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The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of job characteristics in various fields on beauty professional`s job. The subjects used in this study consisted of 205 beauty professionals with the different jobs: 50 make-up artists, 50 hair designers, 51 estheticians, and 54 nail artists. Job satisfaction contained overall job satisfaction and five facts satisfaction (work-itself, pay, promotion, co-worker, supervisor). Multiple regression analysis used to verify the effect of five job characteristics (Variety, Identity, Significance, Autonomy, Feedback) on overall job satisfaction. Data collected from subjects were processed by SPSS computer package program. The results were as below: 1. Overall job satisfaction was significantly different from working area of beauty advisor. Nail artists were more satisfied with their jobs than other cosmetic artists. 2. Out of five satisfaction, one factors (Work-itself) was significantly different from working area of beauty advisors. 3. As the result of correlation analysis to examine relationship between job satisfaction and individual characteristic data, The length of beauty advisor`s service was significantly correlated with overall job satisfaction. 4. Two factors among five facet satisfactions (Work-itself, Supervisor) significantly contributed to the overall job satisfaction. β coefficients of two factors were 0.550, 0.130. 5. Two factors among five core dimensions (Identity, Variety) significantly contributed to the overall job satisfaction. β coefficients of two factors were 0.360 and 0.155. In summarizing the results of this study, out of five facet satisfaction, one factor (work-itself) predicted and explained the overall job satisfaction of beauty professionals meaningfully. Variety factor among five core dimensions (significance, variety, autonomy, identity, feedback) significantly contributed to the job satisfaction.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the facial treatment methods (cleansing, exfoliation, massage, pack/mask, use of cosmetics) and skin conditions of face(pores, pigmentation, wrinkles, skin color, erythema). First of all, facial treatment index was constructed by using a questionnaire that surveyed facial treatment methods of participants. Skin conditions of face were measured by using ROBO SKIN ANALYZER (CS50). The data were collected and measured from 345 female. In order to identify actual conditions of facial treatment, facial treatment index was analyzed. Facial treatment index of participants was cleansing (15.96), use of cosmetics (14.42), manual technique (12.08), exfoliation (11.36), pack/mask (8.54). The participants were divided according to facial treatment style. Facial treatment index of special treatment group (70.96) was higher than self treatment group (58.99). It was investigated the relationship facial treatment index and skin condition of face according to facial treatment group. Special treatment group showed significantly greater improvement in wrinkles. It was discussed various relations between facial treatment index and skin condition of face. The differences of facial treatment index according to skin condition of face were analyzed. Results showed that participants didn`t use facial treatment method suitable to one`s facial skin condition.
아토피피부염 (AD)은 천식, 음식 알레르기, 비염 같은 전신아토피질환을 동반하는 만성재발성 피부염증질환이다. 아토피피부염과 관련된 IL-17의 임상적 역할은 다양한 조건에서 보고되고 있으며, 또한 건선 피부 상태에 깊숙이 관여하고 있다. IL-17은 각질세포 (keratinocytes)에서 과잉으로 생산되며, 아토피피부염의 말초임파구에서도 다량 생성 됨을 세포내염색을 통하여 확인된 바 있다. 본 연구에서는 창이자 추출물 (XS-E와 XS-FL)이 NC/Nga 생쥐의 CD4<SUP>+</SUP> T 세포에서 유도된 Th17 세포의 분화억제 및 IL-17의 생산량 감소 효과에 대한 실험을 하였다. 그 결과 XS-E와 XS-FL을 처리한 섬유아세포에서 세포독성은 나타나지 않았고, 4일간 XS-E와 XS-FL에 동시배양 한 CD4<SUP>+</SUP> T 세포 의 IL-17 생산량을 FACS로 분석한 결과 100 μg/mL XS-E 처리군의 IL-17 생산량은 32.3%로 대조군에 비하여 2배 이상의 감소를 나타내었으며, 20 μg/mL XS-30% AFL (acetone XS-FL) 처리군의 Th17 세포는 19.6%으로 대조군에 비하여 3.5배 억제되었다. 또한 real-time PCR을 이용하여 IL-17A와 IL-22 mRNA의 유전자 발현량을 비교 분석한 결과, IL-17A와 IL-22 mRNA의 유전자발현의 RQ값은 XS-E와 XS-30% AFL를 처리한 실험군이 대조군에 비하여 유의성 있는 감소를 나타내었다(p < 0.01, p < 0.001). ELISA로 측정한 IL-17A 생산량은 XS-E와 XS-30% AFL를 처리한 실험군이 대조군에 비하여 현저히 감소 (p < 0.05, p < 0.001)하였다. Th17 세포의 증식을 알아보기 위하여, rIL-6와 TGF-β로 분화시킨 Th17 세포를 CFSE로 표지한 후 rIL-23 처리를 하여 4일간 배양하여 증식을 유도시켰다. 대조군의 Th17 세포 분열은 4일 동안 4번에 걸쳐 비슷한 세포수의 증식이 일어나는 것을 CFSE를 통하여 확인하였고, XS-30% AFL 처리군은 CFSE의 형광 분포가 점점 감소하여 Th17 세포의 증식이 억제됨을 알 수 있었다. Xanthii fructus which is well known as “Chang-ihjah” in Korea is the dried fruit of Xanthium strumarium L. (or Xanthium sibiricum PATR. Ex WIDD., Asteraceae. XS). Water extract of this fruit has been used for treatment of various inflammatory diseases such as tympanitis, allergic rhinitis, or ozena as alternative therapy material usually by oral administration in far Eastern countries including Korea. In this study, the effect of XS extract (XS-E) or XS-30% acetone fraction layer (XS-30% AFL) on the differentiation of CD4<SUP>+</SUP> T cells isolated from NC/Nga mouse and the production of IL-17 was investigated. The experimental results showed that 100 μg/mL of XS-E could decrease the production of IL-17 by CD4<SUP>+</SUP> Th17 cells by 2 fold and only 20 μg/mL of XS-30% AFL could inhibit 3.5 fold. The amount of IL-17A and IL-22 mRNA determined by real-time PCR was decreased remarkably when XS-E or XS-30% AFL was treated on CD4<SUP>+</SUP> Th17 cells(p<0.01, p<0.001). The amount of IL-17A protein determined by ELISA was also decreased remarkably(p<0.05, p<0.001). To study the effect of XS-E or XS-30% AFL on the proliferation of Th17 cells, CD4+ T cells of a NC/Nga mouse was firstly differentiated by rIL-6/TGF-β and then stimulated by rIL-23. The control group of Th17 cells were doubled every each day, while those of XS-E or XS-30% AFL treated group were shown to be delayed remarkably by these extracts. In conclusion, XS can inhibit the differentiation of Th17 cells of NC/Nga mouse and the production of IL-17 successfully, which may be a beneficial result for the treatment of atopic skin dermatitis.
The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of the foot reflexology therapy on digestive organs. For the purpose, this researcher applied the same therapy on those, whose digestive system was diagnosed dysfunctional when acupunctural points shown in their footprint were analyzed, over 5 sessions. Results of the study can be summarized as below. First, when effects of the foot reflexology therapy were compared between before and after its application, it was found that the same therapy were effective in improving all the organs as examined here. Second, when effects of the foot reflexology therapy on digestive organs were compared between before and after its application, it was found that the same therapy improved the function of liver by 2.1 times higher than when its was not applied. In conclusion, the foot reflexology therapy has good effects on all digestive organs of the abdomen.
This study reports significant improvement of atopic dermatitis condition as a result of experiment using Xanthium strumarium L. extract (XS-E) at the dorsal skin of induced atopic dermatitis Nc/Nga mice. Skin clinical score has decreased (2.75±0.85, *p<0.05), showing visible change of skin condition. IgE (***p<0.001) and IgG1 (2522.00±32.80, ***p<0.001) in plasma also decreased significantly. mRNA (gene expression) level increased (RQ=2.75±0.10, ***p<0.001) within skin tissue of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cell that’s activated by XS-E dosage, thereby discovering that there is an effect of suppressing proliferation and viability of Th2 cell, eosinophils, mast cell and inflammatory cell. Upon examining cells permeated with H&E and toluidine blue staining technique, thickness of epidermis and mast cell’s permeation decreased, and the result of examining the distribution of CCR 3+ eosinophils within ALN showed that it’s level fell down to that of wild type (normal group, NC/Nga-WT). By such results, it is suggested that XS-E is highly effective on atopic dermatitis, and it is considered that continued quantitative research and case study of clinical research such as effect of cell number in individual tissues or change of total cell number are necessary.
$\gamma$-PGA는 우리 전통 콩 발효식품인 청국장의 끈적끈적한 점액성 성분의 하나로, 매우 다양한 기능을 가지고 있는 천연물질이다. 이러한 $\gamma$-PGA의 아토피발진 억제 효과를 알아보고자 NC/Nga 생쥐를 사용하여 in vivo 실험을 하였다. BMAC로 유도된 NC/Nga 아토피 피부발진 생쥐에 분자량 300 kDa인 $\gamma$-PGA(PGA-HM)와 이를 저분자화 시킨 저분자 $\gamma$-PGA(PGA-LM)을 경구 투여한 결과 PGA-LM 투여군에서 clinical skin severity score가 유의성 있게 감소하였다. 혈청 IgE 수준은 PGA-LM이 대조군에 비하여 유의적으로 감소하였고, 혈청 IgG1 수준은 대조군에 비하여 감소하였으나 두 군 모두 유의성이 없었다. $CD4^+CD25^+foxp3^+$ Treg 세포가 유도되는 것을 확인하기 위하여, PGA-HM와 PGA-LM를 투여한 NC/Nga 아토피 피부발진 생쥐의 등 부위에서 mRNA를 분리히여 real-time PCR로 foxp3 mRNA 유전자 발현량을 측정한 결과는 대조군에 비하여 PGA-LM 투여군이 약 2배 이상 증가를 나타내었다. 또한 등피부 조직의 조직검사에서도 epidermis의 두께, 비만세포 침윤, 그리고 $CCR3^+$ 세포수 등이 대조군에 비하여 현저히 억제됨을 관찰할 수 있었다. 이상의 결과로 PGA-HM보다 PGA-LM이 BMAC로 아토피 피부염이 유발된 NC/Nga 생쥐에 $CD4^+CD25^+foxp3^+$ Treg 세포를 활성화하여 IgE 및 염증 사이토카인의 생산 및 $CCR3^+$ 호산구의 활성화가 억제되어 아토피조절 효과를 나타내는 것으로 사료되었다. As one of the mucous components of Cheonggukjang, traditional fermented soybean paste, $\gamma$-PGA is a natural substance with diverse functions. In this paper, an in-vivo experiment has been performed using NC/Nga mice in order to find out the efficacy of $\gamma$-PGA in human atopic dermatitis. The NC/Nga mice with BMAC-induced atopic dermatitis were administered $\gamma$-PGA (PGA-HM) with 300 kDa and low-molecular $\gamma$-PGA (PGA-LM), respectively. As a result, a significant decrease in clinical skin severity score was detected in the group that was administered PGA-LM. In terms of serum IgE levels, a significant decline was observed in PGA-LM, compared to the control group. The serum IgG1 levels also decreased more in PGA-LM than in the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in both groups. To witness the induction of $CD4^+CD25^+foxp3^+$ Treg cells, mRNA was sampled from the back of PGA-HM- and PGA-LM-administered NC/Nga mice with atopic dermatitis. In terms of the production amount of foxp3 mRNA, which was measured in real-time PCR, the group that was administered PGA-LM was twice as high as the control group. According to a biopsy on the skin on the backs of the mice, the experimental group was also far lower than the control group in terms of epidermis thickness, mast cell infiltration and the number of $CCR3^+$ cells. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the atopic dermatitis symptoms decreased more in the PGA-LM-administered NC/Nga mice than the PGA-HM-administered group by facilitating $CD4^+CD25^+foxp3^+$ Treg cells and suppressing the activity of eosinophils and production of IgE and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
This is the study about the meteorological satellite cloud image classification by objective methods. For objective cloud classification, linear discriminant analysis was tried. In the linear discriminant analysis 27 cloud characteristic parameters were retrieved from GMS infrared image data. And, linear cloud classification model was developed from major parameters and cloud type coefficients. The model was applied to GMS IR image for weather forecasting operation and cloud image was classified into 5 types such as Sc, Cu, CiT, CiM and Cb. The classification results were reasonably compared with real image.
한반도 기후 분석에 마이크로파 위성자료의 이용을 위해 1981년에서 1998년까지 18년간 한반도 4개의 고층 관측 지점에서 얻어진 온도자료와 위성자료를 비교하였다. 위성자료로 극궤도 위성인 NOAA위성에 탑재되어 있는 MSU(Microwave Sounding Unit) 채널 2와 채널 4 휘도온도를 이용하였다. 고층 관측소의 라디오존데 자료는 MSU 휘도온도와 비교하기 위해 MSU 가중함수를 이용하여 고도마다 가중을 두어 월평균 온도 값을 만들어내었다. 월평균 기후값 비교에서 여름철에 라디오존데 온도가 MSU 휘도온도보다 높은 온도를 보였다. 두 온도사이의 상관에서는 채널2의 경우 0.72-0.76, 채널 4에서는 0.73-0.81정도를 보였다. 18년 동안의 온도경향은 채널 2의 경우는 0.04℃/year의 증가가 있었고, 채널 4의 경우는 -0.07℃/year의 감소가 보였다. We compared the satellite observed temperature with the radiosonde observed temperature in the Korean Peninsula. The radiosonde observed data were obtained from four upper air observation stations in the Korean Peninsula from 1981 to 1998, and were compared with the satellite observed data of the channel-2 and channel-4 of microwave sounding unit(MSU) on board NOAA series of polar-orbiting satellites. The radiosonde data were reconstructed from radiosonde Tb busing MSU weighting function. The monthly climatology shows radiosonde Tb2 is higher than MSU Tb2 in summer. The correlation between MSU Tb2 and radiosonde Tb2 is 0.72-0.76 and 0.73-0.81 between MSU Tb4 and radiosonde Tb4. The Tb2 show a positive trend and the Tb4 has a negative trend during the 18 years.