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한강 수계 분지 내의 하천수 (지표수)와 서울 지역 지핫의 화학적 특성 규명과 용존 이온종의 기원을 연구하기 위해 1996년 3월-4월 동안 하천수 시료 60개에 대하여, pH, TDS 등과 용존이온의 화학분석을 실시하였다. 남한강과 북한강 하천수의 화학성분은 주로 수계분지 지역에 분포하는 암석에 의해 영향을 받고 있으며, 한강본류의 하천수는 인위적인 오염에 의한 영향이 크게 나타나고 있다. 즉, 남한강은 상류지역에 분포하는 탄산염암, 탄광 및 금속광산 폐수등에서 용출된 Ca(), Mg(), HCO(), SO() 등이 현저하며 북한강은 화강암질암의 풍화 산물인 K(), Na(), Ca()등의 이온종이 특징적이다. 한편 양수리에서 상기 2개 하천이 합류하여 서울 도심을 지나는 한강 본류는 SO(), NO(), PO(), Cl()등 생활하수 오염의 영향이 현저하게 나타나고 있다. 한강 본류로 유입되는 서울 지역의 왕숙천, 탄천, 중랑천, 안양천의 4개의 지천은 NO(), Cl(), PO(), SO(), Mn등 인위적인 오염현상이 크게 나타나고 있다. 한강 하천수의 화학 성분의 군집, 요인 및 회귀 분석 결과, 전체 자료 분산은 오염 인자에 의한 분산이 약 79%, 지질과의 물-암석 반응에 의한 분산이 약 7%이다. 남한강과 북한강의 합류 지점에서의 Cl에 대한 혼합 비율은 약 60:40이다. 1981년 분석 자료와 1996년 자료의 비교에서 암석 풍화에 의한 1차적 용존 성분인 Ca(), Mg(), HCO()등은 변화가 적으나 Na(), NO(), PO(), SO()등 인위적 오염원의 성분은 크게 증가하는 경향이 있다. To investigate geochemical characteristics and the sources of the dissolved ion species in the river water in the Han river drainage basin, samples were collected at 60 sites from the Han river drainage basin. The data for pH, conductivity, TDS(total dissolved solid), temperature, and concentrations of dissolved ions were obtained as follows:(1) The geochemical characteristics of the surface water in the South and North Han river drainage basins are mainly controlled by bed rock geology in the drainager basin and in the main stream of the Han river considerably affected by anthropogenic pollution. The South Han river water samples have high concentration of Ca() (ave. 15.42ppm), Mg()(ave. 2.74 ppm), HCO()(ave 51.9ppm), which evidently indicates that the bed rock geology in a limestone area mainly controls the surface water chemistry. The concentration of SO() is remarkably high(SHr10-2:129.9ppm) because of acid mine drainage from the metal and coal mines in the upper reaches of the South Han river. (2)The South Han river and the North Han river join the Han river in the Yangsuri, Kyounggido and flow through Seoul metropolitan city. The mixing ratio is about 60:40 at the meeting point(sample number HR10). (3)The result of factor analysis suggests that the pollution factor accounts for about 79% and the bed rock type factor accounts for about 7% of the data variation. This means that the geochemical characteristics of the Han river water mainly controlled by anthropogenic pollution in the South Han river and main stream of the Han river drainage basin. (4)The chmical data for four tributaries such as the Wangsukcheon, the Tancheon, the Zungrangcheon, and the Anyangcheon show that the concentration of pollution elements such as NO(), Cl(), PO(), SO() and Mn are high due to municipal waste disposal.
Kim,,Hwa-Jung,Kim,,Dong-Won,Hur,,Wee-Haeng,Jang,,Byoungsoon,Lee,,Yun-Kyung,Kwon,,In-Ki,Park,,Jong-Hyun,Park,,Jong-Gil,Kang,,Chang-Wan,Kim,,Eun-Mi,Choi,,Soon-Kyoo,Kim,,Han-Kyu The National Institute of Biological Resources 2020 Journal of species research Vol.9 No.4
A total of 527 species of birds have been recorded in Korea. We summarize the records of three genera and six species that have been newly reported in Korea, discovered through the avian monitoring programs carried out by The National Institute of Biological Resources from 2013 to 2016. These six newly recorded species are; Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris), Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis), Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), Black-winged Kite (Elanus caeruleus), Mongolian Lark (Melanocorypha mongolica) and Crested Myna (Acridotheres cristatellus). One Ring-necked Duck was observed on March 23, 2014 in Jungrangcheon Stream. One male Lesser Scaup was recorded on February 24, 2014 in Gyeongpoho Lagoon. A male bufflehead was first seen in Yeongrangho Lagoon on January 26, 2013. The Black-winged Kite was first observed on January 23, 2013 at the Gangseo Wetland Ecological Park. One Mongolian Lark was also recorded on May 11, 2016 and May 12, 2017 in Marado Island. The Crested Myna was first observed on April 20, 2016 in Seomando, Island.
Palaeoclimatic and chronostratigraphic interpretations from the strontium, carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios in molluscan fossils of Pleistocene Seoguipo and Shinyangri Formations, Cheju Island, Korea
Background: Treatment of skull base tumors is challenging due to limited access and presence of important neurovascular structures nearby. The success of a complete tumor resection depends on the extent of tumor exposure and secure field of view. While these tumors are often removed by transcranial endoscopic access, transfacial approach is sometimes required depending on the location and size of the tumor. This study describes various transfacial approaches in patients undergoing skull base tumor resection. Methods: From March to November 2013, 15 patients underwent skull base tumor resection via transfacial accesses at a tertiary institution. Data were reviewed for patient demographics, type of access used, completeness of tumor resection, surgical outcome, and postoperative complications. Results: Two clivus tumor patients underwent transmaxillary approach; three tuberculum-sellae and suprasellar-hypothalamus tumor patients underwent transbasal approach; three clinoid and retrobulbar intraconal orbital tumor patients underwent orbitozygomatic approach; and seven petroclival-area, pons, cavernous sinus, and lateral-sphenoid-wing tumor patients underwent zygomatic approach. In all cases, the upper and lower margins of the tumor were visible. Complete tumor removal consisted of 10 cases, and partial tumor removal in 5. There were no immediate major complications observed for the transfacial portion of the operations. The overall cosmetic results were satisfactory. Conclusion: Plastic surgeons can use various transfacial approaches according to the location and size of skull base tumors to secure a sufficient field of view for neurosurgeons.
Natmataung National Park is a national park of Myanmar which is located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, and has a high diversity of fauna and flora, representing the high-altitude (above 2000m asl) ecosystems of tropical South and Southeast Asia. In spite of its significance in global and local biodiversity conservation, its remote location and rugged landscape, together with limited resources, have hampered frequent surveys and recordings of biodiversity of the region. Thus, quick and relatively simple methods are required to record the biodiversity of those areas that present logistical difficulties. During our visit to the Natmataung National Park, we used the MacKinnon list method to record and assess the status of avian communities of montane and sub-alpine habitats. From April 5 to 7, 2014, we recorded 65 species and 333 individuals of birds from three different altitudinal habitats, including pine forests, evergreen oak forests, and sub-alpine rhododendron shrublands. Bird communities had distinct species composition in each habitat type. Our survey found that these high-altitude eco-zones of Natmataung National Parks were rich in alpha diversity of birds, and also supported range-restricted endemic species (i.e. Burmese Bushtit Aegithalos sharpei, Chin Hills Wren-Babbler Spelaeornis oatesi, and Mount Victoria Babax Babax woodi), as well as some threatened species including White-browed Nuthatch (Sitta victoriae) and Blyth's Tragopan. We suggest that meticulous monitoring, together with conservation and management schemes, should be conducted to protect the rare and fragile populations of species that are only found in this area. Rapid assessment tools could be applied to assess the status of avifauna of such remote areas to compile essential information with greater efficiency.
<P>Nitinol or NiTi alloys are well-known as an attractive biomedical material due to their unique properties such as the shape memory effect, super-elasticity and biocompatibility. These characteristics enable them to be best candidates for implant materials such as stent. One of the major factors that strongly affect the performance of nitinol stent is its unique surface properties. In this study, the influence of electropolishing on nitinol stents and its corrosion behavior were observed. Electropolishing is an effective method for surface treatment, which not only controls the surface state but also helps to produce uniform surface layers. Therefore, to improve the surface quality of nitinol stents, we conducted an electropolishing under various conditions from 30-40 V and 10-30 s as a post heat treatment for nitinol stent manufacturing process. In order to find the optimal surface state of NiTi stents, various electropolished samples were explored using various characterization techniques. Furthermore, the potentiodynamic polarization tests were also performed to determine the corrosion resistance. The electropolished nitinol stents under the condition of 40 V for 10 s exhibited the best corrosion performance as well as surface quality.</P>