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김세창 ( Se Chang Kim ), 박봉주 ( Bong Ju Park ), 김원태 ( Won Tae Kim ), 윤용한 ( Yong Han Yoon ), 조용현 ( Yong Hyeon Cho ), 강희경 ( Hee Kyoung Kang ), 오현경 ( Hyun Kyung Oh ), 신경준 ( Kyung Jun Shin ), 어양준 ( Yang Joon Eo ), 윤택승) 한국환경과학회 2012 한국환경과학회지 Vol.21 No.11
Purpose of this study was to evaluate germination characteristics of soil seed bank in rural stream topsoil using seedling emergence method in order to provide data for future ecological restoration of stream utilizing topsoil. There were 24 families, 52 genera, 61 taxa of soil seed bank flora found in topsoil from 6 rural streams. The most frequently found taxa were Compositae (12 taxa) followed by Gramineae (8 taxa), Caryophyllaceae (5 taxa), Cruciferae (4 taxa), Scrophulariaceae, Labiatae, Polygonaceae and Cyperaceae. Plant with the most number of germination was Stellaria aquatica followed by Erigeron annuus, Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii, Poa annua, Cyperus microiria and Veronica undulata. Naturalized plants found were Erigeron annuus, Rumex crispus, Oenothera odorata, Cerastium glomeratum, Bidens frondosa, Erigeron philadelphicus, etc.
This was an experimental study to evaluate temperature reduction and evapotranspiration of extensive green roof. Three test cells with a dimension of 1.2(W)×1.2(D)×1.0(H) meters were built using 4-inch concrete blocks. Ten-centimeter concrete slab was installed on top of each cell. The first cell was control cell with no green roof installed. The second and third cells were covered with medium-leaf type Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) above a layer of soil. Soil thickness on the second cell was 10cm and that on the third cell was 20cm. Air temperature, relative humidity and solar irradiance were measured using AWS (automatic weather system). Temperature on top surface and ceiling of the control cell and temperature on top surface, below soil and ceiling of green roof cells was measured. Evapotranspiration of the green roof cells were measured using weight changes. Compared with temperature difference on the control cell, temperature difference was greater on green roof cells. Between two green roof cells, the temperature difference was greater on the third cell with a thicker soil layer. Temperature differences below soil and on ceilings of green roof cells were found greater than those of the control cell. Between the green roof cells, there was no difference in the temperature reduction effects below soil and on ceilings based on substrate depth. In summary, green roof was found effective in temperature reduction due to evapotranspiration and shading effect.
본 연구는 돌나물과 한국잔디를 식재한 경량 모듈형 옥상녹화시스템의 온도저감과 열수지를 평가하였다. 식물생육은 초고와 피복율을 측정하였으며, 2012년 8월 2일부터 3일까지 48시간 동안 콘크리트와 옥상녹화 표면, 토양 속, 모듈 하부의 온도와 순복사, 증발산량을 측정하였다. 기온이 34.6°C로 가장 높았던 8월 3일 15:00시의 표면온도는 콘크리트가 57.5°C로 가장 높았으며, 그 다음으로 돌나물 40.1°C, 한국잔디 38.3°C의 순으로 옥상녹화 조성 시 큰 폭으로 온도가 저감되는 것으로 나타났다. 토양 속과 모듈 하부도 옥상녹화에 의한 온도저감 효과가 나타났으며, 한국잔디가 돌나물보다 온도저감 효과가 큰 것으로 나타났다. 콘크리트 표면과 비교하여 옥상녹화 최고 온도는 약 2시간 정도 지연되는 것으로 나타났다. 표면의 온도저감에는 식물종, 기온, 토양수분이 영향을 미치고, 모듈 하부의 온도저감에는 식물종, 기온, 토양수분, 표면온도가 유의하게 영향을 미친것으로 나타났다. 열수지 분석결과, 현열은 콘크리트 표면이 가장 높았으며, 옥상녹화 시 감소하는 경향을 보였으며 잠열은 한국잔디가 돌나물보다 높았다. 따라서 온열환경 개선을 위해서는 한국잔디가 돌나물보다 옥상녹화 적용에 더 효과적임을 알 수 있었다. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temperature reduction and heat budget of extensive modular green roof planted with Sedum sarmentosum and Zoysia japonica. Plant height and green coverage were measured as plant growth. Temperature, net radiation and evapotranspiration of concrete surface, green roof surface, in-soil and bottom were measured from August 2 to August 3, 2012 (48 hours). On 3 P.M., August 3, 2012, when air temperature was the highest (34.6°C), concrete surface temperature was highest (57.5°C), followed by surface temperature of Sedum sarmentosum (40.1°C) and Zoysia japonica (38.3°C), which proved temperature reduction effect of green roof. Temperature reduction effect of green roof was also shown inside green roof soil, and bottom of green roof. It was found that Zoysia japonica was more effective in temperature reduction than Sedum sarmentosum. Compared with the case of concrete surface, the highest temperature of green roof surface was observed approximately 2 hours delayed. Plant species, temperature and soil moisture were found to have impact on surface temperature reduction. Plant species, air temperature, soil moisture and green roof surface temperature were found to have impact on temperature reduction in green roof bottom. As results of heat budget analysis, sensible heat was highest on concrete surface and was found to be reduced by green roof. Latent heat flux of Zoysia japonica was higher than that of Sedum sarmentosum, which implied that Zoysia japonica was more effective to improve thermal environment for green roof than Sedum sarmentosum.