경에서 연구되었던 웹 서버 부하 분산 정책은 수정이 불가피하게 되었다. HTTP/l.0 환경에서는 사용자의 단일 요청만을 가지고 서버를 할당하였으나, 지속적인 HTTP 연결을 지원하게 되면서 하나의 HTTP 연결을 통해 여러 개의 요청을 서버에게 요구할 수 있으므로, 첫 번째로 도착한 요청 하나만으로는 앞으로 그 HTTP 연결을 통해 전송될 사용자의 요청이 서버의 자원을 얼마나 소비하게 될 것인지 전혀 예상할 수 없게 된다. 본 논문에서는 HTTP/1.1을 효율적으로 지원하는 부하 분산 정책을 제안하고자 한다. 이 정책은 사용자의 첫 번째 요청이 전달되면 그 요청의 내장 객체 정보와 현재 살아있는 HTTP 연결의 에이징(aging)을 고려하여 서버를 선택하는 알고리즘이다. 그리고 디스패처의 잘못된 분산 결정으로 인해 시스템의 성능에 누적되는 악영향을 최소화하기 위한 기법도 제시한다. With HTTP/1.0, a single request means a single HTTP connection so that the granular unit of dispatching is the same as real load. But with persistent HTTP connection, multiple requests may arrive on a single TCP connection. Therefore, a scheme that dispatches load at the granularity of individual requests constrains the feasible dispatching policies In this paper we propose a new connection dispatching polity for supporting HTTP/1.1 persistent connections in cluster-based Web servers. When the request of a base html file arrives, the dispatcher gets the subsequent load arriving on that connection using the embedded objects information. After the dispatcher stores the load information in Load Table, the dispatcher employs the connection aging strategy on live persistent connections on the passage of time. The results of simulation show about $1.7\%\~16.8\%$ improved average response time compared to existing WLC algorithm.
This study conducted to verify the effect of roasting conditions of cacao bean on the quality characteristics and antioxidant effect of cookies using response surface methodology. A central composite design was carried out to optimize roasting conditions which were consisted of two independent variables: roasting time (5~25 min, X₁) and roasting temperature (110~170℃, X₂). The quality characteristics and the antioxidant activity of cookies were measured as dependent variables. In case of quality characteristics of cookies, as the results, the experimental value was increased according to the increasing of degree of roasting in all properties except the moisture content and the density. In addition, it was found that the roasting temperature affected the characteristics rather than the roasting time. The antioxidant effect of cookies also showed higher activity as the roasting degree increased such as by the roasting time and the temperature. It was predicted to be 15.00~22.54 min of roasting time and 140.00~169.65℃ of roasting temperature among the optimum range of roasting conditions selected as the experimental value of baking loss, spread factor and antioxidant activity.
In the paradigm of the modern knowledge and information society, knowledge-based societies focus more on creating value-added through the use of knowledge rather than just establishing and utilizing information. This social change has also marked a new turning point for university libraries. While accommodating an environment that is evolving into a digital society, university libraries need to enhance user accessibility and activate their functions. Currently, the university library seems to be transformed into a digital technology development center in the printing press space due to the diversification of user needs and the development of information technology. As such, the university library is diversified and needs to improve its function. However, most university libraries have not been actively coping with such changes because of budget and manpower shortages. This study is designed to analyze the spatial composition and characteristics of the information sharing space of the university library. Reflecting the changing trend of university libraries, it is meaningful that they are not staying in existing learning spaces but become a central space for university libraries that meet the needs and expectations of users.
본 연구의 목적은 유아교사변인인 행복감, 교직열정, 직무만족도, 교사효능감, 교사-유아 상호작용의 경향을 살펴보고 교사-유아 상호작용에 직·간접적으로 미치는 유아교사의 행복감, 교직열정, 직무만족도, 교사효능감 변인들을 분석하기 위한 것이다. 연구대상은 서울특별시와 6대 광역시에 소재한 만 3~5세 유아교사 420명을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하였다. 유아교사변인들이 교사-유아상호작용에 직·간접적으로 영향을 미치는지를 알아보기 위해 구조방정식모형을 이용하여 경로분석을 실시하였으며 연구결과, 유아교사의 행복감, 교직열정, 직무만족도, 교사효능감 변인 모두 교사-유아 상호작용에 직접적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 특히, 유아교사의 행복감은 교사-유아상호작용에 직접적으로 영향을 미치지만 직무만족도, 교직열정, 교사효능감을 매개변인으로 하여 교사-유아 상호작용에 간접적으로 영향을 미치는 효과가 더 크다고 나타났다. 따라서 교사변인을 증진시킬 수 있는 유아교육기관과 지역사회 및 국가의 정책적 지원이 마련되어야 할 것이며, 무엇보다도 유아교사의 행복감을 증진시킬 수 있는 교육환경과 방안을 강구해야 할 것으로 본다. The purpose of this study was to explore the trends of child teacher variables including happiness, teaching profession passion, job satisfaction, teacher efficacy and teacher-children interaction, and to analyze variables of child teacher’s happiness, teaching profession passion, job satisfaction and teacher efficacy that directly and indirectly affect teacher-children interaction. This study conducted a questionnaire survey on the subjects of 420 child teachers who were in charge of classes for 3 to 5 year old children and performed after-school program located in Seoul and 6 other metropolitan cities. To examine how child teacher variables directly and indirectly affect the interaction between teachers and children, this study conducted path analysis using the Structural Equation Model, and as a result, it is found that all the variables of child teacher’s happiness, teaching profession passion, job satisfaction, teacher efficacy directly affected teacher-children interaction. In particular, it is found that child teacher’s happiness directly affected teacher-children interaction, but that child teacher’s teaching profession passion, job satisfaction and teacher efficacy as parameters indirectly affected teacher-children interaction more. Accordingly, it is necessary to prepare policy support of child education institutions, local community and nation to increase the variable of teacher, and above all, to devise education environment and scheme to promote child teacher`s happiness.
Electric vehicle usage is currently very low, but it will be increase with development of electric vehicle technology and a good government policy. Moreover in 2020, advanced electric vehicle manufacturing system will give high performance for its price and mass production. Electric vehicle will become widespread in Korea. From an operational and a planned viewpoint, the electric power demand should be considered in relation to diffusion of electric vehicles. This paper presents the impact of the various battery charge systems. A comparison is performed for electric vehicle charging methods such as, normal charging, fast charging, and battery swapping. In addition, economic evaluation for the replaceable battery system and the quick battery charging system is performed through basic information about charging Infrastructure installation cost. The results of the evaluation show that replaceable battery system is more economical and reliable in side of electric power demand than quick battery charging system.
Fuzzy linear regression method has been used for short-term load forecasting of the special day in the previous researches. However, considerable load forecasting errors would be occurring if a special day is located on Saturday or Monday. In this paper, a new load forecasting method for the consecutive holidays is proposed with the consideration of the power demand variation rate. In the proposed method, a exponential smoothing model reflecting temperature is used to short-term load forecasting for Sunday during the consecutive holidays and then the loads of the special day during the consecutive holidays is calculated using the hourly power demand variation rate between the previous similar consecutive holidays. The proposed method is tested with 10 cases of the consecutive holidays from 2009 to 2012. Test results show that the average accuracy of the proposed method is improved about 2.96% by comparison with the fuzzy linear regression method.
Accurate midterm load forecasting is essential to preventive maintenance programs and reliable demand supply programs. This paper describes a midterm load forecasting method using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model which has been widely used in time series forecasting due to its accuracy and predictability. The various ARIMA models are examined in order to find the optimal model having minimum error of the midterm load forecasting. The proposed method is applied to forecast 104-week load pattern using the historical data in Korea. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by forecasting 104-week load from 2011 to 2012 by using historical data from 2002 to 2010.
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1. CONTENTS (1) RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to show the relationship between interest rate and exchange rate with successful bid housing auction. (2) RESEARCH METHOD This study was focused on time series analysis. The data for this analysis were collected from the impulse response analysis with causality test. The study includes the data just before and after the 2008 global financial crisis(8 years long). Especially this study used with the correlation between exchange rate, interest rate and successful bid housing auction. (3) RESEARCH FINDINGS In the results of this survey, the most important point is to find out the correlation between interest rate, exchange rate and successful bid housing auction with the data of apartment in Seoul. 2. RESULTS This study offers two alternatives to improve the real estate auction area in Korea, especially in Seoul. 1) If the expectation has been changed in the exchange rate of the real estate auction market investment flows then the yields can be change. 2) The changes in interest rates are also the target to be care of.