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We performed diagnostic PCR assays and a phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences of TEF1 (translation elongation factor-1) to determine the trichothecene chemotypes and genetic diversity of F. graminearum isolates from maize and rice samples collected in 2009 in Korea. PCR using a species-specific primer set revealed a total of 324 isolates belonging to the putative F. graminearum species complex. PCR with trichothecene chemotypespecific primers revealed that the nivalenol (NIV) chemotype was predominant among the fungal isolates from rice (95%) in all provinces examined. In contrast, the predominant chemotype among the corn isolates varied according to region. The deoxynivalenol (DON) chemotype was found more frequently (66%) than the NIV chemotype in Gangwon Province, whereas the NIV chemotype (70%) was predominant in Chungbuk Province. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all DON isolates examined were clustered into lineage 7, while the NIV isolates resided within lineage 6 (F. asiaticum). Compared with previous studies, the lineage 6 isolates in rice have been predominantly maintained in southern provinces, while the dominance of lineage 7 in maize has been evident in Gangwon at a slightly reduced level.
The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is one of the most important edible mushrooms worldwide. The mechanism of P. ostreatus fruiting body development has been of interest both for the basic understanding of the phenotypic change of the mycelium-fruiting body and to improve breeding of the mushrooms. Based on our previous publication of P. ostreatus expressed sequence tag database, 1,528 unigene clones were used in macroarray analysis of mycelium, fruiting body and basidiospore developmental stages of P. ostreatus. Gene expression profile databases generated by evaluating expression levels showed that 33, 10, and 94 genes were abundantly expressed in mycelium, fruiting body and basidiospore developmental stages, respectively. Among them, the genes specifically expressed in the fruiting body stage were further analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot to investigate temporal and spatial expression patterns. These results provide useful information for future studies of edible mushroom development.
<B>ABSTRACT</B><P>The sucrose nonfermenting 1 (<I>SNF1</I>) protein kinase of yeast plays a central role in the transcription of glucose-repressible genes in response to glucose starvation. In this study, we deleted an ortholog of <I>SNF1</I> from <I>Gibberella zeae</I> to characterize its functions by using a gene replacement strategy. The mycelial growth of deletion mutants (ΔGz<I>SNF1</I>) was reduced by 21 to 74% on diverse carbon sources. The virulence of ΔGz<I>SNF1</I> mutants on barley decreased, and the expression of genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes was reduced. The most distinct phenotypic changes were in sexual and asexual development. ΔGz<I>SNF1</I> mutants produced 30% fewer perithecia, which matured more slowly, and asci that contained one to eight abnormally shaped ascospores. Mutants in which only the Gz<I>SNF1</I> catalytic domain was deleted had the same phenotype changes as the ΔGz<I>SNF1</I> strains, but the phenotype was less extreme in the mutants with the regulatory domain deleted. In outcrosses between the ΔGz<I>SNF1</I> mutants, each perithecium contained ∼70% of the abnormal ascospores, and ∼50% of the asci showed unexpected segregation patterns in a single locus tested. The asexual spores of the ΔGz<I>SNF1</I> mutants were shorter and had fewer septa than those of the wild-type strain. The germination and nucleation of both ascospores and conidia were delayed in ΔGz<I>SNF1</I> mutants in comparison with those of the wild-type strain. GzSNF1 expression and localization depended on the developmental stage of the fungus. These results suggest that Gz<I>SNF1</I> is critical for normal sexual and asexual development in addition to virulence and the utilization of alternative carbon sources.</P>
As concern continues to increase over "greenhouse" gases, such as methane and carbon dioxide, many sewage treatment plants have collected and utilized their biogas mixture as a fuel for producing energy. In the case study of sewage treatment plant, biogas has been used as fuel for the gas boilers for the digesters. However, during the several months, unknown white powder is deposited inside the boiler after combustion. It caused severe problems and raised the maintenance cost. We analyzed the deposited mineral and biogas by ICP-MS and GC-MS. As a result, the main deposited component was oxidized silicon, and the biogas sample contained octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4, 20 ppm). Accordingly, a removal process for D4 from the biogas fuel was investigated for the smooth operation of wastewater treatment plants. Through an experiment of the adsorption and detection, it was found that alumina exhibited a more adsorptivity than other materials. The analytical methodology of D4 in the biogas is established in the study.
<P>Although previous studies have shown that mollugin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from <I>Rubia cordifolia</I> L. (Rubiaceae), exhibits antitumor effects, its biological activity in oral cancer has not been reported. We thus investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by mollugin in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (OSCCs). Results show that mollugin induces cell death in a dose-dependent manner in primary and metastatic OSCCs. Mollugin-induced cell death involved apoptosis, characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, flow cytometric analysis of sub-G<SUB>1</SUB> phase arrest, and annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR revealed that mollugin suppressed activation of NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B and NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B-dependent gene products involved in antiapoptosis (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl), invasion (MMP-9 and ICAM-1), and angiogenesis (FGF-2 and VEGF). Furthermore, mollugin induced the activation of p38, ERK, and JNK and the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2). Mollugin-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of HO-1 were reversed by an HO-1 inhibitor and Nrf2 siRNA. Collectively, this is the first report to demonstrate the effectiveness of mollugin as a candidate for a chemotherapeutic agent in OSCCs via the upregulation of the HO-1 and Nrf2 pathways and the downregulation of NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B.</P>
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The performance test of the 15 RT grade heat pump system with flue gas heat recovery was performed in the Korea Institute of Energy Research. The flue gas is exhausted from the 320 RT absorbtion chiller-heater in winter season. Using this flue gas, source water is heated by condensed type heat exchanger in by-pass. And the operating characteristics of the heat recovery heat pump system were analyzed. Based on the results of the experiments, operating maps were obtained and optimum operating range was suggested where the return and heat source water temperature are 51℃ and 31℃, respectively.