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<P>To investigate alternative or subordinate pathways involved in colorectal tumorigenesis and tumor growth, possibly determining at-risk populations and predicting responses to treatment.</P>
척수 혈관 지방종은 척수 지방종과는 달리 매우 희귀한 척수 질환으로 척수 신경압박 증상을 일으키는데 현재까지 세계적으로 발표된 문헌으로 저자의 예를 포함하여 19예 뿐으로 적수 지방종과의 상이점, 여성에 있어서의 증상악화 원인 등을 고찰하였다. A case report of spinal extradural angiolipoma is presented and reviewed literatures. Total cages reported until thin time are 19 cases including author's case. 7 were males and 12 females. The youngest patient was 6 years old and oldest 67. The mean age was 43.7. The duration of symptoms was variable from 2 1/2 months to 10 years. The median duration was about 35 months. Most predricted sited were mid-thoracic spine especially between T6 and T8. The average involving segment was 3. This tumor was not associated with congenital abnormalities of the spine except 1 (klippel-Feil's syndromes. On 7 remissions were occured in all females; 3 were pregnant women, 3 obesity, 1 no accompanied problems. Having a blocking in myelogram, the abnormal findings in plain spinal films were seen in only 4 crises. The prognosis was very good in recent years. Recurrence was occurred in only one case after 12 years later. Spinal epidural angiolipomas are very unusual causes of compression of the spinal cord and its preoprative diagnosis pose a number of difficulties. They are histologically benign, but myelographic and macroscopic appearance are malignant (Schiffer et. al., 1980). Recently author experienced a case of epidural angiolipoma at the mid-thoracic spine with total removal and reviewed literatures.
The exponential increase in the use of mobile communication has triggered public concerns about the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phones on the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we explored the relationship between calcium channels and apoptosis or autophagy in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice after RF-EMF exposure with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 4 weeks. Firstly, the expression level of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), a key regulator of the entry of calcium ions into the cell, was confirmed by immunoblots. We investigated and confirmed that pan-calcium channel expression in hippocampal neurons were significantly decreased after exposure to RF-EMF. With the observed accumulation of autolysosomes in hippocampal neurons via TEM, the expressions of autophagy-related genes and proteins (e.g., LC3B-II) had significantly increased. However, down-regulation of the apoptotic pathway may contribute to the decrease in calcium channel expression, and thus lower levels of calcium in hippocampal neurons. These results suggested that exposure of RF-EMF could alter intracellular calcium homeostasis by decreasing calcium channel expression in the hippocampus; presumably by activating the autophagy pathway, while inhibiting apoptotic regulation as an adaptation process for 835 MHz RF-EMF exposure.
The H.264/AVC standard has adopted new coding tools such as intra-prediction, variable block size, motion estimation with quarter-pixel-accuracy, loop filter, and so on. The adoption of these tools enables an H.264/AVC-coded bitstream to have more information than was possible with previous standards. In this paper, we propose an effective spatial error concealment method with low complexity in H.264/AVC intra-frame. From information included in an H.264/AVC-coded bitstream, we use prediction modes of intra-blocks to recover a damaged block. This is because the prediction direction in each prediction mode is highly correlated to the edge direction. We first estimate the edge direction of a damaged block using the prediction modes of the intra-blocks adjacent to a damaged block and classify the area inside the damaged block into edge and flat areas. Our method then recovers pixel values in the edge area using edge-directed interpolation, and recovers pixel values in the flat area using weighted interpolation. Simulation results show that the proposed method yields better video quality than conventional approaches.
<P> This article presents a sensor-based motion planning method for ro botic vehicles with nonholonomic constraints. With the given waypoints, the instantaneous motion to follow the waypoints is calculated as the turning radius through the geometric path tracking method. By generating the turning radius larger than the minimum turning radius, the motion constraints on the vehicle are satisfied during navigation. And the vehicle is assumed to be equipped with a two-dimensional range sensor, allowing it to avoid obstacles within its sensing range, thus giving it virtual force. Then the turning radius for avoiding an obstacle, which is inversely proportional to the virtual force, is calculated. By integrating the geometric path tracking method and the sensor-based obstacle avoidance method, the vehicle follows the waypoints and avoids unexpected obstacles while it considers the motion constraints. The simulation results of the path tracking only and the path tracking and obstacle avoidance with the given waypoints show the performance of the proposed method. </P>
Objectives : To observe the effect of acupuncture treatment in chronic shoulder pain patients. Methods : 36 voluntary patients were randomly assigned to an acupuncture treatment group(E GrouP, n=18) and a control group(C GrouP, n=18). The E Group patients received acupuncture treatment on LI_(15), TE_(14), GB_(21) and Master Dong's acupuncture points, Shin-gwan and Gyun-joong, twice a week for four weeks. The C Group patients received no treatment. All patients in both groups were instructed to practise self exercise in their daily lives. Evaluations were made at baseline and after four weeks of study. The Constant Shoulder Assessment(CSA), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index(SPADI) and the patient's subjective pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale(VAS). The obtained data was analyzed. Results '. The E Group showed significant(p<0.05) improvement in CSA, SPADI and VAS after four weeks of treatment. The C Group showed significant(p<0.05) improvement in CSA, but the change of SPADI and VAS was insignificant(P>0.05). CSA and SPADI of E Group significantly(p<0.05) improved compared to the C GrouP, but the difference of VAS change in the two groups was insignificant(p>0.05). Conclusions : Four weeks of acupuncture treatment significantly improved CSA, SPADI and VAS. The improvement of CSA and SPADI was significant(p<0.05) compared to untreated patients.