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This paper carried out research trends of Artificial Intelligence (AI) of architectural field by comparing and analyzing the domestic & international journal papers in order to propose possibilities of application of Artificial Intelligence to architectural field in Korea. Firstly, theory of AI was analyzed comprehensively and papers were selected based on keyword of the papers, such as "AI", "ANN", “GA”, “SVM”, "Building", "Architecture" published in the domestic and international journals from 2000 to 2016. After selecting domestic and international journal papers adequately, in-depth analysis was conducted by architectural field, subject, method, and year. According to the analysis results, research trends of total chronology was growing steady and steep growth, especially in architectural environment and facility field. Furthermore, over half of the total papers applied ANN models for research. Lastly, in order to have competitive power of the domestic industry in the future, it determined that the Artificial Intelligence research in the field of architecture should be carried forward more actively.
This Paper carried out research trends of Artificial Intelligence (AI) of architectural field by comparing and analyzing the domestic & international journal papers in order to propose possibilities of application of Artificial Intelligence to architectural field in Korea. It was conducted based on keyword of the papers, such as "Artificial Intelligence", "Artificial Neural Network", "Building", "Architecture" published in the domestic and international journals from 2000 to 2016. After selecting domestic and international journal papers adequately, in-depth analysis was conducted by sector and year. According to the analysis results of research trends, the number of domestic and international journal paper was respectively 33 and 295, which means lack of understanding and related research of artificial intelligence in Korea. Moreover, trend of domestic research chronology was slowly growing, while it showed steady and steep growth in international journals. Lastly, in order to have competitive power of the domestic industry in the future, it determined that the Artificial Intelligence research in the field of architecture should be carried forward more actively.
미국 플로리다의 charter school은 책무성과 함께 혁신적 학습과 학업성취라는 측면에서 지속가능한 교육시스템의 성공사례로 평가되어 왔다. 그럼에도 불구하고 charter school 등록학생규모의 변화에 의한 학교규모 성장에 대한 연구 대한 연구가 미비하였다. 이에 연구는 플로리다주의 charter school이 어떻게 성장을 유지해 왔고 이 성장에 영향을 미친 요인들이 무엇인가를 중점적으로 살펴 보고자 하였다. 이 연구는 5년이상 charter school이 운영되어 온 37개 교육자치구를 중심으로 패널데이터분석을 실시하였다. 이 분석의 이론적 분석틀을 위해 선행연구에서 중요한 분야로 인식된 학교와 학생, 교육자치구, 학교관련 공동체 등의 다양한 요인들을 검토하였다. 분석결과 이 세가지 분야가 다 중요한 것으로 파악되었으며, 먼저 학교와 학생분야에서는 무료급식학생수와 학급규모가 중요한 설명요인이었다. 둘째, 교육자치구 분야에서는 재정분야와 관련된 정규학생1인당 예산이 중요한 것으로 파악되었다. 셋째, 학교관련 공동체 분야에서는 빈곤층 학생비율이 유의적으로 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 이 연구결과의 정책적 함의로는 먼저 정부의 교육복지차원의 지원과 수업환경이 교육성과 또는 교과지원보다 지속적인 성장에 더 중요한 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, charter school이 전적으로 학교운영의 재정을 교육자치구에 의존하기 때문에 재정분배자 또는 공급자로서 교육자치구의 영향력이 크게 나타났다. 끝으로 학부모의 경제수준과 정부의 복지재원이 지속적인 성장과 관련하여 중요한 요인으로 파악되었다. Carter schools in Florida have been the best practice of sustainable education system in terms of innovative learning and academic achievement with accountability. However, little is known charter school growth, namely student population change by enrollment growth, so the primary concern of this study is how the charter schools have sustained growth and what causes their growth in Florida. This study uses panel data analysis with 37 school districts that have operated more than 5 years. In doing so, we examined diverse parts of charter school including school and student, school district, and school community which are recognized as important fields through previous studies. The result shows that all three parts are important and each part needs to be paid attention to study charter school growth. First, in school and student category, free reduced lunch eligible and class size are important to explain charter school growth. Second, school district category has one significant variable, expenditure for FTE which is related to financial capacity of charter school. Third, school community category has one significant variable, school-aged children in poverty. As for the implication of this study, first, educational welfare support from government and school class environment are more important than educational performance or instructional support. Second, role of school district as a financial distributor or provider greatly influences sustainable charter school growth in that charter school exclusively counts on funding from school district for school management. Third, economic background of family and government welfare resources are important factors related sustainable growth.
Purpose: This study aimed at developing an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting the amount of cooling energy consumption of the variable refrigerant flow (VRF) cooling system by the different set-points of the control variables, such as supply air temperature of air handling unit (AHU), condenser fluid temperature, condenser fluid pressure, and refrigerant evaporation temperature. Applying the predicted results for the different set-points, the control algorithm, which embedded the ANN model, will determine the most energy efficient control strategy. Method: The ANN model was developed and tested its prediction accuracy by using matrix laboratory (MATLAB) and its neural network toolbox. The field data sets were collected for the model training and performance evaluation. For completing the prediction model, three major steps were conducted – i) initial model development including input variable selection, ii) model optimization, and iii) performance evaluation. Result: Eight meaningful input variables were selected in the initial model development such as outdoor temperature, outdoor humidity, indoor temperature, cooling load of the previous cycle, supply air temperature of AHU, condenser fluid temperature, condenser fluid pressure, and refrigerant evaporation temperature. The initial model was optimized to have 2 hidden layers with 15 hidden neurons each, 0.3 learning rate, and 0.3 momentum. The optimized model proved its prediction accuracy with stable prediction results.
This study examines the multilevel effect and determinant factors on charter school enrollment size. From the managerial perspective, charter school size is important because student enrollment may influence academic performance as well as financial capacity related to charter school operation and contract renewal. For empirical analysis, Hierarchical Linear Models consider multi-level effects and causality in charter schools and school districts according to charter school enrollment size. Through HLM analysis, we found some important implications to consider. First, there is a multilevel effect from school and school district level. Second, five significant variables are related to school performance, school finance, and school district characteristics. Third, Florida showed very unique patterns and characteristics of charter school enrollment size with regard to white student population and median household income.
The present study is a foundational study for performance improvements on isolation wards to prevent proliferation of secondary infection of infectious diseases such as SARS, H1N1, and MERS inside hospitals. Accordingly, the present study conducted an analysis of the effect of sealing mechanisms and filling of openings on ensuring air tightness performance in isolation wards as well as simulation on air currents in improved isolation wards. The study method is as follows: first, previous studies on aerial infection types and mechanisms were reviewed and the review results were utilized as basic data for analysis of the simulation of air currents. Second, national and international legislations and regulations in relation to isolation wards as well as case studies on developed nations were investigated in order to identify the problems in isolation wards in Korea and improvement plans. Third, construction and facility plans were compared and analyzed between general and isolation wards focusing on large general hospitals in Korea thereby conducting comparison and analysis on the performance and effects of air-tightness of general and isolation wards through simulations(CFD). Fourth, an analysis on air currents in isolation wards specified in mandatory legislation (draft) from the Ministry of Health and Welfare such as fulfillment of isolation ward requirements including negative pressure isolation wards, areas of ward and intensive care units, and ensuring separation distance between sickbeds was conducted. The study result showed that isolation wards had better air-tightness performance than that of general wards and parallel bed layout was better than serial bed layout in terms of aerial infection substance proliferation. In addition, when a separation distance between sickbeds was 2m or wider, the risk of aerial infection became significantly lower.
이 연구는 2018년부터 중앙정부의 예산지원으로 영·유아보육의 완전한 무상교육이 실현될 예정인 누리과정에 대해서 전반적으로 살펴보는 가운데 지금까지의 누리과정 정책의 문제점 및 해결방안의 분석을 통하여 앞으로의 발전 방향을 모색하고자 한다. 이를 위해 먼저 ‘누리과정이 제대로 시행되지 못하고 있는 원인은 무엇인가?', ‘누리과정을 둘러싼 예산논쟁과 재정문제를 어떻게 해결해야 할 것인가?' 라는 기본적이고 핵심적인 문제제기를 통하여 연구를 진행하고자 한다. 이러한 문제들에 대해서 먼저 누리과정의 갈등이 생겨나게 된 원인에 대해 분석적 관점에서 살펴보는 가운데 정책적 · 정치적 관점에서 갈등의 원인을 어떻게 해결할 수 있는지를 탐색해 보고자 한다. 먼저 누리과정을 둘러싼 문제점의 분석을 위해서 과거부터 현재까지의 전반적인 문제의 흐름과 현재 진행 중인 이슈들을 파악하기 위해서 선행연구 검토를 활용하고자 한다. 더 나아가 누리과정을 통해 실현할 수 있는 유아 · 보육통합의 해결 방안을 모색하기 위해서 해외사례를 검토하여 우리 실정에 맞는 대안을 제시하고자 한다. This study examines the Nuri policy, which is planned to realize full education free of charge for young and infant childcare from the budget of the central government starting from 2018. Through the analysis of problems and solutions of the Nuri process policy up to now, we want to explore the direction of development. In order to do this, we will first carry out research through the basic and core issues of `what causes the Nuri policy process not to be implemented properly`, `how to resolve the budget disputes and financial problems surrounding the Nuri policy process.` First of all, we would like to explore how to solve the causes of conflicts in terms of policy and politics from an analytical point of view. In order to analyze the problems of the Nuri policy process, we review the extant research to grasp the problems from past to present issues. Furthermore, in order to find solutions for the integration of infant and child care that can be realized through the Nuri process, we review the cases in the overseas and suggest alternatives applied to the situation in Korea.
The objective of the study is to improve the performance of the AII(Air-borne Infection Isolation) Room for the Prevention of the spread of infectious diseases in hospital. For evaluation of AII room, CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) technique method was suggested. First, investigated the mechanism and type of airborne infection. Second, investigated the AII room regulations and standards Third, analyzed the Simulation results for different type of bed arrangement, distance and toilet location. The AII room have high-performance that prevention of airborne infection better than general ward. And beds in Opposition to each other is Low risk of airborne infection than parallel arrangement.
문재인정부의 ‘교통, 통신비 절감으로 국민 생활비 경감'이라는 국정 과제를 연구 주제로 선정하였다. 특히 통신비 관련 정책의 핵심이라 할 수 있는 단말기 유통구조 개선법에 대해 알아보고, 그 실효성을 투명성, 효과성, 체감성 측면에서 분석하고자 하였다. 분석결과 먼저, 투명성측면에서 단말기유통구조개선법 도입 후부터 지금까지 핵심 조항들인 지원금의 차별 지급 금지, 지원금의 과다지급 제한 및 공시, 지원금을 받지 아니한 이용자에 대한 혜택 제공, 공정한 유통환경 조성 등은 대체로 잘 지켜지고 있어 유통 과정상의 투명성이 개선되었다. 두 번째, 효과성 측면에서 평균 가계 통신비 지출액이 통계상 꾸준히 감소하였으므로 정책이 가계 통신비 절감이라는 효과성 측면에서도 어느 정도 도움이 되고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 끝으로 체감성 측면에서 통신장비(단말기) 지원금의 감소로 인한 비용의 상승 및 대다수 일반요금제 이용자들의 가용 트래픽 감소로 국민이 체감하는 효과가 크지 않고, 이에 따라 가계통신비에 대한 국민들의 부담감은 크게 줄어들지 않고 있다고 할 수 있다. This study focuses on one of national agendas in Moon Jae-in administration, ‘Saving Households Expenditure by Reducing Transportation and Communication Expenditure.' In particulare, we attempts to understand and analyze the Mobile Terminal Distribution Act (MTDA) in terms of transparency, effectiveness, and sensitivity because this act is core part of communication expenditure related policies. As a result of analysis, main articles of the MTDA (ban on promotion subsidy discrimination, restriction and announcement on overpayment of promotion subsidy, benefit for the users not receiving promotion subsidy) have been well observed, so transparency of mobile terminal distribution has been improved. Second, the effectiveness through MTDA is proved since average household communication expenditure have reduced after MTDA. Finally, however, sensitivity of the households on the reduction of communication expenditure is weak because there is communication expenditure increase by promotion subsidy decrease and available wife data traffic decrease.
Purpose: This study aimed at improving the indoor environment of the office building by measuring the indoor environment and conducting a survey. Method: The measurement was conducted from January 13 to March 16 in 2012, targeting 44 sites in same office building located in Seoul, South Korea. The lists of measurement such as dry-blub temperature, relative humidity, formaldehyde (HCHO), asbestos, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particle pollution (PM10) were measured. In addition, illuminance which belongs to light environment and noise in sound[acoustical] environment were measured respectively. Result: The buildings showed overall pleasant conditions. In terms of the thermal, air, sound, and visual environment, each measurements were satisfied with the requirements in standard, within pleasant ranges, except several sites. However, the survey results were revealed that the office workers were mostly dissatisfied with their indoor environment. Given that the measured values were mostly within standards, the results of survey might have resulted from a compensation mentality biased toward the subjects in psychological terms