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This study was carried out to analysis the nutritional values and fatty acid profile of ostrich meat. The results are summarised as follows : water content is 68.67%, total lipid is 0.75%, crude protein is 26.32%, ash is 1.21%. The fatty acids profile of ostrich meat are that lauric acid is 0.27, myristic acid is 1.31, palmitic acid is 23.96, palmitoleic acid is 11.30, lioleic acid is 8.46, oleic acid is 33.86, stearic acid is 13.63, arachidonic acid is 4.23%.
This study was designed to determine the effects of protein sources on the curation of gastric ulceration protein metabolism, and nitrogen balance in rats with gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water immersion stress. After the rats were fed 10% casein diet for 3 weeks, four groups of the rats were forced in 5 × 5 × 15㎝ plexiglass cage. The restraint and water immersion stress was carried at 20±2℃ for 8-hour. The other one group(control group) was not exposed to stress. After stress 4 kinds of different diets containing 20% protein were given for 5 days. The protein sources were casein, whey protein, soy protein, gluten. The control group was fed to 10% casein diet. The results were as follows : the weights of rats were not different among the diet groups During the experiment period(for 5 days). The ulcer index of rats fed 10% gluten and soy protein diet was significantly higher than those of casein and whey protein diet groups(p<0.05). The level of serum albumin was not significantly different among diet groups. But hematocrit and the level of α-amino-N, BUN and UUN of plant protein diet groups were higher than animal diet groups, The urinary hydroxyproline of soy protein group was the highest and the whey protein was the lowest. The digestibility and BV of nitrogen of gluten diet group were significantly higher than those of casein and whey protein diet groups(p<0.05). The animal proteins had more curative effects of ulcer than plant animals. The results of this study provide useful information concerning diet therapy for the patients with gastrointestinal dieases and the field of enteral diet materials.
This study aimed to compare the specific activity of mucosal disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase at the rat and pig to verify the index mucosal enzyme in gastric ulcer rat. Gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress. Sprague-Dawley, female rats weighing approximately 200g were forced in 5×5×15cm plexiglas cage. The restraint and water immersion stress was carried at 20±2˚C for 8-hour. The results were as follows ; In pig, maltase > sucrase > isomaltase > trehalase > lactase, in normal rat maltase > isomaltase > trehalase > sucrase > lactase. The specific activity of ALP in rat was very high at duodenum, very sharply declined to ileum. But in pig, specific activity of ALP was high at midjejunum. the profileof specific activity of ALP between two species was different. The specific activity of trehalse is signigicantly different between normal rat and gastric ulcer rat. so I suggest trehalse is expected to be marker enzyme of gastric ulcer in rat.
This study was designed to determine the effects of linoleic acid contents and ω6/ω3 ratios on the induction of gastric ulcer by water immersion and restraint stress. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 5 diets containing 7% fat (w/w) for 6 weeks. These diet groups were Lh, Mh, Hh, Mm, Ml, :3 different linoleic acid levels(0.3% of energy(L), 3.5(M), 10(H)) and 3 different ω6/ω3 ratios(11(l), 33(m), 100(h)) with beef tallow, sunflower or fish oil. The Lh group showed a significantly higher ulcer index (UI) than the Mh and Hh groups(p<0.05). At the same linoleic levels, the UI had no significant difference within the ω6/ω3 ratios. The Mh group showed significantly higher(p<0.05) PGE₂ and TBX₂ content than any other group. Pearson's correlation coefficients between UI and PGE₂ and TBX₂ had a negatively significant correlation(p<0.05). Linoleic acid of gastric mucosal phospholipids was reflected by the diet, but was not significantly different. The most significant finding of this study is that not only the absolute amount of linoleic acid, but also the ω6/ω3 ratios are important factors for the prevention of gastric ulcer.
Aims: We aimed to investigate the association between the change of muscle mass and change of fibrosis and steatosis in NAFLD patients. Methods: We analyzed 2,893 NAFLD subjects who had health check-up more than twice in St. Vincent's Hospital between November 2009 and December 2017. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound, and appendicular muscle mass (ASM) was assessed by Inbody 720, and Sarcopenia index was calculated as ASM divided by weight (SI%) and ASM divided by body mass index (SI-BMI). Non-invasive markers were used to evaluate the severity of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis; NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), Fibrosis-4 (Fib-4) score, and Forn's index for fibrosis, and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI) for steatosis. Results: The mean age was 47.3±10.4 years, and 1956 subjects (67.6%) were male. Diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in sarcopenic subjects (P<0.01), and non-invasive fibrosis and steatosis markers were higher in sarcopenic subjects (P< 0.01). The mean interval between two health check-up was 39.8±21.9 months. There was no significant association between the change of NFS, Fib-4, and Forn's index and the change of SI% and SI-BMI (all P >0.1). However, the changes of HIS and FLI were significantly associated with the change of SI% and SI-BMI (all P<0.01). Multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated the independent association between the change of skeletal muscle mass and the changes of non-invasive steatosis markers after adjusting for other confounding factors (all P< 0.001). However, the changes of non-invasive fibrosis markers did not show an independent association with the change of appendicular muscle mass after adjusting for other confounders (all P >0.1) Conclusions: The change of muscle mass is strongly associated with the change of hepatic steatosis, but not the change of fibrosis.
To assess the changes of cadmium deposit and histopathologic finding of testis, liver and kidney, different dose of cadmium (Cd) was administerd into male Sprague-Dawley rat(purchased from KIST, Korea Institute of Science and technology) by single intravenous injection. At 12, 24, 48, 168 and 672 hours after Cd injection, tissue cadmium concentration and histopathological change were examined. Cd exposed group showed lesser weight gain than the control. Renal Cd content tended to increase in time-dependent pattern, while hepatic and testicular Cd content tended to decrease. Mean of renal Cd content to hepatic Cd content (Cd K/Cd L) also progressively increased. These results suggest that Cd might be gradually transported to kidney from other organs. In testis and liver, degenerative changes appeared relatively in acute phase. These changes became more pronounced in testis, while less prominent in liver. In kidney, swelling of proximal tubluar cells and thickening of glomerular basement membrane appeared relatively later and these changes were progressively aggravated.
To detect the numerical changes of the chromosome 13 and 17, containing tumor suppressor genes (retinoblastoma gene and p53) in normal tissue, intraepithelial neoplasm and carcinoma of the prostate, the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization technique with paraffin embedded tissue was done. Materials observed in this study consisted of 14 cases of lacalized carcinoma(TB1NOMO) and 1 case of locally infiltrating cancer(TC1NOMO)> The chromosomal number changes were counted at normal tissue, intraepithelial neoplasm and neoplastic gland at the same radical prostatectomy specimen. From the 4 patients, studied prospectively, fresh cancer tissue and peripheral whole blood were collected for the primary culture of the cancer cells and lymphocytic culture. There cultured cells were used fro karyotyping. The results were as follows : 1. There were no significant chromosomal number changes between 13 and 17 in each group. 2. The normal non-neoplastice duct, intraepithelial neoplasm and neoplastic gland of experimental group showed no significant difference in chromosomal change. 3. There were significant changes more than 30% in chromosomal numbers between control Y chromosome and experimental chromosome 13 and 17 in each group. 4. The karyotyping on primary cultured prostate cancer cells and lymphocyte showed significant difference in chromosomal number in spite of the same host, representing local chromosomal changes.
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation might induce the transcription of a certain set of genes as other physical stresses like ionizing radiation and UV. To observe transcriptional changes upon RF radiation, we exposed WI-38, human lung fibroblast cell to 1763 MHz of mobile phone RF radiation at 60 W/kg of specific absorption rate (SAR) for 24h with or without heat control. There were no significant changes in cell numbers and morphology after exposure to RF radiation. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we checked the expression of three heat shock protein (HSP) (HSPA1A, HSPA6 and HSP105) and seven stress-related genes (TNFRSF11B, FGF2, TGFB2, ITGA2, BRIP1, EXO1, and MCM10) in RF only and RF/HS groups of RF-exposed cells. The expressions of three heat shock proteins and seven stress-related genes were selectively changed only in RF/HS groups. Based on the expression of ten genes, we could classify thermal and non-thermal effect of RF-exposure, which genes can be used as biomarkers for RF radiation exposure.
This study was conducted to obtain data necessary for establishing preventive measures and compensation criteria for poisoning due to various organic solvents such as benzene and its derivatives (toluene and xylene) and trichlorethylene which were widely used in industry. For these purpose, we investigated on hematological changes and urinary metabolites in consideration of concentration of solvents in air and duration of exposure on 402 workers in work places of benzene, tolune, xylene and trichlorethlene. A. Benzene 1. Urinary excretion of phenol tends to increase in proportion to concentration of benzene in air, not with regard to the duration of exposure. An average values of phenol excretion in urine sampled 4 hours later from the onset of daily exposure to 25ppm of benzene in air (T.L.V.) was 103.9mg/ℓ. 2. A tendency was found that the sulfate ratio in urine decreased as the benzene concentration was higher, though not statistically significant. 3. Hematological changs due to benzene in air were as follows: a) In workers exposed to benzene for longer period, number of erythrocytes and amount of hemoglobin decreased more. Incidence rate of erythrocytopenia was coincided with the square root of production of benzene concentration in air (ppm) and the duration of exposure in months. b) Incidence of erythrocytopenia and hypohemoglobinemia was inversely proportionate to the phenol excretion in urine. c) Hematocrit values were observed only in cases of exposure to high concentration of benzene in air (70 ppm or more). d) Reduction of leucocytes and neutrophilic leucocytes was found in 5.9% and 6.9% of the cases. e) There was no definite change in specific gravity of whole blood. B. Xylene 1. Xylene alone was deteted only two rubber manufacturing plants. Otherwise Xylene was detected together with benzene. 2. No hematological changes were found in workers exposed to xylene alone. And in workers exposed to xylene with benzene, erythrocytopenia and hypohemoglobinemia were found. c. Trichloroethylene 1. Trichloroethylene concentration in air exceeded the threshold limit value of 100ppm in every work shop surveyed. 2. Urinary excretion of trichloroethylene acid increased proportionately with the trichloroethylene concentration in air. 3. There were no particular changes in hematology and liver function tests.